SpongeBob SquarePants is an American animated television series created by marine science educator and animator Stephen Hillenburg for Nickelodeon. The series chronicles the adventures and endeavors of the title character and his various friends in the fictional underwater city of Bikini Bottom; the series' popularity has made it a media franchise, as well as the highest rated series to air on Nickelodeon, the most distributed property of MTV Networks. As of late 2017, the media franchise has generated $13 billion in merchandising revenue for Nickelodeon. Many of the ideas for the series originated in an unpublished educational comic book titled The Intertidal Zone, which Hillenburg created in 1989, he began developing SpongeBob SquarePants into a television series in 1996 upon the cancellation of Rocko's Modern Life, turned to Tom Kenny, who had worked with him on that series, to voice the title character. SpongeBob was going to be named SpongeBoy, the series was to be called SpongeBoy Ahoy!, but both of these were changed, as the name was trademarked.
Nickelodeon held a preview for the series in the United States on May 1, 1999, following the television airing of the 1999 Kids' Choice Awards. The series premiered on July 17, 1999, it has received worldwide critical acclaim since its premiere and gained enormous popularity by its second season. A feature film, The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie, was released in theaters on November 19, 2004, a sequel was released on February 6, 2015. In 2018, the series began airing its twelfth season; the series has won a variety of awards, including six Annie Awards, eight Golden Reel Awards, four Emmy Awards, 16 Kids' Choice Awards, two BAFTA Children's Awards. Despite its widespread popularity, the series has been involved in several public controversies, including one centered on speculation over SpongeBob's intended sexual orientation. In 2011, a newly described species of fungus, Spongiforma squarepantsii, was named after the cartoon's title character. A Broadway musical based on the series opened in 2017 to critical acclaim.
On February 14, 2019, it was announced. The series takes place in the benthic underwater city of Bikini Bottom, located in the Pacific Ocean beneath the real-life coral reef known as Bikini Atoll. In 2015, Tom Kenny confirmed that the fictitious city was named after Bikini Atoll, but denied an Internet fan theory that connected the series' characters to actual nuclear testing that occurred in the atoll; the citizens are multicolored fish who live in buildings made from ship funnels and use "boatmobiles," amalgamations of cars and boats, as a mode of transportation. Recurring locations within Bikini Bottom include the neighboring houses of SpongeBob and Squidward; when the SpongeBob crew began production on the series' pilot episode, they were tasked with designing the stock locations where "the show would return to again and again, in which most of the action would take place, such as the Krusty Krab and SpongeBob's pineapple house". The idea for the series was "to keep everything nautical", so the crew used a great amount of rope, wooden planks, ships' wheels, anchors and rivets in creating the show's setting.
Transitions between scenes are marked by bubbles filling up the screen, accompanied by the sound of water rushing. The series features "sky flowers" as a main setting material, they first have since become a common feature throughout the series. When series background designer Kenny Pittenger was asked what they were, he answered, "They function as clouds in a way, but since the show takes place underwater, they aren't clouds; because of the tiki influence on the show, the background painters use a lot of pattern." Pittenger said that the sky flowers were meant to "evoke the look of a flower-print Hawaiian shirt". The series revolves around an ensemble cast of his aquatic friends. SpongeBob SquarePants is an energetic and optimistic sea sponge who physically resembles a rectangular kitchen sponge, he lives in a submerged pineapple with his pet snail Gary. SpongeBob has a childlike enthusiasm for life, which carries over to his job as a fry cook at a fast food restaurant called the Krusty Krab, his greatest goal in life is to receive a license to drive a boatmobile.
His favorite pastimes include "jellyfishing," which involves catching jellyfish with a net in a manner similar to butterfly catching, blowing soap bubbles into elaborate shapes. Living two houses down from SpongeBob is his best friend Patrick Star, a dim-witted yet friendly pink starfish who resides under a rock. Despite his mental setbacks, Patrick still sees himself as intelligent. Squidward Tentacles, SpongeBob's next-door neighbor and co-worker at the Krusty Krab, is an arrogant and ill-tempered octopus who lives in an Easter Island moai, he enjoys playing the clarinet and painting self-portraits, but hates his job as a cashier and dislikes living between SpongeBob and Patrick, due to their childish nature. The owner of the Krusty Krab is a miserly red crab named Mr. Krabs who talks like a sailor and runs his restaurant as if it were a pirate ship. Mr. Krabs is a single parent with one teenage daughter, a sperm whale named Pearl, to whom he wants to pass down his riches. Pearl does not want to continue the family business and would rather spend her time
Disney Television Animation
Disney Television Animation is an American animation studio that creates and produces animated television series, films and other projects. It is a division of the Disney Channels Worldwide owned by The Walt Disney Company. Established in 1984 during the reorganization and subsequent re-incorporation of The Walt Disney Company following the arrival of then-Disney CEO Michael Eisner, the entity was known as the Walt Disney Pictures Television Animation Group before being shortened to Walt Disney Television Animation in 1987, was shortened again in 2011 to Disney Television Animation; the Walt Disney Company first ventured into the television industry as early as 1950, beginning with the one-hour Christmas special, One Hour in Wonderland. This was followed by the 1951 Christmas special, The Walt Disney Christmas Show, the long-running anthology series, The Wonderful World of Disney, the children's variety show The Mickey Mouse Club, the 1957-1959 adventure series, Zorro. However, one element was missing from Disney's expansion into television: An original animated television series.
Until the early 80's, the studio had never produced its own original animated shows in-house, because Walt Disney felt it was economically impossible. Nearly all pre-1985 TV animation was wrap-around segments made to bridge the gaps on existing theatrical material on The Wonderful World of Disney. Osamu Tezuka met Walt at the 1964 World's Fair, at which time Disney said he hoped to "make something just like" Tezuka's Astro Boy someday, but nothing came of it. With the hiring of a new CEO for Disney Production in 1984, Michael Eisner, lead him to push to expand Disney into new areas thus the establishment of a television animation division that year; the cartoon would be shop to all markets: Disney Channel and syndication. Eisner held a meeting at his home in which he brought up the concept of doing a series on Gummi bear as his kids like the candy; the staff was told that they could not use the principal Disney cartoon characters in the new shows. The Walt Disney Television Animation department was started in November 1984 with Gary Krisel as president and Michael Webster as senior vice president.
This was considered a risky move, because animated TV series were considered low-budget investments for most of the history of TV cartoons up through the 1980s. Many critics say that Disney's own animation studio had lost most of its luster during the period from Walt Disney's passing through the 1980s. However, the studio took a number of risks; the studio gambled on the idea that a larger investment into quality animation could be made back through both network television and over-the-air in syndication, as well as cable. The final result is a string of higher budgeted animated television productions which proved to be profitable ventures and raised the standard for the TV medium; the Disney television animation cycle began in mid-1985, with The Wuzzles and Disney's Adventures of the Gummi Bears, both which are based upon funny animal-based conceptions. The final third series in the incidentally so-called "magic animal"-based "trilogy" of original character sets was going to be Fluppy Dogs, itself loosely based a series of children's books and line of toys about a race of anthropomorphic pastel-colored dimension-hopping alien dogs.
It was not a successful hit however, as the proposed series was not picked up after it never went beyond that one pilot episode, the studio instead fell into a routine of adapting its old properties into the new use, which Disney coincidentally did. In 1987, Disney unveiled the newest series yet in its cycle, the first in their successful long-time line of syndicated animated shows, DuckTales; the show was successful enough to spawn a feature film, DuckTales the Movie: Treasure of the Lost Lamp, two spin-off series: Darkwing Duck and Quack Pack. 1990 release Treasure of the Lost Lamp was the first movie from TV Animation's Disney MovieToon unit. Disney Television Animation hired a director of specials, Sharon Morrill, in 1993; the success of DuckTales paved the way for a new wave of high-quality animated TV series, including Disney's own The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh in 1988. Early that spring, Chip'n Dale Rescue Rangers debuted on March 4, 1989, was paired with DuckTales in an hour-long syndicated show through the 1989-1990 television season.
In the 1990-1991 season, Disney expanded the idea further, to create The Disney Afternoon, a two-hour long syndicated block of half-hour cartoons, which premiered much on September 10, 1990. DuckTales was one of the early flagship cartoons in the block. On August 24, 1994 with Jeffrey Katzenberg's resignation, Richard Frank became head of newly formed Walt Disney Television and Telecommunications, which included WDTA, from units of The Walt Disney Studios. Morrill was in charge of the first Aladdin DTV film launching Disney Video Premiere/Direct to Video unit. Three overseas Disney studios were set up to produce the company's animated television series. Disney Animation Australia was started in 1988. In 1989, the Brizzi brothers sold Brizzi Films to Disney Television Animation and was renamed Walt Disney Animation France; that year, Disney Animation Japan was started. Walt Disney Animation Canada was opened in January 1996 to tap Canada's animator pool and produce direct-to-video; as direct-to-video increased in importance, the overseas studios moved to making feature films.
WDTT chair Frank left D
The Ren & Stimpy Show
The Ren & Stimpy Show known as Ren & Stimpy, is an American animated television series created by John Kricfalusi, Jim Smith, Bob Camp, Lynne Naylor for Nickelodeon. The series follows the adventures of title characters Ren, an unstable chihuahua and Stimpy, a good-natured yet dimwitted cat; the show premiered on August 11, 1991, as one of the original three Nicktoons alongside Rugrats and Doug. Throughout its run, the show was controversial for its off-color and dark humor, sexual innuendos, adult jokes, violence; the production's failure to deliver episodes on time and its deteriorating relationship with Nickelodeon executives and Standards and Practices department led to Kricfalusi's departure from the show in 1992. The show ended on December 1995, with a total of five seasons and 52 episodes. Ren & Stimpy received positive reviews during its original run, it would go on to receive widespread critical acclaim after its run and has since developed a cult following and had a long-lasting influence on television animation.
A spin-off for adult audiences, Ren & Stimpy "Adult Party Cartoon", aired in 2003 on Spike. Only three episodes aired due to delays in episode delivery, before Spike removed its entire animation programming block; the series centers on Ren Höek, a short-tempered, "asthma-hound" Chihuahua, Stimpson J. "Stimpy" Cat, a 3-year-old dimwitted and happy-go-lucky cat. The duo fill various roles from episode to episode, including outer-space explorers, Old West horse thieves, nature-show hosts, are at odds with each other in these situations. While the show was sometimes set in the present day, the show's crew tended to avoid "contemporary" jokes about current events; the show extensively features absurdist humor, as well as slapstick. The show features a host of supporting characters; some appear only in one episode, while others recur and appear in different roles. They may either make cameo appearances with little bearing on the plot. Some, such as Mr. Horse, are cameo-based, spontaneously appearing as a running gag.
According to animator William Wray, John Kricfalusi created the characters Ren and Stimpy in 1978 for "personal amusement" while studying at Sheridan College in Ontario, Canada. He was inspired to create Ren by an Elliott Erwitt photograph, printed on a postcard, called "New York City, 1946", showing a sweatered chihuahua at a woman's feet. Stimpy's design was inspired by a Tweety Bird cartoon called A Gruesome Twosome where the cats in the animation had big noses; when Nickelodeon approached Kricfalusi, he presented three shows, among them a variety show titled Your Gang or Our Gang with a live action host presenting different cartoons, each cartoon parodying a different genre. Ren and Stimpy were pets of one of the children in Your Gang, serving as a parody of the "cat and dog genre"; the network's vice president of animation production Vanessa Coffey was dissatisfied with the other projects but did like Ren and Stimpy, singling them out for their own series. Production of the series' pilot episode began in 1989 after Kricfalusi pitched and sold The Ren & Stimpy Show to Nickelodeon.
The pilot was produced by Kricfalusi's Los Angeles-based animation company, Spümcø, screened at film festivals for several months before the show was announced in Nickelodeon's 1991 cartoons line-up. The series premiered on August 1991 alongside Doug and Rugrats. Spümcø continued to produce the show for the next two years while encountering issues with Nickelodeon's Standards and Practices; the show was known for its lack of early merchandising. Kricfalusi described his early period with Nickelodeon as being "simple", as he got along with Coffey, the sole executive of the program; when another executive was added, he wanted to alter or discard some of the Ren & Stimpy episodes, but Kricfalusi says the episodes stayed intact since he did a "trade" with Coffey: he would have some "really crazy" episodes in exchange for some "heart-warming" episodes. Kricfalusi said that the program was the "safest project worked on" while explaining the meaning of "safe" as "spend a third of what they spend now per picture, hire proven creative talent, let them entertain."
He estimated Spümcø's run of The Stimpy Show cost around $6 million to produce. The relationship between Kricfalusi and Nickelodeon deteriorated to the point where Kricfalusi would communicate with Nickelodeon only through his lawyer. News outlets and several of the series' staff ascribe the tension to episodes not being delivered in a timely manner. Author Andy Mangels, writing for Wizard magazine, commented that "Kricfalusi's lax treatment of deadlines pissed off not only the networks, but his loyal viewers as well." However, some of the delays were attributed to Nickelodeon's prolonged approval process and withdrawal of approval from scenes and episodes, approved. Another point of contention was the direction of the series. Kricfalusi cites the episode "Man's Best Friend" as the primary reason for his dismissal. Nickelodeon terminated Kricfalusi's contract in late September 1992 and offered him the position of consultant for Ren & Stimpy, but he refused to "sell out"; the network moved production from Spümcø to its newly founded animation studio, Games Animation, whi
Nickelodeon is an American pay television network, launched on December 1, 1977 as the first cable channel for children. It is owned by Viacom through its Viacom Media Networks division's Nickelodeon Group unit and is based in New York City, it broadcasts from 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. on weekdays, Saturdays from 7:00 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. and Sundays from 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.. It is aimed at children and adolescents aged 2–17; the channel was first tested as Pinwheel on December 1, 1977. Pinwheel was at the time only available on QUBE, the first two-way major market interactive cable television system, owned by Warner Cable. Pinwheel relaunched as Nickelodeon on April 1, 1979, expanded to other cable providers nationwide, it was commercial-free and remained without advertising until 1984. Warner sold Nickelodeon, along with its sister networks MTV and VH1, to Viacom in 1986; as of January 2016, the channel is available to about 92.056 million households in the United States. The channel's name comes from the first five cent movie theaters called nickelodeons.
Its history dates back to December 1, 1977, when Warner Cable Communications launched the first two-way interactive cable system, QUBE, in Columbus, Ohio. Under the name Pinwheel Network, the C-3 cable channel carried Pinwheel daily from 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Nickelodeon launched on April 1, 1979 distributed to Warner Cable systems via satellite on the RCA Satcom-1 transponder. Commercial-free, advertising was introduced in January 1984. Nickelodeon's schedule consists of original series aimed at children, pre-teens and young teenagers, including animated series, to live-action comedy and action series, as well as series aimed at preschoolers, it airs reruns of select original series that have ended their runs, as well as occasional original made-for-TV movies. It aired bi-monthly special editions of Nick News with Linda Ellerbee, a newsmagazine series aimed at children that debuted in 1992 as a weekly series which ended in 2015. Nicktoons is the branding for Nickelodeon's original animated television series.
Until 1991, the animated series that aired on Nickelodeon were imported from foreign countries, some original animated specials were featured on the channel up to that point. Original animated series continue to make up a substantial portion of Nickelodeon's lineup, with 6 to 7 hours of these programs airing on the weekday schedule and around nine hours on weekends, including a five-hour weekend morning animation block. Since the late 2000s, after the channel struck a deal with DreamWorks Animation in 2006 to develop the studio's animated films into weekly series, the network has begun to incorporate Nicktoons that use three-dimensional computer animation in addition to those that are produced through traditional or digital ink and paint. Nickelodeon does not air direct-to-video movies on a regular basis; the channel airs feature films produced by the network's Nickelodeon Movies film production division. Although the film division bears the Nickelodeon brand name, the channel does not have access to most of the movies produced by its film unit.
Nickelodeon does have broadcast rights to most feature films based on or that served as the basis for original series produced by it. Nickelodeon advertises hour-long episodes of its original series as movies. Nickelodeon periodically acquires theatrically released feature films for broadcast on the channel including Universal's Barbie: A Fashion Fairytale, several Monster High films, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles Forever, with the Barbie and Monster High films aired under a brokered format in which Mattel purchases the time in order to promote the release of their films on DVD within a few days of the Nickelodeon premiere, an arrangement possible as Nickelodeon does not have to meet the Federal Communications Commission rules which disallow th
MTV is an American pay television channel owned by Viacom Media Networks and headquartered in New York City. The channel was launched on August 1, 1981, aired music videos as guided by television personalities known as "video jockeys". At first, MTV's main target demographic was young adults, but today it is teenagers high school and college students. Since its inception, MTV has toned down its music video programming and its programming now consists of original reality and drama programming and some off-network syndicated programs and films, with limited music video programming in off-peak time periods. MTV had struggled with the secular decline of music-related subscription-based media, its ratings had been said to be failing systematically, as younger viewers shift towards other media platforms, with yearly ratings drops as high as 29%. In April 2016, then-appointed MTV president Sean Atkins announced plans to restore music programming to the channel. Under current MTV president Chris McCarthy, reality programming has once again become prominent.
MTV has spawned numerous sister channels in the U. S. and affiliated channels internationally, some of which have gone independent, with 90.6 million American households in the United States receiving the channel as of January 2016. Several earlier concepts for music video-based television programming had been around since the early 1960s; the Beatles had used music videos to promote their records starting in the mid-1960s. The creative use of music videos within their 1964 film A Hard Day's Night the performance of the song "Can't Buy Me Love", led MTV on June 26, 1999, to honor the film's director Richard Lester with an award for "basically inventing the music video". In his book The Mason Williams FCC Rapport, author Mason Williams states that he pitched an idea to CBS for a television program that featured "video-radio", where disc jockeys would play avant-garde art pieces set to music. CBS rejected the idea, but Williams premiered his own musical composition "Classical Gas" on the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, where he was head writer.
In 1970, Philadelphia-based disc jockey Bob Whitney created The Now Explosion, a television series filmed in Atlanta and broadcast in syndication to other local television stations throughout the United States. The series featured promotional clips from various popular artists, but was canceled by its distributor in 1971. Several music programs originating outside of the US, including Australia's Countdown and the United Kingdom's Top of the Pops, which had aired music videos in lieu of performances from artists who were not available to perform live, began to feature them by the mid-1970s. In 1974, Gary Van Haas, vice president of Televak Corporation, introduced a concept to distribute a music video channel to record stores across the United States, promoted the channel, named Music Video TV, to distributors and retailers in a May 1974 issue of Billboard; the channel, which featured video disc jockeys, signed a deal with US Cable in 1978 to expand its audience from retail to cable television.
The service was no longer active by the time MTV launched in 1981. In 1977, Warner Cable a division of Warner Communications and the precursor of Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment launched the first two-way interactive cable television system named QUBE in Columbus, Ohio; the QUBE system offered many specialized channels. One of these specialized channels was Sight on Sound, a music channel that featured concert footage and music-oriented television programs. With the interactive QUBE service, viewers could vote for their favorite artists; the original programming format of MTV was created by media executive Robert W. Pittman, who became president and chief executive officer of MTV Networks. Pittman had test-driven the music format by producing and hosting a 15-minute show, Album Tracks, on New York City television station WNBC-TV in the late 1970s. Pittman's boss Warner-Amex executive vice president John Lack had shepherded PopClips, a television series created by former Monkee-turned solo artist Michael Nesmith, whose attention had turned to the music video format in the late 1970s.
The inspiration for PopClips came from a similar program on New Zealand's TVNZ network named Radio with Pictures, which premiered in 1976. The concept itself had been in the works since 1966, when major record companies began supplying the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation with promotional music clips to play on the air at no charge. Few artists made the long trip to New Zealand to appear live. On Saturday, August 1, 1981, at 12:01 AM Eastern Time, MTV was launched with the words "Ladies and gentlemen and roll," spoken by John Lack and played over footage of the first Space Shuttle launch countdown of Columbia and of the launch of Apollo 11; those words were followed by the original MTV theme song, a crunching rock tune composed by Jonathan Elias and John Petersen, playing over the American flag changed to show MTV's logo changing into various textures and designs. MTV producers Alan Goodman and Fred Seibert used this public domain footage as a concept. A shortened version of the shuttle launch ID ran at the top of every hour in various forms, from MTV's first day until it was pulled in early 1986 in the wake of the Challenger disaster.
A job fair referred as a career fair or career expo, is an event in which employers and schools give information to potential employees. Job seekers attend these while trying to make a good impression to potential coworkers by speaking face-to-face with one another, filling out résumés, asking questions in attempt to get a good feel on the work needed. Online job fairs are held, giving job seekers another way to get in contact with probable employers using the internet. In colleges, job fairs are used for entry-level job recruitment. Job seekers use this opportunity to meet with a college and attempt to stand out from other applicants and get an overview of what it is like to work for a company or a sector that seems interesting to the applicant. Career expositions include company or organization tables or booths where resumes can be collected and business cards can be exchanged. Sponsored by career centers, job fairs provide a convenient location for students to meet employers and perform first interviews.
This is an opportunity for companies to meet with students and talk to them about their expectations from them as students and answer their potential questions such as the degree or work experience needed. Online job fairs offer many of the same conveniences of regular career fairs. An online job fair uses a virtual platform which allows employers to discuss with potential new nominees for the job they’re offering; this is a way of interacting with them and practical to get to know who they are. A virtual career fair include many services such as video, live chats, downloadable material and many more to make it the more helpful both for the recruiter and the job seeker. After having applied online to positions, many more people are trying their luck with in-person job fairs
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company known as Walt Disney or Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks and Products, Disney Media Networks, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International.
Disney owns and operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters, serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.
After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring his first original character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, distributed by Winkler Pictures through Universal Pictures. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winkler's husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company.
It was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho. Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst.
On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings. Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt