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An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calendar era used for a given calendar, or the geological eras defined for the history of Earth. Comparable terms are epoch, period, saeculum and Sanskrit yuga; the word has been in use in English since 1615, is derived from Late Latin aera "an era or epoch from which time is reckoned," identical to Latin æra "counters used for calculation," plural of æs "brass, money". The Latin word use in chronology seems to have begun in 5th century Visigothic Spain, where it appears in the History of Isidore of Seville, in texts; the Spanish era is calculated from 38 BC because of a tax levied in that year, or due to a miscalculation of the Battle of Actium, which occurred in 31 BC. Like epoch, "era" in English meant "the starting point of an age". In chronology, an era is the highest level for the organization of the measurement of time. A calendar era indicates a span of many years which are numbered beginning at a specific reference date, which marks the origin of a political state or cosmology, ruler, the birth of a leader, or another significant historical or mythological event.

In large-scale natural science, there is need for another time perspective, independent from human activity, indeed spanning a far longer period, where geologic era refers to well-defined time spans. The next-larger division of geologic time is the eon; the Phanerozoic Eon, for example, is subdivided into eras. There are three eras defined in the Phanerozoic; the older Proterozoic and Archean eons are divided into eras. For periods in the history of the universe, the term "epoch" is preferred, but "era" is used e.g. of the "Stelliferous Era". Calendar eras count the years since a particular date one with religious significance. Anno mundi refers to a group of calendar eras based on a calculation of the age of the world, assuming it was created as described in the Book of Genesis. In Jewish religious contexts one of the versions is still used, many Eastern Orthodox religious calendars used another version until 1728. Hebrew year 5772 AM began at sunset on 28 September 2011 and ended on 16 September 2012.

In the Western church Anno Domini, counting the years since the birth of Jesus on traditional calculations, was always dominant. The Islamic calendar, which has variants, counts years from the Hijra or emigration of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, which occurred in 622 AD; the Islamic year is some days shorter than 365. For a time ranging from 1872 to the Second World War, the Japanese used the imperial year system, counting from the year when the legendary Emperor Jimmu founded Japan which occurred in 660 BC. Many Buddhist calendars count from the death of the Buddha, which according to the most used calculations was in 545-543 BCE or 483 BCE. Dates are given as "BE" for "Buddhist Era". Other calendar eras of the past counted from political events, such as the Seleucid era and the Ancient Roman ab urbe condita, counting from the foundation of the city; the word era denotes the units used under a different, more arbitrary system where time is not represented as an endless continuum with a single reference year, but each unit starts counting from one again as if time starts again.

The use of regnal years is a rather impractical system, a challenge for historians if a single piece of the historical chronology is missing, reflects the preponderance in public life of an absolute ruler in many ancient cultures. Such traditions sometimes outlive the political power of the throne, may be based on mythological events or rulers who may not have existed. In a manner of speaking the use of the supposed date of the birth of Christ as a base year is a form of an era. In East Asia, each emperor's reign may be subdivided into several reign periods, each being treated as a new era; the name of each was a slogan chosen by the emperor. Different East Asian countries utilized different systems, notably: Chinese eras Japanese era Korean eras Vietnamese erasA similar practice survived in the United Kingdom until quite but only for formal official writings: in daily life the ordinary year A. D. has been used for a long time, but Acts of Parliament were dated according to the years of the reign of the current Monarch, so that "61 & 62 Vict c. 37" refers to the Local Government Act 1898 passed in the session of Parliament in the 61st/62nd year of the reign of Queen Victoria.

"Era" can be used to refer to well-defined periods in historiography, such as the Roman era, Elizabethan era, Victorian era, etc. Use of the term for more recent periods or topical history might include Soviet era, "musical eras" in the history of modern popular music, such as the "Big Band era", "Disco era", etc. Periodization List of time periods List of archaeological periods

San Quirico, Sorano

San Quirico is a village in Tuscany, central Italy, administratively a frazione of the comune of Sorano, province of Grosseto, in the tuff area of southern Maremma. At the time of the 2001 census its population amounted to 572. San Quirico is about 85 km from Grosseto and 5 km from Sorano, it is situated along the Provincial Road which links Sorano to Casone; the village was born after the depopulation of the town of Vitozza, whose ruins lie next to San Quirico. It was known as San Quirichino. Santi Quirico e Giulitta, main parish church of the village since 1785, it was restructured in a Neo-Classical style in the early 20th century. Chapel of Montignano, little chapel in the hamlet of Montignano, it was built in 1845. Archaeological site of Vitozza Emanuele Repetti, «San Quirico», Dizionario Geografico Fisico Storico della Toscana, 1833-1846. Carlo Citter, Guida agli edifici sacri della Maremma, Nuova Immagine Editrice, 2002. Castell'Ottieri Cerreto, Sorano Elmo, Sorano Montebuono, Sorano Montevitozzo Montorio, Sorano San Giovanni delle Contee San Valentino, Sorano Sovana

Museums at Night

Museums at Night is a twice-yearly festival of late openings and special events taking place in museums, libraries and heritage sites in the United Kingdom. It is affiliated with the European Night of Museums programme, takes place on weekends in late May and late October. Museums at Night is core funded by Arts Council England and administered by Culture24. For Museums at Night weekend 2009, cultural and heritage venues in the UK staged 157 events, attracting over 34,000 visitors. Museums at Night weekend sees combined cultural and heritage programmes offered by multiple organisations in many United Kingdom towns and cities, including Stockport, Dorchester, Norwich and NewcastleGateshead; the largest single programme within the festival is that organised in Newcastle Gateshead covering over 50 venues under the title The Late Shows. The "Connect!" Competition between museums and other cultural hosting institutions engages artists to produce art for the festival weekend. One of the artists who participated in Museums at Night during May 2013 through The Late Shows was Julia Vogl, who created a chandelier with the help of members of the public, using 2500 recycled plastic bottles.

Davy and Kristin McGuire participated in Museums at Night in November 2015 with Starkers, bringing the Williamson Art Gallery and Museum's statue Pauline to life, animating her to give her opinions on the visitors to the gallery over the years. Light Night Nuit Blanche Long Night of Museums Official website The BBC History Magazine Guide to Museums at Night 2013

Married at First Sight (Australian TV series)

Married At First Sight is an Australian reality television series, based on the Danish program of the same name, on the Nine Network. The show featured couples getting married by being matched by "experts". However, unlike other versions of the show around the world, the couples do not partake in a legally-binding marriage due to legal restrictions in Australia, but instead meet as strangers at the altar of a commitment ceremony; the couples spend their wedding night in a hotel leave for a honeymoon. Upon returning they live together for a period of time, during which they meet at commitment ceremonies and choose whether or not they will continue their relationship; the first season premiered on 18 May 2015 on the Nine Network. A second season began on 4 April 2016 with the third season premiering in the same year on 29 August 2016. A fourth season premiered on Monday 30 January 2017; the fifth season premiered on Monday 29 January 2018. The sixth season premiered on Monday 28 January 2019; the seventh season premiered on Monday 3 February 2020.

During the first season, a panel of "experts" matched four females with four males. In the first episode, two couples got married at their first introduction. In the second episode, another two couples did the same; the couples embarked on married life for the rest of the season. In the fourth episode, the couples met each other for the first time and discussed their current experiences. Lachlan and Clare wed in Sydney on the show's first episode. Despite their decision to continue their relationship at the end of the season, the couple revealed they had split but remained good friends; the Nine Network announced on 26 June 2015, that Lachlan would participate in the network's upcoming revival of The Farmer Wants a Wife. Roni and Michael wed in Melbourne on the show's first episode. By the fifth episode, they found their relationship was not working for them and they both agreed to split. Zoe and Alex wed in Melbourne in the show's second episode. Following the conclusion of the season and Alex are the only couple still together.

In March 2016, Zoe and Alex revealed. After suffering a miscarriage in June 2015, Zoe and Alex revealed they were expecting their first child in October 2016. On 14 November 2016 Zoe gave birth to their baby girl named Harper-Rose Garner. On 17 April 2018 Zoe announced via Instagram she and Alex had split up. James and Michelle wed in Sydney in the show's second episode; the two are no longer in contact with each other. After airing only one episode, the Nine Network on 19 May 2015, announced the series had been renewed for a second season which began to air on 4 April 2016. During the second season, four female contestants were matched with their'perfect' male partner by a panel of "experts". In the first episode, two couples wed.. In the second episode, another two couples did the same, they all embarked on married life for the rest of the series. In the fifth episode, the couples discussed their experiences. Erin and Bryce wed in Melbourne on the show's first episode. In the final episode, they decided to stay together.

They are the only couple still together. Since the show ended Erin has started her own fashion label called Boy Is Mine and is writing a fashion lifestyle blog, Christie and Mark wed in Sydney on the show's first episode. In the final episode, they decided to stay together. On 15 June 2016, they announced. Clare and Jono met and wed in Melbourne on the show's second episode and became the season's most controversial couple. By the fifth episode, Clare decided their relationship was not working as she felt'uncomfortable' with Jono's constant aggressive outbursts, she decided to end the relationship prior to the couple's dinner. After the show it was revealed by investigative journalist Siobhan Duck of the Herald Sun that Jono Pitman had been arrested and charged with assault after a bar brawl, had completed a court ordered anger management course. Jono was matched with Clare Verrall, open about being attacked on the street by a stranger only months prior to filming, suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder after the incident.

A Nine Network spokesperson confirmed they were aware of Jono Pitman's violent history prior to pairing up the couple. Since the show Clare has spoken about her battle with mental health issues since her attack, resulting in two suicide attempts before she checked herself into a trauma center for a month. Staying out of the limelight for over 18 months after the show, photos emerged of Clare having gained over 40 kg. In 2018, after her time at the trauma center and a second back surgery, Clare lost the weight she had gained and re-emerged at some Melbourne events. Jono has spoken out about his mental health struggles with anxiety after the show. At the time of writing he has been in a steady relationship for 5 months. Clare remains single. Simone and Xavier wed in Sydney in the show's second episode. In the final decision, Simone decided to walk away from the relationship and they are now separated, it was announced in February 2016 the show would return with seasons two and three. There would be a bold casting move this season.

It was the first to have five couples and included the series' first same-sex male couple. During the third season, four female contestants were matched with their'perfect' male partner and for the first time a male contestant was matched with his'perfect' male partner by a panel of "experts". In the first episode, two couples (Ke

Make a Smellmitment

Make a Smellmitment is an advertising campaign created by Wieden+Kennedy for Old Spice in the United States. The campaign is preceded by “The Man Your Man Could Smell Like", a television advertising campaign by Wieden+Kennedy for Old Spice; the "Make a Smellmitment" campaign retains much of the format from the previous campaign including its characters played by Isaiah Mustafa and Terry Crews. The content of the new campaign ads consist of character monologues during long single shots while engaging in random activities and addressing the female audience; the inaugural commercial, titled “And So It Begins”, lasts 1:02 minutes and introduces returning Old Spice actors Isaiah Mustafa as well as Terry Crews. This advertising campaign markets Timber Bar Soap. Isaiah Mustafa and Terry Crews returned in their recurring roles from previous Old Spice advertisements. Mustafa's character continues to target women despite marketing hygiene products for men as it was determined that women buy household products for men.

Terry Crews reprised his Old Spice character that targets the male audience as he is always screaming and breaking things. The theme of the campaign focuses on the contrast between the smooth-talking monologues by Isaiah Mustafa and screaming Terry Crews interrupting each other as they advertise Old Spice Timber and Bearglove respectively; the commercials end with the two men each holding up their respective products side by side and pointing at them with Crews yelling “Bearglove!” and Mustafa saying “stop it”. "The point of it is more than just bringing two guys together. It's about helping people who think about or use Old Spice pick the scent that best fits their personality by connecting scents with the personalities of Isaiah and Terry", said John Sebastian, marketing director for Old Spice; the initial commercial, titled “And So It Begins”, lasts 1:02 minutes and was released on August 6, 2015. The commercial was created by Jason Bagley and Craig Allen of Wieden+Kennedy Portland and directed by Tom Kuntz.

The commercial opens with a monologue by Isaiah Mustafa talking to the female audience about their men and embracing nature. In one shot, Mustafa moves from a bathroom to a forest to a jewelry store before moving to a canoe and being interrupted by Terry Crews who projectiles out of the water; the two men acknowledge appearing together in a commercial at the same time with the exchange “Guess who?”, “It’s you”, “it’s me, goodbye!” Crews stomps on the canoe, catapulting Mustafa out of the frame and screams “Don't use Timber, use Bearglove!” He continues screaming as he moves to a kitchen followed by the top of an erupting volcano and riding a motorcycle with five more of him and a tiger. To end the commercial, the motorcycle crashes into Mustafa's head as he says “stop it” and the camera closes in on the two products being held up Crews and Mustafa side by side. After 3 months of being released, the video on Old Spice's YouTube channel has garnered 11.6 million views and 53,000 likes on YouTube.

On September 14, 2015, 2 months after the release of the initial commercial, a complimentary video titled “Make a Smellmitment: Behind The Scenes” was uploaded on Old Spice's YouTube channel featuring Crews and Mustafa discussing the new campaign. Crews mentions that he knew there would be collaboration with Isaiah Mustafa following constant demand from the public to have the two actors work together for Old Spice commercials. Crews admits that he believed his role would be similar to Mustafa's as a smooth-talking ladies’ man yet was surprised to find out his character would be much different. Mustafa comments on how Crews’ commercials are seen as better for some because his commercials are directed at men. Terry Crews agrees by describing his character as rough and spicy while Mustafa's character is smooth and sweet, he goes on to say that the two characters complement each other. The video has the signature ending of the campaign as the two men hold up Timber and Bearglove products side by side pointing at them.

On August 13, 2015, the second video of the campaign was uploaded to Old Spice's YouTube channel, titled "Interruption". Isaiah Mustafa opened with a monologue about using Old Spice Swagger and Terry Crews appeared to interrupt Mustafa and scream “Bearglove!” the commercial takes place in a fancy hall with Mustafa in the middle of the frame while multiple miniature images of Terry Crews appear on the borders of the screen yelling “Bearglove!” The commercial ends with the familiar shot of Crews screaming “Bearglove!” and Mustafa saying “stop it”. The two men hold up the Old Spice products side by side but this time Crews blocks the product Mustafa is holding up with his own product. In 3 months, the second commercial of the advertising campaign has garnered 3 million views and 6,727 likes on YouTube; the Man Your Man Could Smell Like

Growl Towel

A Growl Towel is the colloquial name used to refer to the rally towels given to fans prior to National Basketball Association playoff games involving the Memphis Grizzlies. The original Growl Towels were given out from 2004 to 2006, when the Grizzlies made three straight playoffs. However, the Grizzlies were swept by their opponents in all three appearances, so only six different towels were made; the Grizzlies failed to make the playoffs for the next four seasons, so the Growl Towel was shelved. Starting with the 2013 Playoffs, the growl towels started to feature different captions in each game, in addition to the traditional "Believe Memphis" towel; the Nashville Company called"Something Inked", which specialises in custom promotional products, produces a new growl towel for each playoff game