Magnus IV of Sweden
Magnus IV was King of Sweden from 1319 to 1364, King of Norway as Magnus VII from 1319 to 1355, ruler of Scania from 1332 to 1360. By adversaries he has been called Magnus Smek. Referring to Magnus Eriksson as Magnus II is incorrect; the Swedish Royal Court lists three Swedish kings before him of the same name. Magnus was born in Norway in April or May 1316 to Eric, Duke of Södermanland and Ingeborg, a daughter of Haakon V of Norway. Magnus was elected king of Sweden on 8 July 1319, acclaimed as hereditary king of Norway at the thing of the Haugating in Tønsberg in August of the same year. Under the regencies of his grandmother, Helwig of Holstein, his mother, Ingeborg of Norway, the countries were ruled by Knut Jonsson and Erling Vidkunsson. Magnus was declared to have come of age at 15 in 1331; this provoked resistance in Norway, where a statute from 1302 stipulated that a king came of age at the age of 20, a rising by Erling Vidkunsson and other Norwegian nobles ensued. In 1333, the rebels submitted to King Magnus.
In 1332 the King of Denmark, Christopher II, died as a "king without a country" after he and his older brother and predecessor had pawned Denmark piece by piece. King Magnus took advantage of his neighbour's distress, redeeming the pawn for the eastern Danish provinces for a huge amount of silver, thus became ruler of Scania. On 21 July 1336 Magnus was crowned king of both Sweden in Stockholm; this caused further resentment in Norway, where the nobles and magnates desired a separate Norwegian coronation. A second rising by members of the high nobility of Norway ensued in 1338. In 1335 he married Blanche of Namur, daughter of John I, Marquis of Namur, Marie of Artois, a descendant of Louis VIII of France; the wedding took place in October or early November 1335 at Bohus castle. As a wedding gift Blanche received the province of Tunsberg in Lödöse in Sweden as fiefs, they had two sons and Haakon, plus at least three daughters who died in infancy and were buried at Ås Abbey. Opposition to Magnus' rule in Norway led to a settlement between the king and the Norwegian nobility at Varberg on 15 August 1343.
In violation of the Norwegian laws on royal inheritance, Magnus' younger son Haakon would become king of Norway, with Magnus as regent during his minority. The same year, it was declared that Magnus' older son, Eric would become king of Sweden on Magnus' death. Thus, the union between Norway and Sweden would be severed; this occurred when Haakon came of age in 1355. Because of the increase in taxes to pay for the acquisition of the Scanian province, some Swedish nobles supported by the Church attempted to oust Magnus, setting up his elder son Erik Magnusson as king, but Eric died of the plague in 1359, with his wife Beatrice of Bavaria and their two sons. On 12 August 1323, Magnus concluded the first treaty between Sweden and Novgorod at Nöteborg where Lake Ladoga empties into the Neva River; the treaty delineated spheres of influence among the Finns and Karelians and was supposed to be an "eternal peace", but Magnus' relations with Russia were not so peaceful. In 1337, religious strife between Orthodox Karelians and the Swedes led to a Swedish attack on the town of Korela and Viborg, in which the Novgorodian and Ladogan merchants there were slaughtered.
A Swedish commander named Sten captured the fortress at Orekhov. Negotiations with the Novgorodian mayor Fedor were inconclusive and the Swedes attacked Karelians around Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega before a peace was concluded in 1339 along the old terms of the 1323 treaty. In this treaty, the Swedes claimed that Sten and others acted on their own without the consent of the king. In 1335, Magnus outlawed Thralldom for thralls "born by Christian parents" in Västergötland and Värend, being the last parts of Sweden where slavery had remained legal; this put an end to Medieval Swedish slavery - though it was only applicable within the borders of Sweden, which left an opening - used long afterwards - for the 17th and 18th Century Swedish slave trade. Relations were quiet between Sweden and Novgorod until 1348, when Magnus led a crusade against Novgorod, marching up the Neva, forcibly converting the tribes along that river, capturing the fortress of Orekhov for a second time; the Novgorodians retook the fortress in 1349 after a seven-month siege, Magnus fell back, in large part due to the ravages of the plague farther West.
While he spent much of 1351 trying to drum up support for further crusading action among the German cities in the Baltic States, he never returned to attack Novgorod. In 1355 Magnus sent a ship to Greenland to inspect its Eastern Settlements. Sailors found settlements Norse and Christian; the Greenland carrier made the Greenland run at intervals till 1369, when she sank and was not replaced. King Valdemar IV of Denmark reconquered Scania in 1360, he went on to conquer Gotland in 1361. On 27 July 1361, outside the city of Visby, the main city of the final battle took place, it ended in a complete victory for Valdemar. Magnus had warned the inhabitants of Visby in a letter and started to gather troops to reconquer Scania. Valdemar took a lot of plunder with him. Either in late 1361 or early 1362 the inhabitants of Visby raised themselves against the few Danish that Valdemar left behind and killed them. In 1363, members of the Swedish Council of Aristocracy, led by Bo Jonsson Grip, arrived in the court of Mecklenburg.
History of Sweden
The history of Sweden starts when the Polar cap started receding. The first traces of human visitation is from ca 12000 BC. Written sources about Sweden before 1000 AD are rare and short written by outsiders, not until the 14th century are there any longer historical texts produced in Sweden. Swedish history, in contrast with pre-history, is thus taken to start in the 11th century, when the sources are common enough that they are possible to be contrasted with each other; the modern Swedish state was formed over a long period of consolidation. Historians have set different standards for when it can be considered complete, but a somewhat unified country, with power concentrated to one monarchical dynasty and some common laws were present from the second part of the second half of the 13th century. At this time, Sweden consisted of most of what is today the southern part of the country, as well as parts of what is modern Finland. Over the following centuries, Swedish influence would expand into the North and East if borders were ill-defined or nonexistent.
In the late 14th Century, Sweden was becoming intertwined with Denmark and Norway uniting in the Kalmar Union. During the following century, a series of rebellions served to lessen Sweden's ties to the union, sometime leading to a separate Swedish king being elected; the fighting reached a climax following the Stockholm Bloodbath in 1520, a mass execution of Swedish noblemen and burgers orchestrated by Christian II of Denmark. One of the few members of the most powerful noble families not present, Gustav Vasa, was able to raise a new rebellion and was crowned King in 1523, his reign proved lasting, marked the end of Sweden's participation in the union. Gustav Vasa furthermore encouraged Protestant preachers breaking with the papacy and establishing the Lutheran Church in Sweden, seizing Catholic Church property and wealth. During the 17th century, after winning wars against Denmark-Norway and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sweden emerged as a great power by taking direct control of the Baltic region.
Sweden's role in the Thirty Years' War determined the political as well as the religious balance of power in Europe. The Swedish state expanded enormously, into the modern Baltic states, northern Germany, several regions that, to this day, are part of Sweden. Before the end of the 17th Century, a secret alliance was formed between Denmark-Norway, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia against Sweden; this coalition acted at the start of the 18th Century as Denmark-Norway and the Commonwealth launched surprise attacks on Sweden. In 1721, Russia and its allies won the war against Sweden; as a result, Russia was able to annex the Swedish territories of Estonia, Livonia and Karelia. This put an end to the Swedish Empire, crippled her Baltic Sea Power. Sweden joined in the Enlightenment culture of the day in the arts, architecture and learning. Between 1570 and 1800, Sweden experienced two periods of urban expansion. Finland was lost to Russia in a war in 1808–1809. In the early 19th century and the remaining territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost.
After its last war in 1814, Sweden entered into a personal union with Norway that lasted until 1905. Since 1814, Sweden has been at peace, adopting a non-aligned foreign policy in peacetime and neutrality in wartime. During World War I, Sweden remained neutral. Post-war prosperity provided the foundations for the social welfare policies characteristic of modern Sweden. During World War II, Sweden once again remained neutral. Sweden was one of the first non-participants of World War II to join the United Nations. Apart from this, the country attempted to stay out of alliances and remain neutral during the entire Cold War; the social democratic party held government for 44 years. The 1976 parliamentary elections brought a liberal/right-wing coalition to power. During the Cold War, Sweden was suspicious of the superpowers, recognizing that the decisions made by them were affecting smaller countries without always consulting those countries. With the end of the Cold War, that suspicion has lessened somewhat, although Sweden still chooses to remain nonaligned.
Sweden, like its neighboring country Norway, has a high concentration of petroglyphs throughout the country, with the highest concentration in the province of Bohuslän and around Gamleby and Västervik in northern county of Kalmar called "Tjust". The earliest images can, however, be found in the province of Jämtland, dating from 5000 BC, they depict wild animals such as elk, reindeer and seals. The period 2300–500 BC was the most intensive carving period, with carvings of agriculture, ships, domesticated animals, etc. Petroglyphs with themes have been found in Bohuslän. For centuries, the Swedes were merchant seamen well known for their far-reaching trade. During the 11th and 12th centuries, Sweden became a unified Christian kingdom that included Finland; until 1060, the kings of Uppsala ruled most of modern Sweden except the southern and western coastal regions, which remained under Danish rule until the 17th century. After a century of civil wars, a new royal family emerged, which strengthened the power of the crown at the expense of the nobility, while giving the nobles privileges such as exemption from taxation in exchange for military service.
Sweden never had a developed feudal system, its peasants were never reduced to serfdom. The Viking
Eric XI of Sweden
Eric "XI" the Lisp and Lame Swedish: Erik Eriksson or Erik läspe och halte. Being the last ruler of the House of Eric, he stood in the shadow of a succession of powerful Jarls his brother-in-law Birger Jarl, whose descendants ruled as kings after his death. Eric was the son of Eric X of Richeza of Denmark. According to the chronicle Erikskrönikan written in the early 1320s, Eric is said to have been lame. For this reason historians referred to him as "Erik the Lisp and Lame", not used in his own time. Eric was born after his father, King Eric X, had died; the fifteen-year-old John I from the rival House of Sverker was hailed king by the Swedish aristocracy, while Queen Richeza returned to her Danish homeland where her brother Valdemar Sejr ruled. Eric spent his early youth in Denmark, while Valdemar championed his rights to the Swedish throne and tried to prevent the coronation of John I. Pope Honorius III ordered three North German bishops to investigate the issue in 1219, however to no avail.
John I passed away in 1222, whereby the House of Sverker became extinct in the male line. With no dynastic rivals at hand, the six-year-old Eric was hailed as king, sometime between August 1222 and July 1223; the Archbishop Olof Basatömer supported his cause and appears to have crowned him in Strängnäs Cathedral on 31 July 1223. During the minority of the king, a council was formed, consisting of Bishop Bengt of Skara, the king's foster father Erengisle Vig, Knut Kristinesson, Knut Holmgersson; the two last-mentioned were second cousins of King Eric. In 1225 Eric and his realm were taken under the protection of the Pope. In the same year a brief conflict with Norway flared up, as King Håkon Håkonson made an incursion into Värmland in retaliation for support given to Håkon's Norwegian enemies; the members of the royal council were termed consiliarii, a term that now occurs for the first time in a Swedish context. However, the internal cohesion of the council was weak, its members were considered notoriously unreliable.
Knut Kristinesson went to Norway in 1226 in order to claim the crown of this country, Bishop Bengt died in 1228. In the next year 1229, a feud broke out, as Knut the Tall and a party of nobles, the Folkung Party, rose against the young ruler; the causes are not known, but a wish by some nobles to restrain the power of the Church might have had a role. Eric was overthrown after the battle of Olustra; the battle is believed to have taken place in Olustra in Södermanland, although Alvastra in Östergötland has been mentioned as a possible site. After his loss, the young king fled to Denmark. Knut the Tall was crowned King Canute II of Sweden in 1231, but his time was short and he died in 1234. According to a Danish source, Eric returned to Sweden in 1232, when Canute was still king; the Swedish Erikskrönikan on the contrary asserts that he came back after King Canute's death, after a new round of fighting. At any rate Eric was once again accepted as king and ruled until his own death in 1250. At first, he reconciled with the Folkung Party.
The Folkung Ulf Fase, Jarl of the realm under Canute II, continued to serve in that function under Eric. Ulf Fase was an able politician who managed to prevent feuding between the noble factions for many years; as a king, Eric is depicted in Erikskrönikan as good-natured but physically passive: He liked to strengthen reason and right, was pleased to care for his own kin. He maintained domestic honour and noble custom, gave the peasant good peace, He well understood serious matters, but would not care much for tournaments. In fact he was insignificant and dependent on stronger men in his entourage, they were both scions of the large and influential Bjälbo family from Östergötland, but entertained different political agendas. While Ulf pursued a policy of alliance with the Norwegian king, Birger strove to strengthen royal authority by allying with the Catholic Church. In about the late 1230s, King Eric's elder sister Ingeborg was married to Birger, in the latter's first marriage. Birger was purportedly the son of a female heiress of the Sverker dynasty, thus having royal blood.
Sweden had a certain presence in south-western Finland by the early 13th century, although it is unclear to what extent this translated into political power. A bishopric existed in Nousiainen and Turku, which stood under the papal legate of the Baltic region; the Erikskrönikan contains a graphic description of a military expedition to Tavastia further to the east that King Eric dispatched in an unspecified year in 1238-39 or 1249-50. While not a crusade, the professed aim was to Christianize still pagan lands. A sizable fleet sailed over to Tavastia. According to the propagandist chronicle, the expedition was an unqualified success: They took their banners and went ashore, The Christians were successful in the war, they let their shields shine all over the land, so their helmets. They were keen to try their swords on the pagan Tavasts As I expect, they achieved gold and silver and large herds; the Tavasts ran and were gone, the pagans lost and the Christians won. Anyone who wanted to serve them, become Christian and accept baptism, they allowed to keep goods and life, to live in peace
Birger, King of Sweden
Birger was King of Sweden from 1290 to 1318. Birger was the son of King Magnus III of Hedwig of Holstein, he was hailed king of Sweden. This was done by his father. In 1275, King Magnus had led a rebellion against his elder brother, King Valdemar, ousted him from the throne. Before his death, King Magnus ordered his kinsman, Torgils Knutsson, the Constable of the Realm, to be the guardian of his son Birger. In 1293, Birger was crowned at Söderköping after marrying Martha of Denmark, the daughter of King Eric V of Denmark. Birger was only ten years old when his father died, at which time Torgils Knutsson was the most influential statesman in Sweden. In 1293, Torgils Knutsson led the Swedes to a victory; this expedition has traditionally been dubbed as the Third Swedish Crusade. When Torgils Knutsson returned from leading the crusade in Finland, a feud had developed between the brothers. Torgils Knutsson supported King Birger. Birger came of age when there was a conflict within the Church of Sweden over interpretation of the Privileges of 1280, the cost of the support of the Church for his father's usurpation.
The king's brothers Erik Magnusson, Duke of Södermanland and Valdemar Magnusson, Duke of Finland took advantage of this conflict. Duke Eric tried to establish an independent kingdom around Bohuslän, which he had received as part of his marriage to the Norwegian princess Ingeborg, Halland at the boundary between Sweden and Denmark. A civil war broke out, but by 1306 emotions had cooled to the point where the dukes acknowledged the son of Birger, Magnus Birgersson, as the successor to the throne. Torkel Knutsson, Duke Valdemar's father-in-law, was executed in 1306 as a token of reconciliation between King Birger and his brothers; the same year, in an event known as the Håtuna games, Birger was taken captive by his brothers on the Håtuna royal estate in Uppland and taken as prisoner to Nyköping Castle. In 1308, Eric and Valdemar were forced by the Danish king to release King Birger, but they did so under humiliating conditions; when King Birger was free, he sought aid in Denmark, the strife began anew.
Birger remained king in name, but had to give up the Royal Domain, exchanging it for eastern Uppland, Närke, his brother Erik's former Duchy Södermanland, Östergötland and the Castle of Viborg. In 1312, Duke Eric married Ingeborg of Norway, daughter of King Haakon V of Norway in a double wedding in Oslo. At the same time, Eric's brother Duke Valdemar married Ingeborg Eriksdottir of Norway, the daughter of King Eric II of Norway. Duke Erik held Bohuslän from Norway as well as northern Halland and was creating a separate kingdom centered on Göta älv. In 1317 however, Birger captured his brothers during the Nyköping Banquet. According to Eric's Chronicle, the dukes were starved to death in a cellar of Nyköping Castle. Birger was ousted by his brothers' supporters in 1318 and went into exile to his brother-in-law King Eric VI of Denmark, taking the Royal Archives with him, his son, Prince Magnus Birgersson, was executed at Stockholm. In 1319, the three-year-old son of Duke Erik, King Magnus VII of Norway, was hailed King Magnus IV of Sweden under the Regency of his grandmother Queen Helvig and his mother Duchess Ingeborg.
Magnus Birgersson Eric Birgersson Agnes Birgersdotter Katarina Birgersdotter In 2003, the band Falconer released The Sceptre of Deception, a concept album based on this period of Swedish history. The album covers events during the reign of King Birger of Sweden and lengthy strife with his brothers, the Danish and Norwegian crowns. Barck, Sven Eric. Från islossning till kungarike Harrison, Dick Jarlens sekel: en berättelse om 1200-talets Sverige Bergman, Mats Nyköpingshus. En rundvandring i historia och nutid Mannervik, Cyrus Sagor och sägner – Från Nordens forntid och medeltid
Eric Magnusson (duke)
Eric Magnusson was a Swedish prince, Duke of Svealand, Södermanland, Dalsland, Västergötland, Värmland and North Halland and heir to the throne of Sweden. He was the father of King Magnus who became king of both Sweden. Eric was born circa 1282, the second son of King Magnus III of Sweden and his Queen consort Helvig of Holstein, he became the Duke of Södermanland and a part of Uppland in 1302. Eric is reported as being more skilled and intelligent than his elder brother who became King Birger of Sweden, he was bold and ambitious, his social skills won him many allies. His younger brother Valdemar Magnusson, the duke of Finland, became his close ally and helped him in all his projects. King Birger, who feared his brothers' plans, forced them to sign a paper, in 1304, so as to render them less dangerous, they fled to Norway, but in 1305, they reconciled with the king and regained their duchies. Eric was in possession of Kungahälla, which he had been given during his exile by the Norwegian king, northern Halland which he had been given by the Danish king Eric VI of Denmark.
Duke Eric planned to topple Birger's marshal Torgils Knutsson, in the way of his ambitious plans. As the clergy were in opposition to the marshal, they joined Eric, they prevailed on the weak Birger in 1306 to execute Torgils, a faithful counsellor. Little more than half a year Birger was imprisoned by his brothers, his brothers took control of Sweden. Birger's brother-in-law, Eric VI of Denmark arrived with his army to support Birger. Haakon V of Norway, was on the side of the younger brothers. In 1308, Eric and Valdemar were forced by the Danish king to release Birger, but they did so under humiliating conditions; when Birger was free, he sought aid in Denmark, the strife began anew. The course of events turned against duke Eric. By concluding a peace treaty with the Danish king, unbeknownst to Haakon V, Eric lost Haakon's trust. Håkon wanted to have Kungahälla back. A war broke out between Haakon V of Norway and Eric in 1309, the kings of Norway and Denmark concluded peace, allied against the dukes.
Through his strategic skills, Eric managed to ride out the storm, defeated the Norwegians, the Danes who arrived as far as Nyköping in 1309. He attacked Norway and reconquered Kungahälla, which he had lost to Haakon in 1310. There was peace at Helsingborg, in which Sweden was divided between Birger and his brothers. Eric received Västergötland, Dalsland, Värmland and Kalmar County, as well was northern Halland as a fief from Denmark, but he promised to return Kungahälla to Norway. In spite of the fact that Eric never returned Kungahälla, broke all his promises to Haakon, he managed to win his approval, he married Haakon V of Norway's 11-year-old daughter Ingeborg Haakonsdatter. In 1312, Eric married Ingeborg in a double wedding in Oslo. At the same time, Eric's brother Valdemar Magnusson married Ingeborg Eriksdottir of Norway, the daughter of King Eric II of Norway. In 1316 Eric and Ingeborg had a son, the future king Magnus IV of Sweden and in 1317 daughter Euphemia of Sweden. Duke Eric seemed close to reaching his goals: he was now in possession of a composite territory consisting of some parts of all the three Scandinavian kingdoms, centered on the coast of Skagerrak-Kattegat with Varberg as his ducal seat, he had a son, the heir apparent of the kingdom of Norway, he was the de facto ruler of Sweden.
However, his career was stopped and his life was shortened by the treachery of his brother King Birger, the de jure ruler of Sweden. During a call on his brother in Nyköping, the so-called Nyköping Banquet and his brother Valdemar were arrested and chained, the night between the 10th and 11 December 1317. No one knows for certain. At the imprisonment of their husbands, their wives became the leaders of their spouses' followers. On 16 April 1318, the two duchesses entered into a treaty in Kalmar with Esger Juul, Archbishop of Lund and Christopher, brother of Eric VI of Denmark and Duke of Halland-Samsö, to free their husbands; the same year their husbands were confirmed to have died. King Birger was subsequently ousted by his brothers' supporters in 1318 and sent into exile to his brother-in-law King Eric VI of Denmark. Eric's son, Magnus was elected king of Sweden on 8 July 1319 and acclaimed as hereditary king of Norway in August of the same year under the regencies of his grandmother Queen Helvig and his mother Duchess Ingeborg.
In all of Scandinavia, the death of Eric and Valdemar caused great dismay and sorrow, which caused many people to forgive their misdeeds, only to remember their positive qualities. However, their ambitions had caused great troubles for Sweden; the time of civil war between the brothers were one of the grimmest eras in Swedish history. Eric's life was portrayed in a positive light in Eric's Chronicle created by his supporters. Eric's Chronicle is the oldest surviving Swedish chronicle written between about 1320 and 1335, it is one of most important narrative sources. Its authorship and precise political significance and biases are debated, but it is clear that the chronicle's main protagonist and hero is Eric. Lindqvist, Herman Historien om Sverige. Från islossning till kungarike Harrison, Dick Jarlens sekel: en berättelse om 1200-talets Sverige Bergman, Mats Nyköpingshus. En rundvandring i historia och nutid Mannervik, Cyrus Sagor och sägner - Från Nordens forntid och medeltid This article contains content from the Owl Edition of