click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity. ED can have psychological consequences as it can be tied to relationship difficulties and self-image. A physical cause can be identified in about 80% of cases; these include cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, neurological problems such as following prostatectomy and drug side effects. Psychological impotence is where penetration fails due to thoughts or feelings. In psychological impotence, there is a strong response to placebo treatment; the term erectile dysfunction is not used for other disorders such as priapism. Treatment involves addressing the underlying causes, lifestyle modifications, addressing psychosocial issues. In many cases, a trial of pharmacological therapy with a PDE5 inhibitor, such as sildenafil, can be attempted. In some cases, treatment can involve inserting prostaglandin pellets into the urethra, injecting smooth muscle relaxants and vasodilators into the penis, a penile implant, a penis pump, or vascular reconstructive surgery.

It is the most common sexual problem in men. ED is characterized by the regular or repeated inability to achieve or maintain an erection of sufficient rigidity to accomplish sexual activity, it is defined as the "persistent or recurrent inability to achieve and maintain a penile erection of sufficient rigidity to permit satisfactory sexual activity for at least 3 months." ED has an impact on the emotional well-being of both men and their partners. Many men do not seek treatment due to feelings of embarrassment. About 75% of diagnosed cases of ED go untreated. Causes of or contributors to ED include the following: Prescription drugs Neurogenic disorders Cavernosal disorders Hyperprolactinemia Psychological causes: performance anxiety and mental disorders Surgery Aging: It is four times more common in men aged in their 60s than those in their 40s. Kidney failure Lifestyle habits smoking, a key risk factor for ED as it promotes arterial narrowing. Surgical intervention for a number of conditions may remove anatomical structures necessary to erection, damage nerves, or impair blood supply.

ED is a common complication of treatments for prostate cancer, including prostatectomy and destruction of the prostate by external beam radiation, although the prostate gland itself is not necessary to achieve an erection. As far as inguinal hernia surgery is concerned, in most cases, in the absence of postoperative complications, the operative repair can lead to a recovery of the sexual life of people with preoperative sexual dysfunction, while, in most cases, it does not affect people with a preoperative normal sexual life. ED can be associated with bicycling due to both neurological and vascular problems due to compression; the increase risk appears to be about 1.7-fold. Concerns that use of pornography can cause ED have little support in epidemiological studies, according to a 2015 literature review. Penile erection is managed by two mechanisms: the reflex erection, achieved by directly touching the penile shaft, the psychogenic erection, achieved by erotic or emotional stimuli; the former involves the peripheral nerves and the lower parts of the spinal cord, whereas the latter involves the limbic system of the brain.

In both cases, an intact neural system is required for a complete erection. Stimulation of the penile shaft by the nervous system leads to the secretion of nitric oxide, which causes the relaxation of the smooth muscles of the corpora cavernosa, subsequently penile erection. Additionally, adequate levels of testosterone and an intact pituitary gland are required for the development of a healthy erectile system; as can be understood from the mechanisms of a normal erection, impotence may develop due to hormonal deficiency, disorders of the neural system, lack of adequate penile blood supply or psychological problems. Spinal cord injury causes sexual dysfunction, including ED. Restriction of blood flow can arise from impaired endothelial function due to the usual causes associated with coronary artery disease, but can be caused by prolonged exposure to bright light. In many cases, the diagnosis can be made based on the person's history of symptoms. In other cases, a physical examination and laboratory investigations are done to rule out more serious causes such as hypogonadism or prolactinoma.

One of the first steps is to distinguish between physiological and psychological ED. Determining whether involuntary erections are present is important in eliminating the possibility of psychogenic causes for ED. Obtaining full erections such as nocturnal penile tumescence when asleep, tends to suggest that the physical structures are functionally working. Performance with manual stimulation, as well as any performance anxiety or acute situational ED, may indicate a psychogenic component to ED. Other factors leading to ED are diabetes mellitus, a well-known cause of neuropathy). ED is related to poor physical health, poor dietary habits and most cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular

Violin Sonata No. 10 (Ries)

Ferdinand Ries's Violin Sonata in F minor, Op. 19, was published in 1810 by Simrock with a dedication to two friends, Franz Christian Kirchhoffer and composer Ludwig Wilhelm Maurer. As with all of the composers published violin sonatas the work is, like many of the composers flute sonatas, for piano with the second instrument, in this case the violin providing accompaniment; the sonata is in three movements: Largo espressivo – Allegro agitato Andante Rondo: AllegroTypical performances should take around 30 minutes. In the notes to the Naxos recording, Susan Kagan, draws comparisons between this composition and Beethoven's Appassionata Sonata, published about three years earlier, claiming that the two works share a similar mood. Phillip Buttall in his review of the recording agreed with this assessment adding that the introduction to the first movement appears to have been inspired by the opening of the Pathetique Sonata. Ralph Graves, in his review of the album, disagreed with both Kagan and Buttall, noting that the work is much more restrained than either of the Beethoven sonatas due to the fact that the composer was writing for French audiences and publication for amateur performers rather than the concert hall.

He regarded the sonata as the most effective of the three recorded because by that time the composer had more experience in the composition of this type of work compared with the two Op. 8 sonatas on the album. Notes SourcesButtall, Philip R.. "Review: Ferdinand Ries: Violin Sonatas Vol. 1". Musicweb International. Retrieved 2019-08-17. Graves, Ralph. "Ferdinand Ries Violin Sonatas – Elegant and refined". WTJU FM. Retrieved 2019-08-17. Hill, Cecil. Ferdinand Ries: A Thematic Catalogue. Armidale, New South Wales: University of New England. ISBN 0-85834-156-5. Hill, Cecil. Ferdinand Ries. A Study and Addenda. Armidale, New South Wales: University of New England. ISSN 0314-5999. Kagan, Susan. Ries F: Violin Sonatas Vol. 1: Op. 8, Nos. 1-2 and Op. 19. Naxos Records. 8.573193. Violin Sonata in F minor, Op. 19: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project

Nashville, Mississippi

Nashville is a ghost town in Lowndes County, United States. Located 1.4 mi west of the Alabama state line, on the east bank of the Tombigbee River, Nashville was once an important shipping port and river crossing location. The site was settled by Daniel Young, a blacksmith, in 1824, the place became known as "Young's Bluff". In 1833, a road was constructed west from Young's Bluff to intersect the Robinson Road, another was constructed east into Alabama. Road traffic passed through the community and crossed the river on a ferry owned by Young. Another early settler, Nimrod N. Nash, opened a store there, purchased Young's property in 1834, he renamed the town "Nashville", sold lots to settlers. In addition to the successful ferry service, Nashville's stores supplied local farmers with goods, it had a post office established in 1837, its port had facilities to store cotton until steamboats arrived in the late autumn-early winter, when water level would rise. Despite this, Nashville never experienced significant growth, the town did not incorporate.

It never had more than two stores, in census of 1840, the population was about 55 whites, an undetermined number of slaves. A river flood devastated the low-lying town in 1847, by 1850, there was one store left; the post office closed in 1852, the Nashville voting precinct ended the following year. Many of the homes were soon abandoned. Nashville continued to serve as a minor shipping port until the Civil War, the Nashville Ferry continued to operate until between 1967 and 1973; the river at this site is now part of the Tennessee–Tombigbee Waterway, numerous cottages line the east bank. A private boat launch known as "Nashville Ferry" is located there, roads leading to the waterway on both shores are named "Nashville Ferry Road"

Angle Light

Angle Light was an American Thoroughbred racehorse. Angle Light was bred by Howard B. Noonan and Runnymede was purchased and raced by Edwin Whittaker, he was sired by 1964 Belmont Stakes winner Quadrangle, out of the mare Pilot Light. He was trained by future U. S. Racing Hall of Fame inductee Lucien Laurin. Angle Light remains best known for winning the April 21, 1973, Wood Memorial Stakes at Aqueduct Racetrack in Ozone Park, New York. Stablemate, the reigning American Champion Two-Year-Old Colt and early favorite to win that May's Kentucky Derby, entered the race as a better than even-money favorite. However, unknown to most race fans, Secretariat had contracted a minor illness in the weeks before the Wood. Angle Light, a true speed horse who never won a race without an early lead, ran wire-to-wire under Jacinto Vasquez, with Sham finishing second and Secretariat in third. Angle Light finished. Angle Light retired from racing with a record of 4-4-3 in 21 starts and earned $194,986, he is the only horse to defeat both Sham in the same race.

After his retirement from racing, Angle Light stood as a stallion at Blue Ridge Farm in Virginia. He died at Flag's Up Farm. Nack, William. Secretariat: The Making of a Champion Da Capo Press ISBN 978-0-306-81133-3 Angle Light's pedigree and partial racing stats Information on Angle Light at Runnymede Farm Video at YouTube of Angle Light winning the 1973 Wood Memorial Stakes

Overseas Investment Amendment Act 2018

The Overseas Investment Amendment Act 2018 is a bill that amends the Overseas Investment Act 2005 to ban most non-resident foreigners from buying existing houses, by classifying them as sensitive land and introducing a residency test. Australian citizens are exempt from this rule as they are considered New Zealand residents per the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement. Singaporean citizens are exempt due to free trade rules; the Overseas Investment Amendment Act was supported by the Labour–led coalition government but was opposed by the opposition centre-right National and libertarian ACT parties. It received royal assent on 22 August; the Overseas Investment Amendment Act 2018 amends the Overseas Investment Act 2005 to ensure that investments made by foreign persons benefit New Zealand. The Act would enhance the information-gathering and enforcement powers of the Overseas Investment Office, responsible for administering the Act; the Act amends the definition of "ordinarily resident in New Zealand" to require that they be permanent resident visa holders.

Resident visa holders are not considered "ordinarily resident in New Zealand" under this amendment. Clause 11 of the Act allows overseas persons to purchase residential land if it is used to increase the supply of housing in New Zealand. Properties built on land purchased under this pathway must not be inhabited by the owner and must be sold once they have been built; the Overseas Investment Amendment Act would require overseas buyers to seek approval from the Overseas Investment Office to purchase hotel units if the land was classified as "residential" or "lifestyle." Overseas investors are allowed to purchase and own units in hotels with more than 20 units provided they enter into a lease-back arrangement with the hotel's developer or operator. The Act allows network utility operators such as electricity and gas distributors, telecommunications companies, transmission network operators to acquire land without consent for business purposes; the Act allows overseas persons to take leases of up to five years over residential land, not classified as "sensitive land."

The Act has provisions for introducing a "streamlined approval path" for businesses to either purchase residential land for non-residential purposes or for residential purposes to support a business. Such purchases would be subject to conditions imposed by the Minister of Trade and Export Growth to ensure that the land is being used for the purposes it was purchased for; the Act imposes a fine of up to NZ$20,000 for those failing to comply with the Act's sections. In addition, the Act covers overseas investments in sensitive land that involve forestry rights and establishes new tests for consent where an overseas investment in sensitive land relates to forestry; the Overseas Investment Amendment Act 2018 was the result of an acute housing shortage in New Zealand during the early 21st century. In addition, national housing prices rose faster than incomes, with the gap rising from over 3.0 in January 2002 to 6.27 in March 2017. In 2017, a report by the International Monetary Fund ranked New Zealand as the most unaffordable country in the OECD and recommended the taxation of property speculation.

That same year, the Demographia think-tank ranked Auckland's housing market the fourth-most unaffordable in the world — behind Hong Kong and Vancouver — with median house prices rising from 6.4 times the median income in 2008 to 10 times in 2017. The housing shortage was a major issue during the 2017 general election; the incumbent National Party campaigned to build 200,000 houses over the next six years while the opposition Labour Party vowed to build 100,000 houses over the next decade as part of its KiwiBuild scheme. The populist New Zealand First promised to restrict foreign investment and the sale of houses and farmland to New Zealand citizens and permanent residents. Labour campaigned on banning foreign speculators from buying existing houses, taxing property speculators, making it easier for first-time buyers to purchase homes. Following the 2017 general election held on 23 September 2017, none of the parties in the New Zealand House of Representatives had enough seats to govern alone.

After several weeks of negotiations, the Labour and New Zealand First parties formed a coalition government on 19 October, with a confidence and supply agreement with the Green Party. On 14 December, the Overseas Investment Amendment Bill was introduced by Labour Member of Parliament David Parker. On 19 December, the Bill passed its first reading in with the support of Labour, NZ First, the Greens parties while the opposition National Party voted against the bill; the Overseas Investment Amendment Bill passed the select committee stage on 18 June 2018. On 26 June, the Bill passed its second reading with the support of Labour, NZ First, the Greens. National and the libertarian ACT party voted against the bill. On 15 August, the Bill passed its third reading with the support of the Labour-led coalition while the National and ACT parties opposed the bill; the Overseas Investment Amendment Act received royal assent on 22 August. Parker, David. "Overseas Investment Amendment Bill". New Zealand Parliament.

Retrieved 25 August 2018. "Overseas Investment Amendment Act". New Zealand Legislation. Parliamentary Counsel Office. Retrieved 25 August 2018

Hokkoku Kaidō

The Hokkoku Kaidō was a highway in Japan during the Edo period. It was a secondary route, ranked below the Edo Five Routes in importance; because it was developed for travelers going to Zenkō-ji, it was called Zenkō-ji Kaidō. It stretched from the Nakasendō's Oiwake-juku to the Hokurikudō's Takada-shuku. Nowadays, the route is traced by Route 18, stretching between the town of Karuizawa and the city of Jōetsu. Although it ranked below the five major routes, the Hokkoku Kaidō was an important link between the Kantō region and the Sea of Japan side of Honshu, it carried marine products and gold from the mines on Sado. Daimyō from the Hokuriku region travelled it on their sankin kōtai journeys between their feifs and Edo. Though there were 25 post stations along the Hokkoku Kaidō, some of the stations were paired stations. Additionally, Nezumi-shuku and Shinonoi Oiwake-shuku were mid stations (ai no shuku, at which stayovers were not permitted, reducing the number where travellers could stay to 17.

The stations are divided by present-day prefectures below, with the municipality in parentheses. Starting Location: Oiwake-juku 1. Komoro-shuku 2. Tanaka-juku and Unno-juku 3. Ueda-shuku Nezumi-shuku 4. Sakaki-shuku 5. Kami Kurashina-shuku and Shimo Kurashina-juku 6. Yashiro-shuku Shinonoi Oiwake-shuku 7. Tanbajima-shuku 8. Zenkōji-shuku 9. Shinmachi-shuku 10. Mure-juku 11. Furuma-shuku and Kashiwabara-juku 12. Nojiri-shuku 13. Sekigawa-shuku and Uehara-juku 14. Tagiri-shuku and Futamata-juku 15. Sekiyama-shuku 16. Matsuzaki-shuku and Nippongi-juku 17. Arai-shuku Ending Location: Takada-shuku Edo Five Routes Tōkaidō Nakasendō Kōshū Kaidō Ōshū Kaidō Nikkō Kaidō Other Routes Kisoji Mikuni Kaidō