1992 Summer Olympics
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Spain from July 25 to August 9, 1992. Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee decided to hold the games in alternating even-numbered years; the games were the first to be unaffected by boycotts since 1972 and the first summer games since the end of the Cold War. The Unified Team topped the medal table, winning 112 overall medals. Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain, the hometown of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch; the city was a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. On October 17, 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Games over Amsterdam, The Netherlands. With 85 out of 89 members of the IOC voting by secret ballot, Barcelona won a majority of 47 votes. Samaranch abstained from voting. In the same IOC meeting, France, won the right to host the 1992 Winter Games. Barcelona had bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, but they lost to Berlin.
At the Opening Ceremony Greek mezzo-soprano Agnes Baltsa sang "Romiossini" as the Olympic flag was paraded around the stadium. Alfredo Kraus sang the Olympic Hymn in both Catalan and Spanish as the flag was hoisted; the Olympic flame cauldron was lit by a flaming arrow, shot by Paralympic archer Antonio Rebollo. The arrow had been lit by the flame of the Olympic Torch. Rebollo shot above the cauldron; the arrow landed outside the stadium. This was the original design of the lighting scheme, to avoid any chance that the arrow would land in the stadium if Rebollo missed his target. South Africa was allowed to compete in the Olympic Games for the first time since the 1960 Summer Olympics, after a long suspension for its apartheid policy. After a close race in the Women's 10,000 metres event, white South African runner Elana Meyer and black Ethiopian runner Derartu Tulu ran a victory lap together, hand-in-hand. Following its reunification in 1990, Germany sent a single, unified Olympic team for the first time since the 1964 Summer Olympics.
As the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, the Baltic nations of Estonia and Lithuania, sent their own teams for the first time since 1936. Other former Soviet republics preferred to compete as the Unified Team; this team consisted of present-day Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The team finished first in the medal standings; the separation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia led to the Olympic debuts of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Due to United Nations sanctions, athletes from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were not allowed to participate with their own team. However, some individual athletes competed under the Olympic flag as Independent Olympic Participants. In basketball, the admittance of NBA players led to the formation of the "Dream Team" of the United States, featuring Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird and other NBA stars. Prior to 1992, only European and South American professionals were allowed to compete, while the Americans used college players.
The Dream Team won the gold medal and was inducted as a unit into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 2010. Fermín Cacho won the 1,500 metres in his home country, earning Spain's first-ever Olympic gold medal in a running event. Chinese diver Fu Mingxia, age 13, became one of the youngest Olympic gold medalists of all time. In men's artistic gymnastics, Vitaly Scherbo from Belarus, won six gold medals, including four in a single day. Scherbo tied Eric Heiden's record for individual gold medals at a single Olympics, winning five medals in an individual event. In women's artistic gymnastics, Tatiana Gutsu took gold in the All-Around competition edging the United States' Shannon Miller. Russian swimmers dominated the men’s freestyle events, with Alexander Popov and Yevgeny Sadovyi each winning two events. Sadovyi won in the relays. Evelyn Ashford won her fourth Olympic gold medal in the 4×100-metre relay, making her one of only four female athletes to have achieved this in history; the young Krisztina Egerszegi of Hungary won three individual swimming gold medals.
In women's 200 metre breaststroke, Kyoko Iwasaki of Japan won a gold medal at age of 14 years and six days, making her the youngest-ever gold medalist in swimming competitions at the Olympics. Algerian athlete Hassiba Boulmerka, criticized by Muslim groups in Algeria who thought she showed too much of her body when racing, received death threats and was forced to move to Europe to train, won the 1,500 metres holding the African women's record in this distance. After being demonstrated in six previous Summer Olympic Games, baseball became an Olympic sport. Badminton and women's judo became part of the Olympic program, while slalom canoeing returned to the Games after a 20-year absence. Roller hockey, Basque pelota, taekwondo were all demonstrated at the 1992 Summer Olympics. Several of the U. S. men's volleyball gold medal team from the 1988 Olympics returned to vie for another medal. In the preliminary round, they lost a controversial match to Japan, sparking them to shave their heads in protest.
This notably included player Steve
Stadium Australia, commercially known as ANZ Stadium and as Telstra Stadium, is a multi-purpose stadium located in the Sydney Olympic Park, in Sydney, Australia. The stadium, which in Australia is sometimes referred to as Sydney Olympic Stadium, Homebush Stadium or the Olympic Stadium, was completed in March 1999 at a cost of A$690 million to host the 2000 Summer Olympics; the Stadium was leased by a private company the Stadium Australia Group until the Stadium was sold back to the NSW Government on 1 June 2016 after NSW Premier Michael Baird announced the Stadium was to be redeveloped as a world-class rectangular stadium. The Stadium is owned by Venues NSW on behalf of the NSW Government; the nine-member Venues NSW Board is chaired by Christine McLoughlin. The stadium was built to hold 110,000 spectators, making it the largest Olympic Stadium built and the second largest stadium in Australia after the Melbourne Cricket Ground which held more than 120,000 before its re-design in the early 2000s.
In 2003, reconfiguration work was completed to shorten the north and south wings, install movable seating. These changes reduced the capacity to 83,500 for 82,500 for an oval field. Awnings were added over the north and south stands, allowing most of the seating to be under cover; the stadium was engineered along sustainable lines, e.g. utilising less steel in the roof structure than the Olympic stadiums of Athens and Beijing. The stadium lacked a naming rights sponsor in its formative years, bearing the name Stadium Australia between its opening in 1999 and 2002. In 2002, telecommunications company Telstra acquired the naming rights, resulting in the stadium being known as Telstra Stadium. On 12 December 2007 it was announced by the Stadium Australia Group that the stadium's name was to be changed to ANZ Stadium after concluding a deal with ANZ Bank worth around A$31.5 million over 7 years. This change took effect on 1 January 2008. In 2014, ANZ renewed the deal through to the end of 2017. In 1993, Stadium Australia was designed to host the 2000 Sydney Olympics.
The first sporting event held at the stadium was on 6 March 1999 when a then-record rugby league football crowd of 104,583 watched the NRL first round double-header, featuring Newcastle v Manly and Parramatta v St George Illawarra Dragons. The attendance broke the old record of 102,569 set at the Odsal Stadium in Bradford, England for the Challenge Cup Final replay between Warrington and Halifax held on 5 May 1954; the first musical act held at the newly built stadium was the Bee Gees, consisting of Barry and Maurice Gibb, on March 27, 1999. The band had embarked on what would be their final world tour as a group before the death of Maurice, the tour ending in the newly built Olympic Stadium; the show was sold out with an attendance of 66,285. The stadium was not opened until June 1999 when the Australian National Soccer team played the FIFA All Stars. Australia won the match 3–2 in front of a crowd of 88,101. Stadium Australia played host to the national side's historic playoff win over Uruguay in November 2005, a victory which granted Australia FIFA World Cup qualification for only the second time in the country's history.
The event attracted a virtual capacity crowd of 82,698. The 1999 Bledisloe Cup rugby union match between the Australian Wallabies and the New Zealand All Blacks attracted a then-world record rugby union crowd of 107,042. In 2000 this was bettered when an capacity crowd of 109,874 witnessed the "Greatest Rugby Match" when a Jonah Lomu try sealed an All Blacks win over the Wallabies 39–35; the All Blacks had led 24-nil after 11 minutes only to see Australia draw level at 24-all by halftime. An exhibition soccer match between the Socceroos and Premier League team Manchester United was played on 18 July 1999. Manchester United defeated Australia 1-0 in front of 78,000 spectators. On 9 June 1999, the stadium hosted its first State of Origin series game between New South Wales and Queensland; the match, Game 2 of the three game series, saw the record Origin attendance in Sydney when 88,336 saw the Blues christen their new home with a 12-8 win. The attendance broke the Origin attendance record of 87,161 set at the Melbourne Cricket Ground for Game 2 of the 1994 series.
On 7 August 1999, a National Football League exhibition game called the American Bowl was played between the Denver Broncos and the San Diego Chargers, bringing home former Australian Football League player Darren Bennett, the Chargers' punter. The Broncos won the game 20–17 in front of 73,811 spectators; this was Australia's first, only, American Bowl game. The 1999 National Rugby League grand final, played on 26 September between the Melbourne Storm and the St George Illawarra Dragons, broke the rugby league world-record crowd set earlier in the season when 107,999 came to watch the Storm defeat the Dragons 20–18 to win their first NRL premiership. During the 2000 Olympics, the evening athletics sessions on day 11 attracted 112,524 spectators on the night that Australia's Cathy Freeman won the Olympic Gold Medal for the Women's 400 metres; as of 2014, this remains the world record attendance for any athletics event. During the Olympics, the soccer final attracted 104,098 to witness Cameroon defeat Spain for its first-ever Olympic gold medal.
This was an Olympic Games football attendance record, breaking the record of 101,799 set at the Rose Bowl during the Gold Medal game of the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles. The opening ceremony for the 2000 Summer Olympics at the stadium sold out all 110,000 seats, while the highest attendance for any event in modern Olympic Games history was recorded with 114,714 at the stadium for the closing ceremony of the sam
Sydney International Aquatic Centre
The Sydney Olympic Park Aquatic Centre is a swimming venue located in the Sydney Olympic Park in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Built in 1994, the SOPAC was a major venue for the 2000 Summer Olympics as it hosted the swimming, synchronized swimming, the medal events for water polo, the swimming portion of the modern pentathlon competitions; the stadium holds 10,000 people. Capacity was boosted to 17,000 during the 2000 Summer Olympics, it is Australia's largest swimming arena. In October 2013, a large blaze ripped through the centre's carpark, destroying more than 40 cars, one motorcycle and forcing 1,500 people to evacuate. 2000 Summer Olympics venues List of sports venues in Australia Sydney Olympic Park Aquatic Centre Sydney Olympic Park Aquatic Centre at Austadiums SOPAC Swimming Club
Equatorial Guinea at the 2008 Summer Olympics
Equatorial Guinea competed at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, held from 8 to 24 August 2008. The country's participation at London marked its seventh appearance in the Summer Olympics since its début at the 1984 Summer Olympics; the delegation included the sprinter Reginaldo Ndong, middle-distance runner Emilia Mikue Ondo and half-middleweight judoka José Mba Nchama. Ndong and Mikue Ondo qualified for the Games through wildcard places and Mba Nchama entered through his ranking at the 2007 African Judo Championships. Mikue Ondo was chosen as the flag bearer for closing ceremonies. Ndong and Mikue Ondo progressed no farther than the first round of their respective events and Mba Nchama was eliminated from contention in the second round of the contest. Equatorial Guinea participated in seven Summer Games between its début at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles and the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing; the highest number of athletes sent by Equatorial Guinea to a Summer Games is seven to the 1992 Olympics.
No Equatoguinean athlete has won a medal at the Olympic Games. Equatorial Guinea participated in the Beijing Summer Games from 8 to 24 August 2008; the three athletes that were chosen to represent Equatorial Guinea at the Beijing Games were Reginaldo Ndong in the men's 100 metres, Emilia Mikue Ondo in the women's 800 metres and José Mba Nchama in the men's half-middleweight judo competition. The short distance swimmer Eric Moussambani did not compete at the Games as it was reported he had taken up a coaching role. Mikue Ondo was selected to be the flag bearer for closing ceremonies; the Equatoguinean National Olympic Committee selected two athletics competitors through wildcards. An NOC would be able to enter up to three qualified athletes in each individual event as long as each athlete met the "A" standard, or one athlete per event if they met the "B" standard. However, since Equatorial Guinea had no athletes that met either standard, they were allowed to select two athletes, one of each gender, as wildcards.
At the age of 21, Reginaldo Ndong was the youngest athlete to represent Equatorial Guinea at the Beijing Summer Games. He had not entered any previous Olympic Games. Ndong qualified for the Games by using a wildcard since his fastest time during the qualification period of 11.53 seconds, set at the 2007 All-Africa Games, was 1.25 seconds slower than the "B" standard entry time for the men's 100 metres. He was drawn in the seventh heat on 15 August, finishing eighth out of all competitors, with a time of 11.61 seconds. Ndong ranked behind Jesse Tamangrow of Palau in a heat led by Portugal's Francis Obikwelu. Overall he placed 79th out of 80 runners and did not progress into the semi-finals as he was 1.15 seconds slower than the slowest three participants who made the stages. Competing at her second Olympic Games, Emilia Mikue Ondo was the sole female athlete for Equatorial Guinea at these Games and was 23 at the time of the quadrennial event, she qualified for the Games through a wildcard place because her quickest time during the qualification period of two minutes and 15.72 seconds, recorded at the 2007 World Championships in Athletics, was 14.42 seconds slower than the "B" qualifying standard for her event, the women's 800 metres.
Mikue Ondo was drawn in heat four on 15 August, finished sixth of all the runners who completed the event, with a time of two minutes and 20.69 seconds. She ranked behind Neisha Bernard-Thomas of Grenada in a heat led by Mozambique's Maria Mutola. Mikue Ondo finished 39th out of 40 athletes overall, did not advance into the semi-finals after being 12.84 seconds slower than the slowest competitor who progressed to the stages. KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round MenWomen José Mba Nchama represented Equatorial Guinea in men's judo. At the time of the Games, he was 42 years old and was the oldest person to represent his country at the Beijing Summer Olympics. Mba Nchama gained qualification for the men's half-middleweight judo competition through his ranking in the 2007 African Judo Championships, he spent time with the Spanish team to prepare himself for the Games. Mba Nchama received a bye for the second preliminary match, before losing out by an automatic ippon and a kata-gatame to Srđan Mrvaljević of Montenegro, therefore, the end of his competition.
After his match, he stated that while he would have preferred to have advanced further in the competition, he did not rule out competing in the 2012 Summer Games in London, "The work, the result and the spirit of the Beijing Games have been amazing, from the most important to the last detail, although I would have liked to go further in sports."
2000 Summer Olympics
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event, held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was the second time that the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, the Southern Hemisphere, the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956. Sydney was selected as the host city for the 2000 Games in 1993. Teams from 199 countries participated; the Games’ cost was estimated to be A$6.6 billion. The Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called the Sydney Games "one of the most successful events on the world stage", saying that they "couldn't be better". James Mossop of the Electronic Telegraph called the Games "such a success that any city considering bidding for future Olympics must be wondering how it can reach the standards set by Sydney", while Jack Todd in the Montreal Gazette suggested that the "IOC should quit while it's ahead.
Admit there can never be a better Olympic Games, be done with it," as "Sydney was both exceptional and the best". In preparing for the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Lord Coe declared the Sydney Games the "benchmark for the spirit of the Games, unquestionably" and admitting that the London organising committee "attempted in a number of ways to emulate what the Sydney Organising Committee did." These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. These were the second Olympic Games to be held in spring and is to date the most recent games not to be held in its more traditional July or August summer slot; the final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia and China with host Australia at fourth place overall. Several World and Olympic records were broken during the games. With little or no controversies, the games were deemed successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. Sydney won the right to host the Games on 24 September 1993, after being selected over Beijing, Berlin and Manchester in four rounds of voting, at the 101st IOC Session in Monte Carlo, Monaco.
The Australian city of Melbourne had lost out to Atlanta for the 1996 Summer Olympics four years earlier. Beijing lost its bid to host the games to Sydney in 1993, but was awarded the 2008 Summer Olympics in July 2001 after Sydney hosted the previous year, it would be awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics twenty-two years in 2015. Although it is impossible to know why members of the International Olympic Committee voted for Sydney over Beijing in 1993, it appears that an important role was played by Human Rights Watch's campaign to "stop Beijing" because of China's human rights record. Many in China were angry at what they saw as U. S.-led interference in the vote, the outcome contributed to rising anti-Western sentiment in China and tensions in Sino-American relations. The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics at USD 5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 90% in real terms; this includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Sydney 2000 compares with a cost of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%. In 2000, the Auditor-General of New South Wales reported that the Sydney Games cost A$6.6 billion, with a net cost to the public between A$1.7 and A$2.4 billion. Many venues were constructed in the Sydney Olympic Park, which failed in the years following the Olympics to meet the expected bookings to meet upkeep expenses. In the years leading up to the games, funds were shifted from education and health programs to cover Olympic expenses, it has been estimated that the economic impact of the 2000 Olympics was that A$2.1 billion has been shaved from public consumption.
Economic growth was not stimulated to a net benefit and in the years after 2000, foreign tourism to NSW grew by less than tourism to Australia as a whole. A "multiplier" effect on broader economic development is not realised, as a simple "multiplier" analysis fails to capture is that resources have to be redirected from elsewhere: the building of a stadium is at the expense of other public works such as extensions to hospitals. Building sporting venues does not add to the aggregate stock of productive capital in the years following the Games: "Equestrian centres, softball compounds and man-made rapids are not useful beyond their immediate function." In the years after the games, infrastructure issues have been of growing concern to citizens those in the western suburbs of Sydney. Proposed rail links to Sydney's west have been estimated to cost in the same order of magnitude as the public expenditure on the games. Although the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony was not sc
Malabo is the capital of Equatorial Guinea and the province of Bioko Norte. It is located on the north coast of the island of Bioko known by the Bubis, its indigenous inhabitants, as Etulá, as Fernando Pó by the Europeans; the city has a population of 187,302 inhabitants. Spanish of the country as well. Spanish is the most-spoken language and the only one used, except some French and Portuguese. Malabo is the oldest city in Equatorial Guinea. Many buildings in the city are built in a colonial style, dating from the times of Spanish rule, coexisting with modern buildings built since independence; the downtown streets have a square design, with pedestrian areas. This phenomenon causes a feeling of architecture attenuated by the low height of buildings in a combination of architectural Westernization and Africanism. Ciudad de la Paz is a planned city under construction in mainland Equatorial Guinea, designed to replace Malabo as the capital; the institutions of governance of Equatorial Guinea began the process of locating to Oyala in February 2017.
In 1472, in an attempt to find a new route to India, the Portuguese navigator Fernão do Pó, encountered the island of Bioko, which he called "Formosa". The island was named after its discoverer, Fernando Pó. At the beginning of the 16th century in 1507, the Portuguese Ramos de Esquivel made a first attempt at colonization on the island of Fernando Pó, he established a factory in Concepción and developed plantations of sugarcane, but the hostility of the insular Bubi people and diseases ended this experience quickly. With the treaties of San Ildefonso in 1777 and El Pardo in 1778, during the reign of the Spanish King Carlos III the Portuguese gave to the Spanish island of Fernando Pó, Annobón and the right to conduct trade in the mainland, an area of influence of 800 000 km2 in Africa, in exchange for the Colonia del Sacramento in the River Plate and the Santa Catalina Island off the Brazilian coast; the area stretching from the Niger Delta to the mouth of Ogüé River -in the current Gabon- and included, besides the islands of Fernando Pó and Annobon, the islets of Corisco and Elobeyes.
Failed its various unsuccessful attempts to colonize these lands, Spain for its internal problems, lost interest in Spanish Guinea in 1827 and authorized the British use the island as a base for the work of suppression of the slave trade. In 1821, the British captain Nelly approached the island of Fernando Pó, he found it abandoned and founded the establishments of Melville Bay and "San Carlos". Some years another British captain, William Fitzwilliam Owen, decided to colonize the island and in the north of it -on the site of the present capital- erected a base for British ships hunting European dealers in slaves, thus arose, on 25 December 1827, Port Clarence on the ruins of a previous Portuguese settlement. The name was chosen in honor of the Duke of Clarence, who became King William IV; the Bubis indigenous to the island called it "Ripotó. The population of the capital was increased by the arrival of slaves freed by the British; these freedmen were settled in Port Clarence before the establishment of Sierra Leone as a colony for freed slaves.
The descendants of these freed slaves remained on the island. They joined other migrants who arrived as free workers from Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Benin and Cameroon, became the population group called Creole or fernandinos, whose language was a Pidgin Bantu-English with some Spanish elements. During the British period, the British consul automatically became the governor of the colony, including Governor John Beecroft, a British mulatto sailor who modernized the capital, whose work was recognized by Spain with a monument in Punta Fernanda. In 1844, when Queen Isabel II of Spain ruled after the regency of her mother Maria Cristina and Baldomero Espartero, in an attempt to modernize Spain and rescue its heritage, Spain let the UK know its desire to regain control of the colony and thus the island, it took another decade to implement this direct control. The capital had more dynamic and Protestant religious missions which were successful. Both factors helped to change the attitude of Spain, in addition to internal reasons alluded.
Spain again took control of the island in 1855 and the capital, Port Clarence, was renamed Santa Isabel, in honor of Queen Isabel II. The capital of the island of Fernando Pó became the capital of Equatorial Guinea, its present name was given to the town in 1973 as part of the campaign of President Macías Nguema to replace place names of European origin with African names, in this case honoring Malabo Lopelo Melaka, the last Bubi king. Malabo, the son of King Moka, surrendered to the Spaniards, his uncle Sas Ebuera, head of the Bubi warriors, claimed to represent legitimate Bubi rule and continued resisting, confronting the Spanish in 1898. After the Spanish killed Sas Ebuera, Malabo did with no authority. Bubi clans and settlements were slow to accept Spanish sovereignty over the island, the full conquest and pacification of the island was not achieved until 1912. During the so-called Reign of Terror of Macías Nguema, the dictator suppressed much of the intelligentsia of the country, initiating the process of taking over the positions of the public administration by part of the natives of Mongomo and clan Esangui.
Many city residents had to leave. In the last years of his mandate a fifth of the population fled. At that time, Equatorial Guinea received money from the Soviet Union in return fo
A standard-bearer is a person who bears an emblem called a standard, i.e. either a type of flag or an inflexible but mobile image, used as a formal, visual symbol of a state, military unit, etc. This can either be an occasional duty seen as an honour, or a permanent charge. Many terms exist specifying the type of standard borne. Pharaonic nome-emblems Aetos Aquilifer Bandifer Discens aquiliferum, - signiferorum: trainee Draconarius - one of them could be selected Optio Draconarius. Bearcus Draconarius... Imaginifer?5 original images: Aper = boar, Equus = horse, Tabula ansata: winged boar, Taurus = bull... Ornithoboros Semeiphoros Signifer - one of them could be selected as Signifer princeps Tablifer - guards cavalry Vexillarius Cfr. also: Adiutor signorum Aedes Antesignanus Aquilae natalis Deposita ad signa Labarum Postsignanus Vexillatio French porte Oriflamme Serbian veliki vojvoda, stegonoša, known in Latin as vexillifer Polish Chorąży', now military grade coded by NATO with OR-8 and group of warrant officers from OR-7 to OR-9 Scottish Bearer of the Royal Banner, first granted in 1298 Scottish Bearer of the National Flag, first granted in 1676 Montenegrin and Northern Albanian barjaktar, 19th century Italian gonfaloniere / Gonfaloniere of Justice Ottoman sancaktar, bajraktar Portuguese alferes-mor, from the 12th to the early 20th century Calvin Pearl Titus, the last American standard bearer and a Medal of Honor recipient Prince Henry Sixtus of Borbon Parma is considered by many Carlists to be the Standard Bearer of tradition.
Flagbearer at the Opening and Closing Ceremonies of the Olympic Games is the athlete who carries the flag for their country