Acremonium is a genus of fungi in the family Hypocreaceae. It used to be known as "Cephalosporium". Acremonium species are slow-growing and are compact and moist, their hyphae are fine and hyaline, produce simple phialides. Their conidia are one-celled, hyaline or pigmented, globose to cylindrical, aggregated in slimy heads at the apex of each phialide; the genus Acremonium contains about 100 species, of which most are saprophytic, being isolated from dead plant material and soil. Many species are recognized as opportunistic pathogens of man and animals, causing eumycetoma and hyalohyphomycosis. Infections of humans by fungi of this genus are rare, but clinical manifestations of hyalohyphomycosis caused by Acremonium may include arthritis, peritonitis, pneumonia and subcutaneous infection; the cephalosporins, a class of β-lactam antibiotics, were derived from Acremonium. Chaetomium Hyaline Hyphomycetes
Ergot or ergot fungi refers to a group of fungi of the genus Claviceps. The most prominent member of this group is Claviceps purpurea; this fungus grows on rye and related plants, produces alkaloids that can cause ergotism in humans and other mammals who consume grains contaminated with its fruiting structure. Claviceps includes about 50 known species in the tropical regions. Economically significant species include C. purpurea, C. fusiformis, C. paspali, C. africana, C. lutea. C. purpurea most affects outcrossing species such as rye, as well as triticale and barley. It affects oats only rarely. C. purpurea has at least three races or varieties, which differ in their host specificity: G1 — land grasses of open meadows and fields. An ergot kernel, called a sclerotium, develops when a spore of fungal species of the genus Claviceps infects a floret of flowering grass or cereal; the infection process mimics a pollen grain growing into an ovary during fertilization. Infection requires; the proliferating fungal mycelium destroys the plant ovary and connects with the vascular bundle intended for seed nutrition.
The first stage of ergot infection manifests itself as a white soft tissue producing sugary honeydew, which drops out of the infected grass florets. This honeydew contains millions of asexual spores; the sphacelia convert into a hard dry sclerotium inside the husk of the floret. At this stage and lipids accumulate in the sclerotium. Claviceps species from tropic and subtropic regions produce macro- and microconidia in their honeydew. Macroconidia differ in shape and size between the species, whereas microconidia are rather uniform, oval to globose. Macroconidia are able to produce secondary conidia. A germ tube emerges from a macroconidium through the surface of a honeydew drop and a secondary conidium of an oval to pearlike shape is formed, to which the contents of the original macroconidium migrates. Secondary conidia form a frost-like surface on honeydew drops and spread via the wind. No such process occurs in Claviceps purpurea, Claviceps grohii, Claviceps nigricans, Claviceps zizaniae, all from northern temperate regions.
When a mature sclerotium drops to the ground, the fungus remains dormant until proper conditions trigger its fruiting phase. It germinates, forming several fruiting bodies with heads and stipes, variously coloured. In the head, threadlike sexual spores form, which are ejected when suitable grass hosts are flowering. Ergot infection causes a reduction in the yield and quality of grain and hay, if livestock eat infected grain or hay it may cause a disease called ergotism. Black and protruding sclerotia of C. purpurea are well known. However, many tropical ergots have brown or greyish sclerotia. For this reason, the infection is overlooked. Insects, including flies and moths, carry conidia of Claviceps species, but it is unknown whether insects play a role in spreading the fungus from infected to healthy plants; the evolution of plant parasitism in the Clavicipitaceae dates back at least 100 million years, to the early-mid Cretaceous. An amber fossil discovered in 2014 preserves an ergot-like parasitic fungus.
The fossil shows. The discovery establishes a minimum time for the conceivable presence of psychotropic compounds in fungi. Several evolutionary processes have acted to diversify the array of ergot alkaloids produced by fungi; the “old yellow enzyme,” EasA, presents an outstanding example. This enzyme catalyzes reduction of the C8=C9 double-bond in chanoclavine I, but EasA isoforms differ in whether they subsequently catalyze reoxidation of C8–C9 after rotation; this difference distinguishes most Clavicipitaceae from Trichocomaceae, but in Clavicipitaceae it is the key difference dividing the branch of classical ergot alkaloids from dihydroergot alkaloids, the latter being preferred for pharmaceuticals due to their few side effects. The ergot sclerotium contains high concentrations of the alkaloid ergotamine, a complex molecule consisting of a tripeptide-derived cyclol-lactam ring connected via amide linkage to a lysergic acid moiety, other alkaloids of the ergoline group that are biosynthesized by the fungus.
Ergot alkaloids have a wide range of biological activities including effects on circulation and neurotransmission. Ergot alkaloids are classified as: derivatives of 6,8-dimethylergoline and lysergic acid derivatives. Ergotism is the name for sometimes severe pathological syndromes affecting humans or other animals that have ingested plant material containing ergot alkaloid, such as ergot-contaminated grains; the Hospital Brothers of St. Anthony, an order of monks established in 1095, specialized in treating ergotism victims with balms containing tranquilizing and circulation-stimulating plant extracts; the common na
Convolvulaceae, known as the bindweed or morning glory family, is a family of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of herbaceous vines, but trees and herbs, including the sweet potato and a few other food tubers. Convolvulaceae can be recognized by their funnel-shaped, radially symmetrical corolla; the stems of these plants are winding, hence their Latin name. The leaves are alternate, without stipules. In parasitic Cuscuta they are reduced to scales; the fruit can be all containing only two seeds per one locule. The leaves and starchy, tuberous roots of some species are used as foodstuffs, the seeds are exploited for their medicinal value as purgatives; some species contain ergoline alkaloids that are responsible for the use of these species as ingredients in psychedelic drugs. The presence of ergolines in some species of this family is due to infection by fungi related to the ergot fungi of the genus Claviceps. A recent study of Convolvulaceae species, Ipomoea asarifolia, its associated fungi showed the presence of a fungus, identified by DNA sequencing of 18s and ITS ribosomal DNA and phylogenetic analysis to be related to fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, was always associated with the presence of ergoline alkaloids in the plant.
The identified fungus appears to be a seed-transmitted, obligate biotroph growing epiphytically on its host. This finding suggests the unique presence of ergoline alkaloids in some species of the family Convolvulaceae is due to symbiosis with clavicipitaceous fungi. Moreover, another group of compounds, loline alkaloids produced by some members of the clavicipitaceous fungi, has been identified in a convolvulaceous species, but the origin of the loline alkaloids in this species is unknown. Members of the family are well known as as troublesome weeds. According to the study of D. F. Austin the family Convolvulaceae can be classified in the tribes Ericybeae, Convolvuleae, Ipomoeae, Poraneae and Cuscuteae. Convolvulaceae Unlimited Convolvulaceae in Topwalks Family Convolvulaceae Flowers in Israel
"Mexican morning glory" redirects here. This can refer to the red-flowered Ipomoea coccinea. Ipomoea tricolor, the Mexican morning glory or just morning glory, is a species of flowering plant in the family Convolvulaceae, native to the New World tropics, cultivated and naturalised elsewhere, it is an herbaceous perennial twining liana growing to 2 -- 4 m tall. The leaves are spirally arranged, 3–7 cm long with a 1.5–6 cm long petiole. The flowers are trumpet-shaped, 4–9 cm in diameter, most blue with a white to golden yellow centre. In cultivation, the species is commonly grown misnamed as Ipomoea violacea a different though related species. I. tricolor does not tolerate temperatures below 5 °C, so in temperate regions it is grown as an annual. It is in any case a short-lived plant. Numerous cultivars of I. tricolor with different flower colours have been selected for use as ornamental plants. The seeds, vines and leaves contain ergoline alkaloids, have been used for centuries by many Mexican Native American cultures as an entheogen.
Wasson noted that the modern-day Zapotecs of Oaxaca know the seeds as badoh negro. Richard Schultes in 1941 described Mexican Native American use in a short report documenting the use dating back to Aztec times cited in TiHKAL by Alexander Shulgin. Further research was published in 1960, when Don Thomes MacDougall reported that the seeds of Ipomoea tricolor were used as sacraments by certain Zapotecs, sometimes in conjunction with the seeds of Rivea corymbosa, another species which has a similar chemical composition, with lysergol instead of ergometrine; this more widespread knowledge has led to a rise in entheogenic use by people other than Native Americans. The hallucinogenic properties of the seeds are attributed to ergine, although the validity of the attribution remains disputed. Lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide and ergonovine are considered to be contributing psychedelic alkaloids in the plant. While ergine is listed as a Schedule III substance in the United States, parts of the plant itself are not controlled, seeds and plants are still sold by many nurseries and garden suppliers.
The seeds contain glycosides, which may cause nausea if consumed. Commercial seeds are sometimes treated with toxic methylmercury, which serves as a preservative and a cumulative neurotoxic poison, considered useful by some to discourage recreational use of them. There is no legal requirement in the United States to disclose to buyers that seeds have been treated with a toxic heavy metal compound. According to the book Substances of Abuse, in addition to methylmercury, the seeds are claimed to be sometimes coated with a chemical that cannot be removed with washing, designed to cause unpleasant physical symptoms such as nausea and abdominal pain; the book states that this chemical is toxic. In Ipomoea tricolor'Heavenly Blue', the colour of the flower changes during blossom according to an increase in vacuolar pH; this shift, from red to blue, is induced by chemical modifications affecting the anthocyanin molecules present in the petals. Erowid Morning Glory vault
Controlled Substances Act
The Controlled Substances Act is the statute establishing federal U. S. drug policy under which the manufacture, possession and distribution of certain substances is regulated. It was passed by the 91st United States Congress as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and signed into law by President Richard Nixon; the Act served as the national implementing legislation for the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The legislation created five schedules, with varying qualifications for a substance to be included in each. Two federal agencies, the Drug Enforcement Administration and the Food and Drug Administration, determine which substances are added to or removed from the various schedules, although the statute passed by Congress created the initial listing. Congress has sometimes scheduled other substances through legislation such as the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Prevention Act of 2000, which placed gamma hydroxybutyrate in Schedule I and sodium oxybate in Schedule III.
Classification decisions are required to be made on criteria including potential for abuse accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, international treaties. The nation first outlawed addictive drugs in the early 1900s and the International Opium Convention helped lead international agreements regulating trade; the Food and Drugs Act of 1906 was the beginning of over 200 laws concerning public health and consumer protections. Others were the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, the Kefauver Harris Amendment of 1962. In 1969, President Richard Nixon announced that the Attorney General, John N. Mitchell, was preparing a comprehensive new measure to more meet the narcotic and dangerous drug problems at the federal level by combining all existing federal laws into a single new statute. With the help of White House Counsel head, John Dean; the CSA not only combined existing federal drug laws and expanded their scope, but it changed the nature of federal drug law policies and expanded Federal law enforcement pertaining to controlled substances.
Title II, Part F of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 established the National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse—known as the Shafer Commission after its chairman, Raymond P. Shafer—to study cannabis abuse in the United States. During his presentation of the commission's First Report to Congress and Shafer recommended the decriminalization of marijuana in small amounts, with Shafer stating, he criminal law is too harsh a tool to apply to personal possession in the effort to discourage use, it implies. The actual and potential harm of use of the drug is not great enough to justify intrusion by the criminal law into private behavior, a step which our society takes only with the greatest reluctance. Rufus King notes that this stratagem was similar to that used by Harry Anslinger when he consolidated the previous anti-drug treaties into the Single Convention and took the opportunity to add new provisions that otherwise might have been unpalatable to the international community.
According to David T. Courtwright, "the Act was part of an omnibus reform package designed to rationalize, in some respects to liberalize, American drug policy." It provided support for drug treatment and research. King notes that the rehabilitation clauses were added as a compromise to Senator Jim Hughes, who favored a moderate approach; the bill, as introduced by Senator Everett Dirksen, ran to 91 pages. While it was being drafted, the Uniform Controlled Substances Act, to be passed by state legislatures, was being drafted by the Department of Justice. Since its enactment in 1970, the Act has been amended numerous times: The 1976 Medical Device Regulation Act; the Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 added provisions implementing the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The Controlled Substances Penalties Amendments Act of 1984; the 1986 Federal Analog Act for chemicals "substantially similar" in Schedule I and II to be listed The 1988 Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act added provisions implementing the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances that went into force on November 11, 1990.
1990 The Anabolic Steroids Act, passed as part of the Crime Control Act of 1990, which placed anabolic steroids into Schedule III The 1993 Domestic Chemical Diversion and Control Act in response to methamphetamine trafficking. The 2008 Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act The 2010 Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances; the 2010 Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act, to allow pharmacies to operate take-back programs for controlled subtance medications in response to the US opioid epidemic. The Controlled Substances Act consists of 2 subchapters. Subchapter I defines Schedules I-V, lists chemicals used in the manufacture of controlled substances, differentiates lawful and unlawful manufacturing and possession of controlled substances, including possession of Schedule I drugs for personal use.
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms through specialized enzymatic systems. More xenobiotic metabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that modify the chemical structure of xenobiotics, which are compounds foreign to an organism's normal biochemistry, such as any drug or poison; these pathways are a form of biotransformation present in all major groups of organisms, are considered to be of ancient origin. These reactions act to detoxify poisonous compounds; the study of drug metabolism is called pharmacokinetics. The metabolism of pharmaceutical drugs is an important aspect of medicine. For example, the rate of metabolism determines the duration and intensity of a drug's pharmacologic action. Drug metabolism affects multidrug resistance in infectious diseases and in chemotherapy for cancer, the actions of some drugs as substrates or inhibitors of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism are a common reason for hazardous drug interactions; these pathways are important in environmental science, with the xenobiotic metabolism of microorganisms determining whether a pollutant will be broken down during bioremediation, or persist in the environment.
The enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism the glutathione S-transferases are important in agriculture, since they may produce resistance to pesticides and herbicides. Drug metabolism is divided into three phases. In phase I, enzymes such as cytochrome P450 oxidases introduce reactive or polar groups into xenobiotics; these modified compounds are conjugated to polar compounds in phase II reactions. These reactions are catalysed by transferase enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases. In phase III, the conjugated xenobiotics may be further processed, before being recognised by efflux transporters and pumped out of cells. Drug metabolism converts lipophilic compounds into hydrophilic products that are more excreted; the exact compounds an organism is exposed to will be unpredictable, may differ over time. The major challenge faced by xenobiotic detoxification systems is that they must be able to remove the almost-limitless number of xenobiotic compounds from the complex mixture of chemicals involved in normal metabolism.
The solution that has evolved to address this problem is an elegant combination of physical barriers and low-specificity enzymatic systems. All organisms use cell membranes as hydrophobic permeability barriers to control access to their internal environment. Polar compounds cannot diffuse across these cell membranes, the uptake of useful molecules is mediated through transport proteins that select substrates from the extracellular mixture; this selective uptake means that most hydrophilic molecules cannot enter cells, since they are not recognised by any specific transporters. In contrast, the diffusion of hydrophobic compounds across these barriers cannot be controlled, organisms, cannot exclude lipid-soluble xenobiotics using membrane barriers. However, the existence of a permeability barrier means that organisms were able to evolve detoxification systems that exploit the hydrophobicity common to membrane-permeable xenobiotics; these systems therefore solve the specificity problem by possessing such broad substrate specificities that they metabolise any non-polar compound.
Useful metabolites are excluded since they are polar, in general contain one or more charged groups. The detoxification of the reactive by-products of normal metabolism cannot be achieved by the systems outlined above, because these species are derived from normal cellular constituents and share their polar characteristics. However, since these compounds are few in number, specific enzymes can remove them. Examples of these specific detoxification systems are the glyoxalase system, which removes the reactive aldehyde methylglyoxal, the various antioxidant systems that eliminate reactive oxygen species; the metabolism of xenobiotics is divided into three phases:- modification and excretion. These reactions act in concert to remove them from cells. In phase I, a variety of enzymes act to introduce polar groups into their substrates. One of the most common modifications is hydroxylation catalysed by the cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function oxidase system; these enzyme complexes act to incorporate an atom of oxygen into nonactivated hydrocarbons, which can result in either the introduction of hydroxyl groups or N-, O- and S-dealkylation of substrates.
The reaction mechanism of the P-450 oxidases proceeds through the reduction of cytochrome-bound oxygen and the generation of a highly-reactive oxyferryl species, according to the following scheme: O2 + NADPH + H+ + RH → NADP+ + H2O + ROHPhase I reactions may occur by oxidation, hydrolysis, cyclization and addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen, carried out by mixed function oxidases in the liver. These oxidative reactions involve a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, NADPH and oxygen; the classes of pharmaceutical drugs that utilize this method for their metabolism include phenothiazines and steroids. If the metabolites of phase I reactions are sufficiently polar, they may be excreted at this point. However, many phase I products are not eliminated and undergo a subsequent reaction in which an endogenous substrate combines with the newly incorporated functional group to
Pharmacokinetics, sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determine the fate of substances administered to a living organism. The substances of interest include any chemical xenobiotic such as: pharmaceutical drugs, food additives, etc, it attempts to analyze chemical metabolism and to discover the fate of a chemical from the moment that it is administered up to the point at which it is eliminated from the body. Pharmacokinetics is the study of how an organism affects a drug, whereas pharmacodynamics is the study of how the drug affects the organism. Both together influence dosing and adverse effects, as seen in PK/PD models. Pharmacokinetics describes how the body affects a specific xenobiotic/chemical after administration through the mechanisms of absorption and distribution, as well as the metabolic changes of the substance in the body, the effects and routes of excretion of the metabolites of the drug. Pharmacokinetic properties of chemicals are affected by the route of administration and the dose of administered drug.
These may affect the absorption rate. Models have been developed to simplify conceptualization of the many processes that take place in the interaction between an organism and a chemical substance. One of these, the multi-compartmental model, is the most used approximations to reality; the various compartments that the model is divided into are referred to as the ADME scheme: Liberation – the process of release of a drug from the pharmaceutical formulation. See IVIVC. Absorption – the process of a substance entering the blood circulation. Distribution – the dispersion or dissemination of substances throughout the fluids and tissues of the body. Metabolism – the recognition by the organism that a foreign substance is present and the irreversible transformation of parent compounds into daughter metabolites. Excretion – the removal of the substances from the body. In rare cases, some drugs irreversibly accumulate in body tissue; the two phases of metabolism and excretion can be grouped together under the title elimination.
The study of these distinct phases involves the use and manipulation of basic concepts in order to understand the process dynamics. For this reason in order to comprehend the kinetics of a drug it is necessary to have detailed knowledge of a number of factors such as: the properties of the substances that act as excipients, the characteristics of the appropriate biological membranes and the way that substances can cross them, or the characteristics of the enzyme reactions that inactivate the drug. All these concepts can be represented through mathematical formulas that have a corresponding graphical representation; the use of these models allows an understanding of the characteristics of a molecule, as well as how a particular drug will behave given information regarding some of its basic characteristics such as its acid dissociation constant and solubility, absorption capacity and distribution in the organism. The model outputs for a drug can be used in industry or in the clinical application of pharmacokinetic concepts.
Clinical pharmacokinetics provides many performance guidelines for effective and efficient use of drugs for human-health professionals and in veterinary medicine. The following are the most measured pharmacokinetic metrics: In pharmacokinetics, steady state refers to the situation where the overall intake of a drug is in dynamic equilibrium with its elimination. In practice, it is considered that steady state is reached when a time of 4 to 5 times the half-life for a drug after regular dosing is started; the following graph depicts a typical time course of drug plasma concentration and illustrates main pharmacokinetic metrics: Pharmacokinetic modelling is performed by noncompartmental or compartmental methods. Noncompartmental methods estimate the exposure to a drug by estimating the area under the curve of a concentration-time graph. Compartmental methods estimate the concentration-time graph using kinetic models. Noncompartmental methods are more versatile in that they do not assume any specific compartmental model and produce accurate results acceptable for bioequivalence studies.
The final outcome of the transformations that a drug undergoes in an organism and the rules that determine this fate depend on a number of interrelated factors. A number of functional models have been developed in order to simplify the study of pharmacokinetics; these models are based on a consideration of an organism as a number of related compartments. The simplest idea is to think of an organism as only one homogenous compartment; this monocompartmental model presupposes that blood plasma concentrations of the drug are a true reflection of the drug's concentration in other fluids or tissues and that the elimination of the drug is directly proportional to the drug's concentration in the organism. However, these models do not always reflect the real situation within an organism. For example, not all body tissues have the same blood supply, so the distribution of the drug will be slower in these tissues than in others with a better blood supply. In addition, there are some tissues (s