Equus (genus)

Equus is a genus of mammals in the family Equidae, which includes horses and zebras. Within Equidae, Equus is the only recognized extant genus. Like Equidae more broadly, Equus has numerous extinct species known only from fossils; the genus most originated in North America and spread to the Old World. Equines are odd-toed ungulates with slender legs, long heads long necks and long tails. All species are herbivorous, grazers, with simpler digestive systems than ruminants but able to subsist on lower-quality vegetation. While the domestic horse and donkey exist worldwide, wild equine populations are limited to Africa and Asia. Wild equine social systems are in two forms. In both systems, females take care of their offspring. Equines communicate with each other both visually and vocally. Human activities have threatened wild equine populations; the word equus is Latin for "horse" and is cognate with the Greek ἵππος and Mycenaean Greek i-qo /ikkʷos/, the earliest attested variant of the Greek word, written in Linear B syllabic script.

Compare the alternative development of the Proto-Greek labiovelar in Ionic ἴκκος. The genus Equus was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, it is the only recognized extant genus in the family Equidae. The first equids were small, dog-sized mammals adapted for browsing on shrubs during the Eocene, around 54 million years ago; these animals had three toes on the hind feet and four on the front feet with small hooves in place of claws, but had soft pads. Equids developed into larger, three-toed animals during the Miocene. From there, the side toes became progressively smaller through the Pleistocene until the emergence of the single-toed Equus; the genus Equus, which includes all extant equines, is believed to have evolved from Dinohippus, via the intermediate form Plesippus. One of the oldest species is Equus simplicidens, described as zebra-like with a donkey-like head shape; the oldest material to date was found in Idaho, USA. The genus appears to have spread into the Old World, with the aged E. livenzovensis documented from western Europe and Russia.

Molecular phylogenies indicate that the most recent common ancestor of all modern equines lived ~5.6 Mya. Direct paleogenomic sequencing of a 700,000-year-old middle Pleistocene horse metapodial bone from Canada implies a more recent 4.07 Mya for the most recent common ancestor within the range of 4.0 to 4.5 Mya. Mitochondrial evidence supports the division of Equus species into noncaballoid and caballoids or "true horses". Of the extant equine species, the lineage of the asses may have diverged first as soon as Equus reached the Old World. Zebras appear to be differentiated in Africa, where they are endemic. Molecular dating indicates the caballoid lineage diverged from the noncaballoids 4 Mya. Genetic results suggest that all North American fossils of caballine equines, as well as South American fossils traditionally placed in the subgenus E. belong to E. ferus. Remains attributed to a variety of species and lumped together as New World stilt-legged horses all belong to a second species, endemic to North America.

The possible causes of the extinction of horses in the Americas have been a matter of debate. Hypotheses include climatic overexploitation by newly arrived humans. Horses only returned to the American mainland with the arrival of the conquistadores in 1519. Equine species can crossbreed with each other; the most common hybrid is a cross between a male donkey and a female horse. With rare exceptions, these hybrids can not reproduce. A related hybrid, a hinny, is a cross between a female donkey. Other hybrids include the zorse, a cross between a zebra and a horse and a zonkey or zedonk, a hybrid of a zebra and a donkey. In areas where Grévy's zebras are sympatric with plains zebras, fertile hybrids do occur. Equines have significant differences in size, though all are characterized by long necks, their slender legs support their weight on one digit. Grévy's zebra is the largest wild species, weighing up to 405 kg. Domesticated horses have a wider range of sizes. Heavy or draft horses are at least 16 hands high and can be as tall as 18 hands and weigh from about 700 to 1,000 kg.

Some miniature horses are no taller than 30 inches in adulthood. Sexual dimorphism is limited in equines; the penis of the male lacks a bone. Equines are adapted for traveling over long distances, their dentition is adapted for grazing. Males have spade-shaped canines. Equines have good senses their eyesight, their moderately long, erect ears can locate the source of a sound. A dun-colored coat with primitive markings that include a dorsal stripe and leg striping and transverse

2014–15 ISU Speed Skating World Cup – World Cup 3

The third competition weekend of the 2014–15 ISU Speed Skating World Cup will be held in Sportforum Hohenschönhausen in Berlin, from Friday, 5 December, until Sunday, 7 December 2014. Artur Waś of Poland both men's 500 m races. In the women's competitions, Ireen Wüst of the Netherlands won three gold medals. Lee Sang-hwa of South Korea won both 500 m races. Heather Richardson of the United States managed to take no less than four silver medals. No world records were set during the weekend, but Christian Oberbichler of Switzerland set a new national record on in the B division of the men's 500 m on Friday, both Marina Zueva of Belarus and Saskia Alusalu of Estonia set new national records in the B division of the women's 3000 m on Friday; the detailed schedule of events: All times are CET. A In mass start, race points are accumulated during the race; the skater with most race points is the winner. A In mass start, race points are accumulated during the race; the skater with most race points is the winner

Umpire abuse

Umpire abuse refers to the act of abuse towards an umpire, referee, or other official in sport. The abuse can be verbal physical abuse. For example, Australian Football League spectators use the term "white maggot" towards umpires at games, when they do not agree with an umpire's decision. Umpire abuse has become quite common in sport, practiced by players and spectators, with one Australian Football league having half the tribunal cases heard about umpire abuse. There have been some high-profile cases of abuse towards the umpires in sport, with one Australian football player suspended for life after striking an umpire. In 1996, Major League Baseball player Roberto Alomar spat in umpire John Hirschbeck's face during a dispute. Alomar received a five-game suspension for the incident, but the punishment was served during the following season, not the 1996 playoffs. MLB umpires, upset over the lack of an immediate suspension, threatened to go on strike before a federal judge prevented them from doing so.

During the 2008 Beijing Olympics, Angel Valodia Matos from Cuba pushed and kicked a referee in the face during a Taekwondo match. He was disqualified for taking too much injury time in the bronze medal match by referee Chakir Chelbat, before kicking Chelbat in the face; the referee required stitches in his lip after the attack. The World Taekwondo Federation has banned his coach from taekwondo competitions for life. In 2016, Mark Jamar, an Essendon AFL player has been fined $1500 for umpire abuse; the umpire, Mathew Nicholls, reported Jamar after he expressed his annoyance that he wasn't awarded a free kick in a marking contest. Leagues and the like are trying to stop abuse towards umpires. In Australian Rules Football, attempting to strike or striking an umpire, abusing or threatening an umpire, or disputing an umpires decision is a reportable offense, per the Laws of Australian Football, it is possible to send a player off for up to the remainder of the game for abusing an umpire, however this is only practiced at amateur and junior level.

There have been other programs trailed, such as making players suspended for umpire abuse attend umpire training sessions. In cricket, the preamble to the Laws of Cricket state that it is not within the spirit of cricket to abuse an umpire, to dispute their decisions. In ice hockey, it is against the rules to dispute a referee's decision, although the team captains can skate out and discuss the calls with the referees and linesmen. After a warning, arguing with a referee, or starting a fight with a referee is grounds for a game misconduct, which results in ejection for the offending player or coach. In baseball, it is against the rules for any coach, manager, or player to question the umpire's judgement on a call on the field, or on balls and strikes. If a coach, manager, or player begins to walk toward the umpire with the intent to argue a call or balls and strikes, he will be warned to return to his bench or position. If he continues to advance, he will be ejected. In the criminal justice system, some jurisdictions mandate more severe penalties when a person commits a crime against a sports official prior to, during, or following any athletic contest in which the umpire, referee, or judge is participating in an official capacity.

For instance, in the State of California, Section 243.8 of the Penal Code specifies that Battery against a sports official shall result in a fine that does not exceed more than $2000, or imprisonment with the sentence not exceeding one year. Battery against a sports official has more severe penalties than simple battery against a civilian, as in Section 243. California's maximum incarceration penalty for Battery on a Sports Official is twice as lengthy as the maximum sentence for Simple Battery