University of Oklahoma
The University of Oklahoma is a coeducational public research university located in Norman, Oklahoma. Founded in 1890, it had existed in Oklahoma Territory near Indian Territory for 17 years before the two became the state of Oklahoma, in Fall 2016 the university had 31,250 students enrolled, most located at its main campus in Norman. Employing nearly 3,000 faculty members, the school offers 152 baccalaureate programs,160 masters programs,75 doctorate programs, David Lyle Boren, a former U. S. Senator and Oklahoma Governor, has served as the president since 1994. The school is ranked first among universities in enrollment of National Merit Scholars. Located on its Norman campus are two prominent museums, the Fred Jones Jr, Museum of Art, specializing in French Impressionism and Native American artwork, and the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, specializing in the natural history of Oklahoma. The school, well known for its programs, has won 7 NCAA Division I National Football Championships.
Its baseball team has won 2 NCAA national championships and the softball team won the national championship in 2000,2013. Oklahomas admission into the union in 1907 led to the renaming of the Norman Territorial University as the University of Oklahoma, Norman residents donated 407 acres of land for the university 0.5 miles south of the Norman railroad depot. The universitys first president ordered the planting of trees before the construction of the first campus building because he could not visualize a treeless university seat. Landscaping remains important to the university, the universitys first president, David Ross Boyd, arrived in Norman in August 1892, and the first students enrolled that year. The university established a School of Pharmacy in 1893 because of demand for pharmacists in the territory. Three years later, the university awarded its first degree to a pharmaceutical chemist, the Rock Building in downtown Norman held the initial classes until the universitys first building opened on September 6,1893.
On January 6,1903, the only building burned down. Construction began immediately on a new building, as other towns hoped to capitalize by convincing the university to move. President Boyd and the faculty were not dismayed by the loss, mathematics professor Frederick Elder said, What do you need to keep classes going. Two yards of blackboard and a box of chalk, as a response to the fire, English professor Vernon Louis Parrington created a plan for the future development of the campus. Most of the plan was never implemented, but Parringtons suggestion for the core formed the basis for the North Oval
The Pontiac Firebird is an American automobile built by Pontiac from the 1967 to the 2002 model years. Designed as a car to compete with the Ford Mustang, it was introduced 23 February 1967. The first generation Firebird had characteristic Coke bottle styling shared with its cousin, unlike the Camaro, the Firebirds bumpers were integrated into the design of the front end. The Firebirds rear slit taillights were inspired by the 1966–1967 Pontiac GTO, both a two-door hardtop and a convertible were offered through the 1969 model year. Originally, the car was a prize for Pontiac, which had desired to produce a two-seat sports car based on its original Banshee concept car. However, GM feared this would cut into Chevrolet Corvette sales, the 1967 base model Firebird came equipped with the Chevrolet 230 cu in SOHC inline-six. Fitted with a carburetor, it was rated at 165 hp. The Sprint model six came with a carburetor, developing 215 hp. Most buyers opted for one of three V8s, the 326 cu in with a two-barrel carburetor producing 250 hp, the four-barrel HO326, producing 285 hp, all 1967–1968400 CI engines had throttle restrictors that blocked the carburetors second barrels from fully opening.
A Ram Air option was available, providing functional hood scoops, higher flow heads with stronger valve springs. Power for the Ram Air package was the same as the conventional 400 HO, for the 1968 model, the 326 CID engine was replaced by the Pontiac 350 cu in V8, which actually displaced 355 cu in, and produced 265 hp with a two-barrel carburetor. An HO version of the 350 CID with a revised cam was offered starting in that year, power output of the other engines was increased marginally. There was an additional Ram Air IV option for the 400 CID engines during 1969, complementing the Ram Air III, the 350 CID HO engine was revised again with a different cam and cylinder heads resulting in 325 hp. During 1969 a special 303 cu in engine was designed for SCCA road racing applications that was not available in production cars, the front door vent-windows were replaced with a single pane of glass and Astro Ventilation, a fresh-air-inlet system. The 1969 model received a facelift with a new front end design but unlike the GTO.
The instrument panel and steering wheel were revised, the ignition switch was moved from the dashboard to the steering column with the introduction of GMs new locking ignition switch/steering wheel. In March 1969, a $725 optional handling package called the Trans Am performance and appearance package, UPC WS4, of these first Trans Ams, only 689 hardtops and eight convertibles were made. By late spring of 1969, Pontiac had deleted all references on Firebird literature and promotional materials
A touchdown is a means of scoring in both American and Canadian football. Whether running, returning a kickoff or punt, or recovering a turnover, to score a touchdown, one team must take the football into the opposite end zone. The touchdown is scored the instant the ball crosses the plane of the line while in possession of a player whose team is trying to score in that end zone. The play is dead and the scores the moment the ball crosses the goal line in possession of a player. The slightest part of the ball being over the line is sufficient for a touchdown to score. However, only the ball counts, not a players helmet, touching one of the pylons at either end of the goal line with the ball constitutes breaking the plane as well. Touchdowns are usually scored by the offense by running or passing the ball, the defense can score a touchdown if they have recovered a fumble or made an interception and return it to the opposing end zone. Special teams can score a touchdown on a kickoff or punt return, in short, any play in which a player legally carries the ball across the goal line scores a touchdown, and the manner in which he gained possession is inconsequential. A touchdown is worth six points, the scoring team is awarded the opportunity for an extra point or a two-point conversion.
Afterwards, the team scored the touchdown kicks off to the opposing team. This rule was changed to the iteration in 1889. If the teammate could fair catch the ball, he could follow with a try for goal from the spot of the catch, the governing rule at the time read, A match shall be decided by a majority of touchdowns. A goal shall be equal to four touchdowns, but in the case of a tie, in 1881, the rules were modified so that a goal kicked from a touchdown took precedence over a goal kicked from the field in breaking ties. In 1882, four touchdowns were determined to take precedence over a goal kicked from the field, two safeties were equivalent to a touchdown. In 1883, points were introduced to football, and a touchdown counted as four points, a goal after a touchdown counted as four points. In 1889, the provision requiring the ball to actually be touched to the ground was removed, a touchdown was now scored by possessing the ball beyond the goal line. In 1897, the touchdown scored five points, and the goal after touchdown added another point, in 1900, the definition of touchdown was changed to include situations where the ball becomes dead on or above the goal line.
In 1912, the value of a touchdown was increased to six points, the end zone was added
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team, if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the teams end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponents goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins, American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6,1869, during the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States, Professional football and college football are the most popular forms of the game, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, in the United States, American football is referred to as football.
The term football was established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season. The terms gridiron or American football are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, American football evolved from the sports of association football and rugby football. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6,1869 between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams, the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school. Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19,1873 to create a set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, and fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified, Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball.
An 1875 Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes and these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to selling refrigerators to Eskimos. Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879, the introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position, however, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records, each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0-0 tie
The Pro Bowl is the all-star game of the National Football League. Between 2014 and 2016, the NFL experimented with an unconferenced format, the players were picked in a televised schoolyard pick prior to the game. Unlike most major leagues, which hold their all-star games roughly midway through their respective regular seasons. Between 1970 and 2009, it was held the weekend after the Super Bowl. Since 2010, the Pro Bowl has been played the weekend before the Super Bowl, Players from the two teams competing in the Super Bowl do not participate. Observers and commentators expressed their disfavor with the Pro Bowl in its current state and it draws lower TV ratings than its regular-season games, although the game draws similar ratings to other major all-star games, such as the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. However, the biggest concern of teams is to avoid injuries to the star players, the Associated Press wrote that players in the 2012 game were hitting each other as though they were having a pillow fight.
Between 1980 and 2016, the game was played at Aloha Stadium in Hawaii, on June 1,2016, the NFL announced that they reached a multi-year deal to move the game to Orlando, Florida as part of the leagues ongoing efforts to make the game more relevant. For years, the game has suffered from lack of interest due to perceived low quality, the 2017 Pro Bowl will mark a return to the AFC–NFC format. The first Pro All-Star Game, featuring the all-stars of the 1938 season, was played on January 15,1939 at Wrigley Field in Los Angeles. The NFL All-Star Game was played again in Los Angeles in 1940 and in New York, although originally planned as an annual contest, the all-star game was discontinued after 1942 because of travel restrictions put in place during World War II. During the first five games, an all-star team would face that years league champion. The league champion won the first four games before the all-stars were victorious in the game of this early series. The concept of a game was not revived until June 1950.
The game was sponsored by the Los Angeles Publishers Association and it was decided that the game would feature all-star teams from each of the leagues two conferences rather than the league champion versus all-star format which had been used previously. This was done to avoid confusion with the Chicago College All-Star Game, the teams would be led by the coach of each of the conference champions. The first 21 games of the series were played in Los Angeles, the site of the game was changed annually for each of the next seven years before the game was moved to Aloha Stadium in Halawa, Hawaii for 30 straight seasons from 1980 through 2009. With the new rule being that the teams do not include players from the teams that will be playing in the Super Bowl
The Southwest Conference was an NCAA Division I college athletic conference in the United States that existed from 1914 to 1996. Composed primarily of schools from Texas, at times the conference included schools from Oklahoma. After a long period of stability, Arkansas left in 1991 to join the Southeastern Conference, by March 1,1914 a number of schools had responded favorably to the idea. The first organizational meeting of the conference was set to be held on April 30,1914, the date was changed because representatives from every school could not make it then. It was ultimately held on May 5 and 7,1914 at the Oriental Hotel in Dallas, Texas and it was chaired by L. Theo Bellmont. Originally, Bellmont wanted Louisiana State University and the University of Mississippi to join the conference as well, the Southwest Intercollegiate Athletic Conference became an official body on December 8,1914, at a formal meeting at the Rice Hotel in Houston. Rice University left the conference in 1916, only to re-join in 1918, phillips University was a conference member for one year.
Oklahoma left in 1919 to join the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association, the series between Texas and Oklahoma would continue as a non-conference matchup in the annual Red River Rivalry game held in Dallas. From 1925 until 1991, the University of Arkansas would be the only member not located within the state of Texas. By 1925, the name was shortened to simply Southwest Conference. After its organizational years, the conference settled into regularly scheduled meetings among its members, the SWC would be guided by seven commissioners, the first of whom, P. W. St. Clair, was appointed in 1938. In 1940, the conference took control of the five-year-old Cotton Bowl Classic, Texas Technological College joined the SWC in 1958, followed by the University of Houston for the 1976 season. The conference celebrated its glory years in the 1960s, dominated by two teams and Arkansas. Texas won the 1963 National Championship, and Arkansas won a National Championship in 1964 in the Football Writers Association of America, in 1969, Texas won another National Championship by beating #2-ranked Arkansas 15-14 in the regular seasons final game.
The 1969 Arkansas-Texas game in Fayetteville, attended by President Richard Nixon, is counted among the greatest college football games ever played. Texas won the 1970 United Press International National Championship, which until 1974 was awarded prior to the bowl games, opponents usually were the runners-up from the Big 8 Conference or the Southeastern Conference, although independents Penn State and Notre Dame were often featured. From the 1940s onward, the Cotton Bowl Classic was counted among the four bowl games. However, in the 1990s, the game declined in importance, in 1977, Notre Dame became the last team to win a national championship in the Cotton Bowl Classic by beating Texas in the January 1978 game
Los Angeles Rams
The Los Angeles Rams are a professional American football team that play in the National Football League. The Rams franchise was founded in 1936 as the Cleveland Rams in the short-lived second American Football League before joining the NFL the next year, in 1946, the franchise moved to Los Angeles. The Rams franchise remained in the area until 1994, when they moved to St. Louis. The Rams franchise returned to Los Angeles in 2016, Reeves threatened to end his relationship with the NFL and get out of the professional football business altogether unless the Rams transfer to Los Angeles was permitted. A settlement was reached and, as a result, Reeves was allowed to move his team to Los Angeles, the NFL became the first professional coast-to-coast sports entertainment industry. From 1933, when Joe Lillard left the Chicago Cardinals, through 1946, after the Rams had received approval to move to Los Angeles, the Rams entered into negotiations to lease the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The Rams were advised that a precondition to them getting a lease was that they would have to integrate the team with at least one African-American, the Rams signed Kenny Washington on March 21,1946.
The signing of Washington caused all hell to break loose among the owners of the NFL franchises, the Rams added a second black player, Woody Strode, on May 7,1946, giving them two black players going into the 1946 season. The Rams were the first team in the NFL to play in Los Angeles, the upstart All-America Football Conference had the Los Angeles Dons compete there as well. Reeves was taking a gamble that Los Angeles was ready for its own football team –. Reeves was proved to be correct when the Rams played their first pre-season game against the Washington Redskins in front of a crowd of 95,000 fans, the team finished their first season in L. A. with a 6–4–1 record, second place behind the Chicago Bears. At the end of the season Walsh was fired as head coach, the Coliseum would be the home of the Rams for more than 30 years, but the facility was already over 20 years old on the day of the first kickoff. In 1948, halfback Fred Gehrke painted horns on the Rams helmets, Kelley had an early evening talk show on L. A. radio station KMPC, that was considered by most sports enthusiasts as highly entertaining.
Kelley was generally considered a Legend and a professional, one of the great radio. At the beginning of the 1951 World Championship game after the kickoff, Kelley was able to cite every player on the prior to the first snap from scrimmage. The Rams first heyday in Southern California was from 1949 to 1955, during this period, they had the best offense in the NFL, even though there was a quarterback change from Bob Waterfield to Norm Van Brocklin in 1951. The defining Offensive players of this period were wide receiver Elroy Hirsch, Van Brocklin, teamed with fellow Hall of Famer Tom Fears, Hirsch helped create the style of Rams football as one of the first big play receivers. During the 1951 Championship season, Hirsch posted a stunning 1,495 receiving yards with 17 touchdowns, the popularity of this wide-open offense enabled the Los Angeles Rams to become the first pro football team to have all their games televised in 1950
Herschel Walker is a former professional American football player, bobsledder and mixed martial artist. He played college football for the University of Georgia, earned consensus All-American honors three times and won the 1982 Heisman Trophy, Walker began his professional football career with the New Jersey Generals of the United States Football League, before joining the Dallas Cowboys of the National Football League. In the NFL, he played for the Minnesota Vikings, Philadelphia Eagles. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1999, Walker was born in Augusta, Georgia to parents Willis and Christine Walker. He was raised in Wrightsville, Georgia and he was one of seven children in his blue collar family. Walker said that as a child he was overweight and had a speech impediment, Walkers mother taught him not to use these problems as excuses in life. Walker attended Johnson County High School in Wrightsville, where he played football, basketball and he played for the Johnson County Trojans high school football team from 1976 to 1979.
In his senior year, he rushed for 3,167 yards and he was awarded the first Dial Award as 1979 national high school scholar-athlete of the year. Also a standout athlete, Walker competed on the Trojans track & field team in events ranging from the 100-yard dash to the shot put and he won the shot put, 100-yard dash, and 220-yard dash events at the GHSA Class A State T&F Championships. He anchored the 4x400 team to victory, with a time of 3,24.01 minutes, Walker competed as a sprinter at Georgia, where he was a two-time All-American selection. He was a member of the SEC champion 4 ×100 m relay squad in 1981 and he ran the 100 meters in a PR of 10.23 seconds in 1982 and ran 10.10 seconds wind-assisted. He improved his high school 100-yard dash time of 9.5 to 9.3 seconds and he competed in the 55-meter dash in 1983, recording a time of 6.11 seconds. He competed in the 1992 Winter Olympics in two-man bobsled, paired with Brian Shimer and he is the only player in NCAA history to finish in the top three in Heisman voting in all three of his collegiate seasons.
He is the only NCAA player who played three years to finish in the top ten in rushing yards. During his freshman season in 1980, Walker set the NCAA freshman rushing record, Walker was the first true freshman to become a first-team All-American. He played a role in helping Georgia avoid defeat that year. He won the Heisman as a junior, in 1999, Walker was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame and is considered one of college footballs greatest players. The season began with sophomore Carnie Norris starting ahead of Walker at tailback as the Bulldogs faced the University of Tennessee on September 6 in Knoxville
The 2, 000-yard club is a group of seven National Football League running backs that have rushed for 2,000 or more yards in a season. These seven rushing seasons rank as the highest single-season rushing totals in NFL history, no running back has yet achieved this feat twice. The first 2, 000-yard season was recorded in 1973 by Buffalo Bills running back O. J, los Angeles Rams running back Eric Dickerson, who had broken the single-season rookie rushing record in 1983, recorded the second 2, 000-yard season in 1984. Dickerson rushed for 2,105 yards, the current NFL rushing record, detroit Lions running back Barry Sanders recorded the third 2, 000-yard season in 1997, rushing for 2,053 yards. At the age of 29, Sanders was the oldest back to surpass 2,000 yards. Sanders had opened the season with only 53 yards through two games, but ran for 100 yards or more in each of the last 14 games of the season and averaged 6.1 yards per carry during the season. In 1998 Denver Broncos running back Terrell Davis became the player to rush for over 2,000 yards.
Davis recorded 21 rushing touchdowns in his 2, 000-yard season, Davis had reached the 1, 000-yard mark only seven games into the season. Baltimore Ravens running back Jamal Lewis surpassed 2,000 yards in the 2003 season,500 of these yards were recorded in two games against the Cleveland Browns, with Lewis rushing for a then-NFL record 295 yards in the first and recording 205 rushing yards in the second. Tennessee Titans running back Chris Johnson ran for 2,006 yards in 2009, averaging 5.6 yards per carry, and recorded an NFL-record 2,509 yards from scrimmage. Peterson had torn two ligaments in his knee the previous year, making him the only player to have surpassed 2,000 yards after having reconstructive knee surgery the prior season. Archived from the original on March 5,2013, AP Offensive Player of the Year winners. Archived from the original on March 5,2013, National Football League 250 best American Football League and NFL rushing seasons
John Albert Elway Jr. is a former American football quarterback and current executive vice president of football operations and general manager of the Denver Broncos of the National Football League. Elway played college football at Stanford and his entire 16-year professional career with the Denver Broncos, at the time of his retirement in early 1999, Elway recorded the most victories by a starting quarterback and statistically was the second most prolific passer in NFL history. He was a prolific rusher of the ball, being one of two players ever to score a rushing touchdown in four different Super Bowls and the only quarterback to do so. Elway set several records for passing attempts and completions while at Stanford. He was the first selection in the 1983 NFL Draft, famously known as the class of 1983. The moment is known in National Football League lore as The Drive, following that game in Cleveland and the Broncos lost in Super Bowl XXI to the New York Giants. The Broncos repeated as champions the following season in Super Bowl XXXIII by defeating the Atlanta Falcons 34–19, as Denvers quarterback, Elway led his teams to six AFC Championship Games and five Super Bowls, winning two.
Elway was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2004 in his first year of eligibility and his twin sister were born in Port Angeles, Washington, to Janet and Jack Elway, the head coach at Port Angeles High School on the Olympic Peninsula. The family of five included sister Lee Ann, an older than the twins. They moved the year to southwestern Washington, where Jack was the junior college head football coach at Grays Harbor Community College in Aberdeen for five seasons. As a youth, Elway lived primarily in Missoula and Pullman, Washington, in February 1976, Jack joined the staff at Palouse neighbor Idaho, but a month became the head coach at Cal State-Northridge, a Division II program in southern California. Also an accomplished player, Elway was selected by the Kansas City Royals in the 18th round of the 1979 Major League Baseball draft. In 1979, he started attending Stanford University, where he played football and baseball. In his senior season in 1982, Stanford was 5-5 and needed to win their final game, with two minutes remaining in the game, Stanford was down 19-17 and had 4th-and-17 on their own 13-yard line.
Elway completed a 29-yard pass and drove the ball downfield to the 35-yard line, the clock had four seconds remaining, so Stanford had to kick off. What followed is now known as The Play, in which Cal players lateraled the ball, rugby-style. Elway was bitter about the game afterward, stating that the officials ruined my last game as a football player. Stanford athletics director Andy Geiger said the loss cost Elway the Heisman Trophy, twenty years later, Elway came to terms with The Play, saying that each year it gets a little funnier