Texas Ranger Division
The Texas Ranger Division called the Texas Rangers, is a U. S statewide investigative law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin. Over the years, the Texas Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption, acted in riot control and as detectives, protected the governor of Texas, tracked down fugitives, functioned as a paramilitary force at the service of both the Republic and the state of Texas; the Texas Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F. Austin in a call-to-arms written in 1823 and were first headed by Captain Morris. After a decade, on August 10, 1835, Daniel Parker introduced a resolution to the Permanent Council creating a body of rangers to protect the border; the unit was dissolved by the federal authorities during the post–Civil War Reconstruction Era, but was reformed upon the reinstitution of home government. Since 1935, the organization has been a division of the Texas Department of Public Safety.
As of 2015, there are 162 commissioned members of the Ranger force. The Rangers have taken part in many of the most important events of Texas history, such as stopping the assassination of presidents William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz in El Paso, in some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old West, such as those of gunfighter John Wesley Hardin, bank robber Sam Bass, outlaws Bonnie and Clyde. Scores of books have been written about the Rangers, from well-researched works of nonfiction to pulp novels and other such fiction, making the Rangers significant participants in the mythology of the Wild West; the Lone Ranger the best-known example of a Texas Ranger–derived fictional character, draws his alias from having once been a Texas Ranger. Other well-known examples include. During their mixed history, a distinct Ranger tradition has evolved. There is a museum dedicated to the Texas Rangers in Texas; the rangers were founded in 1823 when Stephen F. Austin, known as the Father of Texas, employed ten men to act as rangers to protect 600 to 700 newly settled families who arrived in Texas following the Mexican War of Independence.
While there is some discussion as to when Austin employed men as "rangers", Texas Ranger lore dates the year of their organization to this event. The Texas Rangers were formally constituted in 1835 and, in November, Robert McAlpin Williamson was chosen to be the first Major of the Texas Rangers. Within two years the Rangers comprised more than 300 men. Following the Texas Revolution and the creation of the Republic of Texas, newly elected president Mirabeau B. Lamar, raised a force of 56 Rangers to fight the Cherokee and the Comanche in retaliation for the support they had given the Mexicans at the Cordova Rebellion against the Republic. Ten rangers were killed in the Battle of Stone Houses in 1837; the size of the Ranger force was increased from 56 to 150 men by Sam Houston, as President of the Republic, in 1841, The Rangers continued to participate in skirmishes with Native Americans through 1846, when the annexation of Texas to the United States and the Mexican–American War saw several companies of Rangers mustered into federal service.
They played important roles at various battles, acting as guides and participating in Counter-guerrilla warfare, soon establishing a fearsome reputation among both Mexicans and Americans. At the Battle of Monterrey in September 1846, famous Texas Rangers such as John Coffee "Jack" Hays, Ben McCulloch, Bigfoot Wallace, Samuel Hamilton Walker played important roles in the battle, to include advising General William Jenkins Worth on the tactics required to fight inside a Mexican city. Richard Addison Gillespie, a famed Texas Ranger, died at Monterrey, General Worth renamed a hill "Mount Gillespie" after him. Colonel Hays organized a second regiment of Texas Rangers, including Rip Ford, who fought with General Winfield Scott in his Mexico City Campaign and the Anti-guerrilla campaign along his line of communications to Vera Cruz. John Jackson Tumlinson Sr. the first alcalde of the Colorado district, is considered by many Texas Ranger historians to be the first Texas Ranger killed in the line of duty.
One of his most urgent issues was protection of settlers from murder by marauders. On his way to San Antonio, in 1823, to discuss the issue with the governor, Tumlinson was killed by Native Americans, his traveling companion, a Mr. Newman, escaped. Tumlinson's body was never found. Following the end of the war in 1848, the Rangers were disbanded, but the election of Hardin Richard Runnels as governor in 1857 meant $70,000 was allocated to fund the Rangers under John Salmon "Rip" Ford, a veteran of the Mexican war; the now 100-strong Rangers participated in campaigns against the Comanche and other tribes, whose raids against the settlers and their properties had become common. Ford and his Rangers fought the Comanche in the Battle of Little Robe Creek in 1858 and Juan Cortina in the Battle of Rio Grande City the following year; the success of a series of campaigns in the 1860s marked a turning point in Rangers' history. The U. S. Army could provide only limited and thinly-stretched protection in the enormous territory of Texas.
By contrast, the Rangers' effectiveness when dealing with these threats convinced both the people of the state and the political leaders that a well-funded and organized state Ranger force was essential. Such a force could use the deep fa
Harrison County, Texas
Harrison County is a county on the eastern border of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 65,631; the county seat is Marshall. The county was created in 1839 and organized in 1842, it is named for a lawyer and Texas revolutionary. Harrison County comprises the Marshall, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Longview–Marshall, TX Combined Statistical Area, it is located in the Ark-La-Tex region. Conservative whites in Harrison County have left the Democratic party for the Republican Party, as has happened across the South; the county is represented in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Chris Paddie, a former Marshall mayor. Settlement by United States citizens began in present-day Harrison County during the 1830s. In 1835, the Mexican authorities granted a dozen land grants to immigrants from the United States. After the Texas Revolution, the Congress of the Texas Republic established Harrison County in 1839, formed from Shelby County. Harrison County was named for Texas Revolutionary Jonas Harrison.
The county was organized in 1842. The county's area was reduced following the establishment of Panola and Upshur counties. Marshall was established in 1841, became the county seat in 1842; the area was settled predominately by planters from the Southern United States, who developed this area for cotton plantations and brought African-American slaves with them for labor, or purchased them at regional markets. The planters repeated much of their society here. East Texas was the location of most cotton plantations in the state and, correspondingly, of most of the enslaved African Americans. By 1850, landowners in Harrison County held more slaves than in any other county in Texas until the end of the Civil War; the census of 1860 counted 8,746 slaves in 59 % of the county's total population. In 1861, the county's voters overwhelmingly supported secession. Following defeat at the end of the war, the county was part of an area occupied by Federal troops under Reconstruction; the white minority in the county bitterly resented federal authority and giving the franchise to freedmen, who elected a bi-racial county government dominated by Republican Party officeholders.
Republican dominance in local offices continued in the county until 1880, but the conservative whites of the Democratic Party regained control of the state government before the official end of Reconstruction. In 1880, the Citizen's Party of Harrison County, amid charges of fraud and coercion, gained control of elected positions in the county government after winning on a technicality, which involved hiding a key ballot box, they retained such control of the county into the 1950s, aided by the state's disenfranchisement of blacks at the turn of the century. In the 1870s the county's non-agricultural sector increased when the Texas and Pacific Railway located its headquarters and shops in Marshall, it stimulated other industry and manufacturing in the county, aided the transportation of the important cotton crop to market. But from 1880 to 1930, Harrison County remained agricultural and rural, it had a 60 percent black majority through 1930. Most of the African Americans worked as tenant sharecroppers.
White violence against blacks rose during this period, as they struggled to maintain social dominance. Starting in 1870, this was the period of the most lynchings of African Americans throughout the South. Harrison County had a total of 14 such lynchings, most committed in the early 20th century in the 1910s when the county suffered economic hard times. Whites "did not lynch in lieu of ineffective courts, but instead demonstrated to the black majority that legal protection and rights were inaccessible to blacks". Blacks accused of violence against law enforcement or from outside the county were at risk; the Texas legislature disenfranchised most blacks in 1901 by requiring poll taxes and authorizing white primaries This disenfranchisement extended into the late 1960s, after national civil rights legislation was passed to enforce these citizens' civil rights. In 1928, oil was discovered in the county, its exploitation and processing made a significant contribution to the economy. The Great Depression of the 1930s hit decimating the agricultural sector.
World War II brought an end to the depression. As the defense industry built up in major cities and on the West Coast, from 1940 to 1970, more than 4.5 million blacks migrated from Harrison and other Texas counties as well as from Louisiana and other southern states. They moved to the West Coast in the second wave of the Great Migration, attracted to new jobs in the expanding defense industry; the population of the county declined until 1980. White population increases by migration from other areas has resulted in a majority-white population. White conservative voters have become overwhelmingly Republican in the realignment of parties in the South since the late 20th century. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 916 square miles, of which 900 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water; the northern and eastern parts of the county are drained to the Red River in Louisiana by Little Cypress Creek, Cypress Bayou, Caddo Lake. The other third of the county is drained by the Sabine River, which forms a part of its southern boundary.
These waterways were critical to early transportation in the county. Marion County Caddo Parish, Louisiana Panola County Rusk County Gregg County Upshur County The TTC-69 comp
The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes. Their ancestors inhabited much of what is now East Texas and portions of southern Arkansas and Oklahoma, they were descendants of the Caddoan Mississippian culture that constructed huge earthwork mounds at several sites in this territory. In the early 19th century, Caddo people were forced to a reservation in Texas. Today, the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma is a federally recognized tribe with its capital at Binger, Oklahoma. Descendants of the historic Caddo tribes, with documentation of at least 1⁄16 ancestry, are eligible to enroll as members in the Caddo Nation; the several Caddo languages have converged into a single language. The Caddo Nation was known as the Caddo Tribe of Oklahoma; the tribal constitution provides for election of an eight-person council, with a chairperson, based in Binger, Oklahoma. The tribe issues its own tribal vehicle tags, it operates an administrative center, dance grounds, several community centers, the Caddo Nation Heritage Museum, an active NAGPRA office, located south of Binger.
As of 2012, 5,757 people are enrolled with 3,044 living within the state of Oklahoma. Individuals are required to document at least 1/16 Caddo ancestry. In July 2016, Tamara M. Francis was re-elected as the Chairman of the Caddo Nation. Chairman Tamara Francis is the daughter of the first elected female Mary Pat Francis, she is the fourth elected female leader of the Caddo Nation. The council consists of: Chairman: Tamara M. Francis Vice-Chairman: Carol D. Ross Acting Secretary: Philip Martin Treasurer: Marilyn McDonald Oklahoma City Representative: Jennifer Wilson Binger Representative; the tribe has several programs to invigorate Caddo culture. It sponsors a summer culture camp for children; the Hasinai Society and Caddo Culture Club both teach and perform Caddo songs and dances to keep the tradition alive and pass it on to the next generations. The Kiwat Hasinay Foundation is dedicated to increasing use of the Caddo language; the Caddo are thought to be an extension of Woodland period peoples, the Fourche Maline and Mossy Grove cultures, whose members were living in the area of Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas between 200 BCE and 800 CE.
The Wichita and Pawnee are related to the Caddo. By 800 CE, this society had begun to coalesce into the Caddoan Mississippian culture; some villages began to gain prominence as ritual centers. Leaders directed the construction of major earthworks, serving as temple mounds and platforms for residences of the elite; the flat-topped mounds were arranged around leveled, open plazas, which were kept swept clean and were used for ceremonial occasions. As complex religious and social ideas developed, some people and family lineages gained prominence over others. By 1000 CE, a society, defined by archaeologists as "Caddoan" had emerged. By 1200, the many villages and farmsteads established throughout the Caddo world had developed extensive maize agriculture, producing a surplus that allowed for greater density of settlement. In these villages and craftsmen developed specialties; the artistic skills and earthwork mound-building of the Caddoan Mississippians flourished during the 12th and 13th centuries.
The Spiro Mounds, near the Arkansas River in present-day southeastern Oklahoma, were some of the most elaborate mounds in the United States. They were made by Mississippian ancestors of the historic Caddo and Wichita tribes, in what is considered the westernmost point of the Mississippian culture; the Caddo enjoyed good growing conditions most of the time. The Piney Woods, the geographic area where they lived, was affected by the Great Drought from 1276–1299 CE, which covered an area extending to present-day California and disrupted many Native American cultures. Archeological evidence has confirmed that the cultural continuity is unbroken from prehistory to the present among these peoples; the Caddoan Mississippian people were the direct ancestors of the historic Caddo people and related Caddo-language speakers who encountered the first Europeans, as well as of the modern Caddo Nation of Oklahoma. Caddo oral history of their creation story says the tribe emerged from a cave, called Chahkanina or "the place of crying," located at the confluence of the Red River of the South and Mississippi River in northern present-day Louisiana.
Their leader, named Moon, instructed the people not to look back. An old Caddo man carried with him a drum, a pipe, fire, all of which have continued to be important religious items to the people, his wife carried pumpkin seeds. As people and accompanying animals emerged, the wolf looked back; the exit from the underground closed to animals. The Caddo peoples moved west along the Red River. A Caddo woman, instructed the tribe in hunting, home construction, making clothing. Caddo religion focuses on Kadhi háyuh, translating to "Lord Above" or "Lord of the Sky." In early times, the people were led by priests, including a head priest, the xinesi, who could commune with spirits residing near Caddo temples. A cycle of ceremonies developed around important periods of corn cultivation. Tobacco is used ceremonially. Early priests drank a purifying sacrament made of wild olive leaves. Centuries before extensive European contact, some of the Caddo territory was invaded by migrating Dhegihan-speaking peoples, Ponca and Kaw, who moved west beginning about 1200 due to years
Bosque County, Texas
Bosque County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,212, its county seat is Meridian, while Clifton is the largest city and the cultural/financial center of the county. The county is named for the Bosque River, which runs through the center of the county north to south; the Brazos River makes up the eastern border along with the Lake Whitney reservoir. Since 2015, Bosque County has been represented in the Texas House of Representatives by the Republican DeWayne Burns; the previous 10-year representative was the Republican Rob Orr of Burleson. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,003 square miles, of which 983 square miles is land and 20 square miles is water. State Highway 6 State Highway 22 State Highway 144 State Highway 174 Somervell County Johnson County Hill County McLennan County Coryell County Hamilton County Erath County As of the census of 2000, there were 17,204 people, 6,726 households, 4,856 families residing in the county.
The population density was 17 people per square mile. There were 8,644 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.75% White, 1.92% Black or African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 5.17% from other races, 1.47% from two or more races. 12.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,726 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.6% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.95. A Williams Institute analysis of 2010 census data found there were about 2.5 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 20.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,181, the median income for a family was $40,763. Males had a median income of $31,669 versus $21,739 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,455. About 8.9% of families and 12.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.8% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over. Bosque County is listed as part of the Dallas-Fort Worth DMA. Local media outlets include: KDFW-TV, KXAS-TV, WFAA-TV, KTVT-TV, KERA-TV, KTXA-TV, KDFI-TV, KDAF-TV, KFWD-TV. Although located in Central Texas and a neighboring county of the Waco and Killeen – Temple – Fort Hood metropolitan areas. Meaning all of the Waco/Temple/Killeen market stations provide coverage for Bosque County, they include: KCEN-TV, KWTX-TV, KXXV-TV, KDYW, KWKT-TV. Clifton Cranfills Gap Iredell Meridian Morgan Valley Mills Walnut Springs Laguna Park Cayote Kopperl Mosheim Womack Norse Jacob De Cordova, land agent, Texas House of Representatives, 1808–1868 Calvin M. Cureton, Texas Attorney General from 1919 to 1921, Texas Chief Justice 1921-1940.
James T. Draper, Jr. Texas Southern Baptist clergyman was a pastor in Iredell in Bosque County in the late 1950s. James E. Ferguson 26th Governor of Texas. Miriam A. Ferguson, James' wife and the 29th and 32nd Governor of Texas. Earle B. Mayfield, Texas State Senator, United States Senator. John Lomax, American musicologist and folklorist. National Register of Historic Places listings in Bosque County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Bosque County Bosque County History Book Committee, Bosque County and People. Bosquerama, 1854-1954: Centennial Celebration of Bosque County, Texas. William C. Pool, A History of Bosque County. William C. Pool, Bosque Territory. Official website for Bosque County Bosque County, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online Bosque County from the Texas Almanac Bosque County from the TXGenWeb Project Bosque County Collection The Archives of the Bosque County Historical Commission. View historic materials from the Bosque County Historical Commission, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
Texas's 25th congressional district
Texas District 25 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that stretches from Fort Worth to Austin. The current Representative from District 25 is Roger Williams. For the 2004 elections, it had an elongated shape stretching from deep south Texas at the U. S.-Mexico border to Austin as a result of mid-decade 2003 gerrymandering of Texas congressional districts. The district was redrawn again for the 2006 elections as the result of a lawsuit. In July 2011, Texas Governor Rick Perry signed into law a redistricting plan, approved by the Texas legislature in June, which gave the 25th district a different geography for the 2012 elections, including part of Travis County, stretching north as far as southern Tarrant County near Fort Worth; the redistricting split Travis County into five districts, four of which were Republican. As a result, the only realistic place for Representative Lloyd Doggett to run was the new 35th district. For a number of years, there was a consolidated lawsuit against the redistricting.
In March 2017, a panel of federal judges ruled that the new 35th district and two others were illegally drawn with discriminatory intent. However, the district was allowed to stand in the Supreme Court's 2018 Perez ruling. On June 28, 2006, the U. S. Supreme Court declared that the Texas legislature's 2003 redistricting plan violated the Voting Rights Act in the case of District 23; the main basis for the ruling was that the old 23rd was a protected majority-Hispanic district—in other words, if the 23rd was redrawn in a way to put Hispanics in a minority, a new majority-Hispanic district had to be created. Since the 25th was not compact enough to be an acceptable replacement, the 23rd had to be struck down; the size of the 23rd required the redrawing of nearly every district from El Paso to San Antonio. As a result, on August 4, 2006, a three-judge panel announced replacement district boundaries for 2006 election for the 23rd district, as well as for the 15th, 21st, 25th and 28th districts. On election day in November, these five districts held open primaries.
Otherwise, a runoff election in December decided the seat. The redrawn 25th was more compact and restricted to Central Texas, comprising more of Travis County, most of Bastrop County, all of Hays, Fayette, Gonzales and Colorado Counties. Incumbent congressman Doggett faced Republican Grant Rostig, independent candidate Brian Parrett, Libertarian Party Barbara Cunningham, won re-election. In the 2008 election Doggett faced Republican George Morovich, a structural engineer from La Grange and Libertarian Jim Stutsman, a retired Army veteran. Doggett won with 65.8% of the vote to Morovich's 30.5% and Stutsman's 3.7%. Doggett won 73.8% of the vote in his Austin-based stronghold of Travis County. Dogget faced Republican and "Tea Party favorite" Donna Campbell, again held his seat, though by a small margin; the new district boundaries were more favorable to Republicans. Julie Oliver ran a strong campaign against incumbent Roger Williams, but fell short. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Lee County, Texas
Lee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 16,612, its county seat is Giddings. The county is named for the first settler of the area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 634 square miles, of which 629 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 77 U. S. Highway 290 State Highway 21 Milam County Burleson County Washington County Fayette County Bastrop County Williamson County As of the census of 2000, there were 15,657 people, 5,663 households, 4,150 families residing in the county; the population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 6,851 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.59% White, 12.08% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 8.87% from other races, 1.72% from two or more races. 18.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 35.5% were of German and 8.3% American ancestry according to Census 2000.
80.1% spoke English, 14.4% Spanish and 5.1% German as their first language. There were 5,663 households out of which 35.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.00% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families. 23.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.80% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 26.30% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,280, the median income for a family was $42,073. Males had a median income of $30,635 versus $21,611 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,163.
About 9.70% of families and 11.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.70% of those under age 18 and 16.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, Lee County has a similar ethnic makeup relative to the overall United States. Lee County was Democratic, although less so than the majority of Texas as it was somewhat allied with the isolated Republican German-American Unionist stronghold centred upon Gillespie and Kendall Counties, it nonetheless voted Democratic in every election up to 1976 except the landslide Republican triumphs of 1956 and 1972, plus the war-influenced elections of 1916 and 1940 when its German-American population was suspicious of the Democratic Party's position towards Germany. Since 1980, like all of the rural White South, Lee County has become powerfully Republican. No Democratic Presidential candidate has won a majority in the county since Jimmy Carter in 1976, although during the drought- and farm crisis-dominated 1988 election Michael Dukakis won a fourteen-vote plurality.
In the past five elections the GOP candidate has always passed two third of the county's vote and Donald Trump exceeded three-quarters in 2016. The Texas Youth Commission operates the Giddings State School in unincorporated Lee County, near Giddings; as of 2004 the Giddings State School, a Texas Youth Commission facility, was Lee County's largest employer. Giddings Lexington Corinth Dime Box Hills Lincoln Old Dime Box Serbin List of memorials to Robert E. Lee National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Lee County Lee County Lee County from the Handbook of Texas Online