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Erasure

Erasure are an English synth-pop duo, consisting of singer and songwriter Andy Bell and songwriter and keyboardist Vince Clarke. They formed in London in 1985, their debut single was "Who Needs Love Like That". With their fourth single, "Sometimes", the duo established themselves on the UK Singles Chart, becoming one of the most successful artists of the late 1980s to mid-1990s. From 1986 to 2007, Erasure achieved 24 consecutive Top 40 hits in the UK. By 2009, 34 of their 37 chart-eligible singles and EPs had made the UK Top 40, with 17 climbing into the Top 10. At the 1989 Brit Awards, Erasure won the Brit Award for Best British Group, they had three Top 20 US hits with the songs "A Little Respect", "Always", the highest charting US single being their 1988 single "Chains of Love", which hit #12 on the chart. The duo is most popular in their native UK and mainland Europe and in South America; the band is popular within the LGBT community, for whom the gay Bell has become an icon. Erasure have sold over 25 million albums worldwide.

As a teenager, Vince Clarke was inspired to make electronic music after hearing Wirral synth band Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark. He became a founding member of Depeche Mode and the sole writer of their first three singles, including the breakthrough Top 10 hit "Just Can't Get Enough". After leaving the band in late 1981, Clarke forged a notable career with the duo Yazoo. After two hit albums in as many years, he split with Yazoo partner Alison Moyet and formed the short-lived project The Assembly with producer Eric Radcliffe; the project spawned. Clarke released another single with vocalist Paul Quinn, "One Day", it flopped, leading Clarke to place an advertisement in Melody Maker looking for a vocalist for a new musical project. Peterborough-born Andy Bell got a call back a few days later. Bell practiced for the audition listening to Alison Moyet and the Banshees and the Communards, it went well, he was chosen. Clarke had been his hero. Erasure's first three singles were commercial failures in the UK, although the third, "Oh L'amour", charted well in Australia and a few European countries.

Their debut album, was recorded in 1985 and released in June 1986. Although it only made the UK Top 75, it made a sizeable mark in Germany, making the Top 20, it was with the release of their fourth single, "Sometimes", that Erasure received recognition in the UK in late 1986. The song peaked at number 2 in the UK and Germany and spent many weeks in the UK Top 40, marking the beginning of a long string of major hits for the duo; the single's parent album, The Circus, was released in March 1987 and reached number 6 and turned platinum in the UK with three additional hit singles: "It Doesn't Have To Be", "Victim of Love" and "The Circus". The album remained on the charts for over a year. Erasure's third album, The Innocents, was released in April 1988. Preceded by the Top 10 single "Ship of Fools", the album hit number 1 in the UK on its initial release and returned to the summit a year eventually going double platinum, it turned platinum in the U. S. generating two Top 20 hits in "Chains of Love" and "A Little Respect".

The Innocents was the first of five consecutive number 1 albums for Erasure in the UK, including the greatest hits compilation Pop! The First 20 Hits. In November 1988, the Crackers International EP, led by the song "Stop!", hit number 2 in the UK singles chart. The albums Wild! and Chorus both contained four Top 20 singles and were major sellers. Crackers International was bettered in 1992 by another EP, Abba-esque, covering four ABBA hits, which became Erasure's first number 1 in the UK Singles Chart, it featured a video of the duo dressed in ABBA outfits, was one of the principal drivers of the ABBA revival scene in the 1990s. In 1990, Erasure contributed the song "Too Darn Hot" to the Cole Porter tribute album Red Hot + Blue produced by the Red Hot Organization. In 1992, a singles compilation, Pop! The First 20 Hits hit number 1 and went triple platinum, featuring all the band's singles released from 1985 to 1992. In 1994, Erasure released I Say I Say I Say, their fifth consecutive number 1 in the UK Albums Chart.

Its first single, "Always", became the band's third Top 20 hit in the United States, next its second single, "Run to the Sun" was released in July and became their final UK Top 10 hit until 2003. Its third and final single, "I Love Saturday" was released in November; the October 1995 release of the album Erasure marked a determined shift away from Erasure's signature three-minute synthpop to a more introspective and experimental sound. It made the UK Top 15 and spawned two UK Top 20 singles, "Stay with Me" and "Fingers & Thumbs". A remixed version of "Rock Me Gently" was released only in Germany and the Czech Republic as the third single. In spite of a return to three-minute pop songs, the 1997 album Cowboy did not restore the success of their 1986–1994 era. Cowboy enjoyed a short-lived success, peaking at number 10 in the UK but lasting only two weeks in the UK Top 40. In the U. S. Billboard charts though, it was one of their most successful records; the first single "In My Arms" reached number 13 in the UK and entered the Top 2 in the U.

S. Dance chart; the second single "Don't Say Your Love Is Killing Me" made number 23 in the UK. The third single "Rain"

Lex Ripuaria

The Lex Ripuaria or Ribuaria is a 7th-century collection of Germanic law, the laws of the Ripuarian Franks. It is a major influence on the Lex Saxonum of AD 802; the Lex Ripuaria originated about 630 around Cologne and has been described as a development of the Frankish laws known from Lex Salica. The 35 surviving manuscripts, as well as those now lost which served as the basis of the old editions, do not go back beyond the time of Charlemagne. In all these MSS. the text is identical, but it is a revised text - in other words, we have only a lex emendata. On analysis, the law of the Ripuarians, which contains 89 chapters, falls into three heterogeneous divisions. Chapters 1-31 consist of a scale of compositions. Chapters 32-64 are taken directly from the Salic Law. Chapters 65-89 consist of provisions of various kinds, some taken from lost capitularies and from the Salic Law, others of unknown origin; the compilation goes back to the reign of Dagobert I, to a time when the power of the mayors of the palace was still minimal, since we read of a mayor being threatened with the death penalty for taking bribes in the course of his judicial duties.

It is probable, that the first two parts are older than the third. In the Ripuarian Law the divergences from the old Germanic law are greater than in the Salic Law. In the Ripuarian Law a certain importance attaches to written deeds. R. Sohm, "Monumenta Germaniae", Leges V This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Pfister, Christian. "Salic Law". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 68–69. Information on the lex Ribuaria and its manuscript tradition on the Bibliotheca legum regni Francorum manuscripta website, A database on Carolingian secular law texts. Paris, BN, lat. 4404 Lex Salica

Beaumont Hotham, 3rd Baron Hotham

Beaumont Hotham, 3rd Baron Hotham, was a British soldier and long-standing Conservative Member of Parliament. Hotham was the son of Lieutenant-Colonel Beaumont Hotham of South Dalton, East Riding of Yorkshire and Philadelphia Dyke, his father died. He was educated at Westminster School, he joined the army as an Ensign in the Coldstream Guards in 1810, was promoted to captain in 1813, major in 1819, lieut.-colonel in 1825. He fought in the Peninsular campaign of 1812–1814, including the Battle of Salamanca and the Battle of Vitoria and was at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In 1814 he succeeded his grandfather as third Baron Hotham, but as this was an Irish peerage it did not entitle him to a seat in the House of Lords, he was instead elected to the House of Commons for Leominster in 1820, a seat he held, with a brief exception for a few months in 1831, until 1841, represented the East Riding of Yorkshire between 1841 and 1868. By the time he retired from the House of Commons he was one of the longest-serving Members of Parliament.

In 1771 he rebuilt at his own expense the Parish Church of South Dalton near to the family seat of Dalton Hall. Lord Hotham died in December 1870, aged 76, was buried in his church at South Dalton, he never was succeeded in his titles and estates by his nephew Charles. "HOTHAM, Beaumont, 3rd Bar. Hotham, of South Dalton, Yorks. and 36 Davies Street, Mdx". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 17 March 2013. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Hotham