Man with a Glove
The Man with a Glove is an oil-on-canvas portrait by the Italian Renaissance artist Titian, c. 1520. It has been in Paris; the work originates from the Gonzaga family's collection at Mantua. It was acquired by Charles I of England in 1627. Sometime after his beheading in 1649, the painting was auctioned and bought by the Cologne banker Eberhard Jabach, it came in the possession of Louis XIV of France, was transferred from the Palace of Versailles to the Louvre in 1792. The figure has not been identified with certainty, he could be Girolamo Adorno, mentioned in a 1527 letter from Pietro Aretino to Federico Gonzaga, or Giambattista Malatesta, an agent of the Gonzaga in Venice. According to another hypothesis, he could be Ferrante Gonzaga, sixteen years old in 1523; the painting portrays a three-quarters view of a male figure set against a flat black background. He appears to be looking at an indefinite point to the left of the canvas, with his left arm laid on his knee, he could be pointing at his gloves, which were a fashion statement at the time - much like large muscles are today.
He is dressed in the fashion of the period. The man's gloved left hand holds a second leather glove, his right hand is adorned with a golden ring, a symbol of richness, a necklace decorated with a sapphire and a pearl. The use of a parapet in portraits was a common device of the young Titian. Rosand, David. Titian. Library of Great Painters. New York: Harry N. Abrams. 126–27. ISBN 0-8109-1654-1 Display caption at the Musée du Louvre
Portrait of Alfonso I d'Este
The Portrait of Alfonso I d'Este is a now-lost painting by Titian, dating to 1523. It was painted as a pendant to the Portrait of Laura Dianti of the same year and is now known through copies, one of, by Rubens and another of, held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Others are held in the collections of the countess of Vogüe Commarin at Dijon and the Statens Museum for Kunst in Copenhagen - the latter is the oldest but only shows the head and shoulders; the painting showed its subject with his right hand on the muzzle of a cannon and his left hand on the hilt of his sword, underlining his martial prowess during a tense time in his relations with the papacy. It was an influence on Dosso Dossi's portrait of the duke in a similar pose, leaning on a cannon; the original was seen by Vasari and admired by Michelangelo on the latter's visit to Ferrara in 1529. It was given to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, who kept it for a time in Bologna before taking it to Spain, it is mentioned in the 1666 and 1686 inventories of the Royal Alcazar of Madrid, but disappeared during the 18th century.
Francesco Valcanover, L'opera completa di Tiziano, Milano 1969. The Metropolitan Museum copy
The Italian Renaissance was a period of Italian history that began in the 14th century and lasted until the 17th century. It peaked during the 15th and 16th centuries, spreading across Europe and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to Modernity; the French word renaissance means "Rebirth" and defines the period as one of cultural revival and renewed interest in classical antiquity after the centuries labeled the Dark Ages by Renaissance humanists. The Renaissance author Giorgio Vasari used the term "Rebirth" in his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects but the concept became widespread only in the 19th century, after the works of scholars such as Jules Michelet and Jacob Burckhardt; the Renaissance began in Tuscany, was centred in the city of Florence. Florence, one of the several city-states of the peninsula, rose to economic prominence by providing credit for European monarchs and laying down the groundwork for capitalism and banking; the Renaissance spread to Venice, heart of a mediterranean empire and in control of the trade routes with the east since the participation in the crusades and the voyages of Marco Polo, where the remains of ancient Greek culture were brought together and provided humanist scholars with new texts.
The Renaissance had a significant effect on the Papal States and Rome rebuilt by Humanist and Renaissance popes, who were involved in Italian politics, in arbitrating disputes between competing colonial powers and in opposing the Reformation. The Italian Renaissance is best known for its achievements in painting, sculpture, music, philosophy and exploration. Italy became the recognized European leader in all these areas by the late 15th century, during the Peace of Lodi agreed between Italian states; the Italian Renaissance peaked in the mid-16th century as domestic disputes and foreign invasions plunged the region into the turmoil of the Italian Wars. However, the ideas and ideals of the Italian Renaissance endured and spread into the rest of Europe, setting off the Northern Renaissance. Italian explorers from the maritime republics served under the auspices of European monarchs, ushering the Age of discovery; the most famous among them are Christopher Columbus who sailed for Spain, Giovanni da Verrazzano for France, Amerigo Vespucci for Portugal, John Cabot for England.
Italian scientists such as Falloppio, Galileo, played a key role in the scientific revolution and foreigners such as Copernicus and Vesalius worked in Italian universities. Various events and dates of the 17th century, such as the conclusion of the European Wars of Religion in 1648, have been proposed for the end of the Renaissance. Accounts of Renaissance literature begin with the three great poets of the 14th century: Dante Alighieri and Boccaccio. Famous vernacular poets of the Renaissance include the renaissance epic authors Luigi Pulci, Matteo Maria Boiardo, Ludovico Ariosto and Torquato Tasso. 15th-century writers such as the poet Poliziano and the Platonist philosopher Marsilio Ficino made extensive translations from both Latin and Greek. In the early 16th century, Castiglione laid out his vision of the ideal gentleman and lady in The Book of the Courtier, while Machiavelli cast a jaundiced eye on "la verità effettuale della cosa"—the actual truth of things—in The Prince, composed, in humanistic style, chiefly of parallel ancient and modern examples of Virtù.
Historians of the period include Machiavelli himself, his friend and critic Francesco Guicciardini and Giovanni Botero. The Aldine Press, founded by the printer Aldo Manuzio, active in Venice, developed Italic type and portable printed books that could be carried in one's pocket, as well as being the first to publish editions of books in Ancient Greek. Venice became the birthplace of the Commedia dell'Arte. Italian Renaissance art exercised a dominant influence on subsequent European painting and sculpture for centuries afterwards, with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Giotto di Bondone, Fra Angelico, Piero della Francesca, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Perugino and Titian; the same is true for architecture, as practiced by Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, Andrea Palladio, Bramante. Their works include, to name only a few, the Florence Cathedral, St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini, as well as several private residences; the musical era of the Italian Renaissance was defined by the Roman School and by the Venetian School and the birth of Opera in Florence.
In philosophy, thinkers such as Galileo, Giordano Bruno and Pico della Mirandola, emphasized naturalism and humanism, thus rejecting dogma and scholasticism. By the Late Middle Ages, the former heartland of the Roman Empire, southern Italy were poorer than the North. Rome was a city of ancient ruins, the Papal States were loosely administered, vulnerable to external interference such as that of France, Spain; the Papacy was affronted when the Avignon Papacy was created in southern France as a consequence of pressure from King Philip the Fair of France. In the south, Sicily had for some time been under foreign domination, by the Arabs and the Normans. Sicily had prospered for 150 years during the Emirate of Sicily and for two centuries during the Norman Kingdom and the Hohenstaufen Kingdom, but had declined by the late
Hans Burgkmair the Elder was a German painter and woodcut printmaker. Hans Burgkmair was born in the son of painter Thomas Burgkmair, his own son, Hans the Younger became a painter as well. From 1488, Burgkmair was a pupil of Martin Schongauer in Colmar. Schongauer died in 1491, he may have visited Italy at this time, did so in 1507, which influenced his style. From 1491, he worked in Augsburg, where he became a master and opened his own workshop in 1498. German art historian Friedrich Wilhelm Hollstein ascribes 834 woodcuts to Burgkmair, the majority of which were intended for book illustrations. More than a hundred are “single-leaf” prints which were not intended for books, his work shows a talent for striking compositions which blend Italian Renaissance forms with the established German style. From about 1508, Burgkmair spent much of his time working on the woodcut projects of Maximilian I until the Emperor's death in 1519, he was responsible for nearly half of the 135 prints in the Triumphs of Maximilian, which are large and full of character.
He did most of the illustrations for Weiss Kunig and much of Theurdank. He worked with the leading blockcutter Jost de Negker, who became in effect his publisher, he was an important innovator of the chiaroscuro woodcut, seems to have been the first to use a tone block, in a print of 1508. His Lovers Surprised by Death is the first chiaroscuro print to use three blocks, the first print, designed to be printed only in colour, as the line block by itself would not make a satisfactory image. Other chiaroscuro prints from around this date by Baldung and Cranach had line blocks that could be and were printed by themselves, he produced one etching and Mercury, etched on a steel plate, but never tried engraving, despite his training with Schongauer. Burgkmair was a successful painter of religious scenes, portraits of Augsburg citizens, members of the Emperor's court. Many examples of his work are in the galleries of Munich and elsewhere. Burgkmair died at Augsburg in 1531. German Renaissance This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Burgkmair, Hans". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4. Cambridge University Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gerhard. "Hans Burckmair". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 3. New York: Robert Appleton. Media related to Hans Burgkmair d. Ä. at Wikimedia Commons Burgkmair's Flodden woodcut Prints & People: A Social History of Printed Pictures, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Burgkmair
Portrait of Charles V with a Dog
The Portrait of Charles V with a Dog is a portrait of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor with a hunting dog, painted by Titian in 1533. It passed from Charles to the Spanish royal collection, from which it passed to its present owner, the Prado, it is a reinterpretation of a portrait of Charles painted in 1532 by Jakob Seisenegger. That portrait was natural but had not pleased its subject and so during his stay in Bologna in 1533 Charles paid Titian 500 ducats to paint a new version of it; this new version is similar to its predecessor but transforms its composition, stylising Charles' body by increasing the size of the fur wrap, decreasing the size of the doublet, raising the position of the eyes and lowering the horizon to make Charles fill the space. He is shown approaching the viewer and the space around him has been emptied and simplified, with warmer colours than in the original, it inspired Goya's 1799 Charles IV in his Hunting Clothes
Anthony van Dyck
Sir Anthony van Dyck was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England after success in the Southern Netherlands and Italy. The seventh child of Frans van Dyck, a wealthy Antwerp silk merchant, Anthony was precocious as a youth and painted from an early age. In his late teens he was enjoying success as an independent painter, becoming a master in the Antwerp guild in 1618. By this time he was working in the studio of the leading northern painter of the day, Peter Paul Rubens, who became a major influence on his work. Van Dyck worked in London for some months in 1621 returned to Flanders for a brief time, before travelling to Italy, where he stayed until 1627 based in Genoa. In the late 1620s he completed his admired Iconography series of portrait etchings of other artists, he spent five years after his return from Italy in Flanders, from 1630 was court painter for the archduchess Isabella, Habsburg Governor of Flanders. In 1632 he returned to London to be the main court painter, at the request of Charles I of England.
With the exception of Holbein, van Dyck and his contemporary Diego Velázquez were the first painters of pre-eminent talent to work as court portraitists, revolutionising the genre. He is best known for his portraits of European aristocracy, most notably Charles I and his family and associates, he painted mythological and biblical subjects, including altarpieces, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, was an important innovator in watercolour and etching. His superb brushwork rather painted, can be distinguished from the large areas painted by his many assistants, his portrait style changed between the different countries he worked in, culminating in the relaxed elegance of his last English period. His influence extends into the modern period. During his lifetime, Charles I granted him a knighthood, he was buried in St Paul's Cathedral, an indication of his standing at the time of his death. Antoon van Dyck was born to prosperous parents in Antwerp, his father was Frans van Dyck, a silk merchant, his mother was Maria, daughter of Dirk Cupers and Catharina Conincx.
He was baptised on 23 March 1599. His talent was evident early, he was studying painting with Hendrick van Balen by 1609, became an independent painter around 1615, setting up a workshop with his younger friend Jan Brueghel the Younger. By the age of fifteen he was a accomplished artist, as his Self-portrait, 1613–14, shows, he was admitted to the Antwerp painters' Guild of Saint Luke as a free master by February 1618. Within a few years he was to be the chief assistant to the dominant master of Antwerp, the whole of Northern Europe, Peter Paul Rubens, who made much use of sub-contracted artists as well as his own large workshop, his influence on the young artist was immense. The origins and exact nature of their relationship are unclear. At the same time the dominance of Rubens in the small and declining city of Antwerp explains why, despite his periodic returns to the city, van Dyck spent most of his career abroad. In 1620, in Rubens's contract for the major commission for the ceiling of the Carolus Borromeuskerk, the Jesuit church at Antwerp, van Dyck is specified as one of the "discipelen", to execute the paintings to Rubens' designs.
Unlike van Dyck, Rubens worked for most of the courts of Europe, but avoided exclusive attachment to any of them. In 1620, at the instigation of George Villiers, Marquess of Buckingham, van Dyck went to England for the first time where he worked for King James I of England, receiving £100, it was in London in the collection of the Earl of Arundel that he first saw the work of Titian, whose use of colour and subtle modeling of form would prove transformational, offering a new stylistic language that would enrich the compositional lessons learned from Rubens. After about four months, he returned to Flanders, but moved on in late 1621 to Italy, where he remained for six years, studying the Italian masters and beginning his career as a successful portraitist, he was presenting himself as a figure of consequence, annoying the rather bohemian Northern artist's colony in Rome, says Giovan Pietro Bellori, by appearing with "the pomp of Zeuxis... his behaviour was that of a nobleman rather than an ordinary person, he shone in rich garments.
He was based in Genoa, although he travelled extensively to other cities, stayed for some time in Palermo in Sicily. For the Genoese aristocracy in a final flush of prosperity, he developed a full-length portrait style, drawing on Veronese and Titian as well as Rubens' style from his own period in Genoa, where tall but graceful figures look down on the viewer with great hauteur. In 1627, he went back to Antwerp where he remained for five years, painting more affable portraits which still made his Flemish patrons look as stylish as possible. A life-size group portrait of twenty-four City Councill
Portrait of Vincenzo Mosti
Portrait of Vincenzo Mosti is a painting by Titian, executed around 1520 and now housed in the Galleria Palatina of Florence, Italy. The work is mentioned in the gallery's 1687 inventory as a "copy of Titian believed to be original". In that of 1815, it is attributed in that of 1829 to an unknown artist, it has been reassigned to Titian after the elimination of the repaintures. The subject is traditionally identified as Tommaso Mosti, a member of a family connected with the Este of Ferrara, based on an inscription in the reverse which says "Di Thomaso Mosti in età di anni XXV l'anno MDXXVI. Thitiano de Cadore pittore". However, the historical Mosti followed an ecclesiastical career, thus the garments of the subject are not appropriate. More the man could be his elder brother Vincenzo, who died in 1536, or Agostino; the dating in the inscription would be an error of transcription of a "0" as a "6". Man with a Glove Zuffi, Stefano. Tiziano. Milan: Mondadori Arte. ISBN 978-88-370-6436-5. Galleria Palatina page