George William Hill
George William Hill was an American astronomer and mathematician. Working independently and in isolation from the wider scientific community, he made major contributions to celestial mechanics and to the theory of ordinary differential equations; the importance of his work was explicitly acknowledged by Henri Poincaré in 1905. In 1909 Hill was awarded the Royal Society's Copley Medal, "on the ground of his researches in mathematical astronomy". Today, he is chiefly remembered for the Hill differential equation. Hill was born in New York City to painter and engraver John William Hill and his wife, Catherine Smith, he moved to West Nyack with his family when he was eight years old. After high school, Hill attended Rutgers College, where he became interested in mathematics. At Rutgers, Hill came under the influence of professor Theodore Strong, a friend of pioneering US mathematician and astronomer Nathaniel Bowditch. Strong encouraged Hill to read the great works on analysis by Sylvestre Lacroix and Adrien-Marie Legendre, as well as the treatises on mechanics and mathematical astronomy by Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Siméon Denis Poisson, Gustave de Pontécoulant.
Hill graduated from Rutgers College in 1859, with a Bachelor of Arts degree. In that same year he published his first scientific paper, on the geometrical curve of a drawbridge. Two years he earned a prize from the Runkle Mathematical Monthly for his work on the mathematical theory of the figure of the Earth. In the early 1860s, Hill began studying the works on lunar theory by Charles-Eugène Delaunay and Peter Andreas Hansen, which would inspire and motivate most of Hill's subsequent research. In 1861, Hill was hired by John Daniel Runkle to work in the United States Naval Observatory's Nautical Almanac Office, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1862 Rutgers awarded Hill a Master of Arts degree. Hill lived for a while in Cambridge and in Washington, D. C. but he preferred to carry out his mathematical work in his family farm in West Nyack, to which he retired for good after 1892. Hill's mature work focused on the mathematics of the three-body problem, the four-body problem, to calculate the orbits of the Moon around the Earth, as well as that of planets around the Sun.
Hill was able to quantify the gravitational sphere of influence of an astronomical body in the presence of other heavy bodies, by introducing the concept of the zero-velocity surface. The space within this surface is now known as the "Hill sphere" and it corresponds to the region around a body within which it may capture satellites. In 1878, Hill provided the first complete mathematical solution to the problem of the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit around the Earth, a difficult problem in lunar theory first raised in Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica of 1687; this same work introduced what is now known in physics and mathematics as the "Hill differential equation", which describes the behavior of a parametric oscillator and which made an important contribution to the mathematical Floquet theory. Hill's work attracted the attention of the international scientific community, in 1894 he was chosen as president of the American Mathematical Society, serving for two years. Hill lectured at Columbia University from 1898 to 1901, but he attracted few students and he chose to return his salary and to continue working alone in his home in West Nyack, rather than within academia.
Hill's Collected Works were published in 1905-07 by the Carnegie Institution for Science, with a 12-page introduction by the eminent French mathematician and theoretical physicist Henri Poincaré. In that introduction, Poincaré said that, in Hill's 1878 article titled "Researches in the lunar theory", "one is allowed to perceive the germ of most of the progress that has made since". Of Hill's isolation from the academic community, Poincaré declared that This reserve, I was going to say this savagery, has been a happy circumstance for science, because it has allowed him to complete his ingenious and patient researches. George William Hill was elected as a foreign member of the Royal Society of London in 1902, he became a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1908, of the scientific academies of Belgium, Norway and the Netherlands. His years were marked by poor health, he died in West Nyack in 1914, he never married and had no children. Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society Damoiseau Prize from the Institut de France Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Hill crater on the Moon Asteroid 1642 Hill Hill Center for the Mathematical Sciences at Rutgers University's Busch Campus The collected mathematical works of George William Hill vol. 1 The collected mathematical works of George William Hill vol. 2 The collected mathematical works of George William Hill vol. 3 The collected mathematical works of George William Hill vol. 4 O'Connor, John J..
National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island. Founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it is the seventh-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. At its foundation, Brown was the first college in the U. S. to accept students regardless of their religious affiliation. Its engineering program was established in 1847, it was one of the early doctoral-granting U. S. institutions in the late 19th century, adding masters and doctoral studies in 1887. In 1969, Brown adopted a New Curriculum sometimes referred to as the Brown Curriculum after a period of student lobbying; the New Curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education" distribution requirements, made students "the architects of their own syllabus" and allowed them to take any course for a grade of satisfactory or unrecorded no-credit. In 1971, Brown's coordinate women's institution, Pembroke College, was merged into the university.
Undergraduate admissions is selective, with an acceptance rate of 6.6% for the class of 2023. The university comprises the College, the Graduate School, Alpert Medical School, the School of Engineering, the School of Public Health and the School of Professional Studies. Brown's international programs are organized through the Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, the university is academically affiliated with the Marine Biological Laboratory and the Rhode Island School of Design; the Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program, offered in conjunction with the Rhode Island School of Design, is a five-year course that awards degrees from both institutions. Brown's main campus is located in the College Hill Historic District in the city of Providence, Rhode Island; the University's neighborhood is a federally listed architectural district with a dense concentration of Colonial-era buildings. Benefit Street, on the western edge of the campus, contains "one of the finest cohesive collections of restored seventeenth- and eighteenth-century architecture in the United States".
As of August 2018, 8 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Brown University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Brown's faculty and alumni include five National Humanities Medalists and ten National Medal of Science laureates. Other notable alumni include eight billionaire graduates, a U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice, four U. S. Secretaries of State and other Cabinet officials, 54 members of the United States Congress, 56 Rhodes Scholars, 52 Gates Cambridge Scholars 49 Marshall Scholars, 14 MacArthur Genius Fellows, 21 Pulitzer Prize winners, various royals and nobles, as well as leaders and founders of Fortune 500 companies; the origin of Brown University can be dated to 1761, when three residents of Newport, Rhode Island drafted a petition to the General Assembly of the colony: Your Petitioners propose to open a literary institution or School for instructing young Gentlemen in the Languages, Geography & History, & such other branches of Knowledge as shall be desired.
That for this End... it will be necessary... to erect a public Building or Buildings for the boarding of the youth & the Residence of the Professors. The three petitioners were Ezra Stiles, pastor of Newport's Second Congregational Church and future president of Yale. Stiles and Ellery were co-authors of the Charter of the College two years later; the editor of Stiles's papers observes, "This draft of a petition connects itself with other evidence of Dr. Stiles's project for a Collegiate Institution in Rhode Island, before the charter of what became Brown University."There is further documentary evidence that Stiles was making plans for a college in 1762. On January 20, Chauncey Whittelsey, pastor of the First Church of New Haven, answered a letter from Stiles: The week before last I sent you the Copy of Yale College Charter... Should you make any Progress in the Affair of a Colledge, I should be glad to hear of it; the Philadelphia Association of Baptist Churches had an eye on Rhode Island, home of the mother church of their denomination: the First Baptist Church in America, founded in Providence in 1638 by Roger Williams.
The Baptists were as yet unrepresented among colonial colleges. Isaac Backus was the historian of the New England Baptists and an inaugural Trustee of Brown, writing in 1784, he described the October 1762 resolution taken at Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Association obtained such an acquaintance with our affairs, as to bring them to an apprehension that it was practicable and expedient to erect a college in the Colony of Rhode-Island, under the chief direction of the Baptists. Mr. James Manning, who took his first degree in New-Jersey college in September, 1762, was esteemed a suitable leader in this important work. Manning arrived at Newport in July 1763 and was introduced to Stiles, who agreed to write the Charter for the College. Stiles's first draft was read to the General Assembly in August 1763 and rejected by Baptist members who worried that the College Board of Fellows would under-represent the Baptists. A revised Charter written by Stiles and Ellery was adopted by the Assembly on March 3, 1764.
In September 1764, the inaugural meeting of the College Corporation was held at Newport. Go
Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Santurce is a barrio in the municipality of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Its population in 2010 was 81,251, it is the biggest and most populated of all the districts in the capital with a bigger population than most municipalities of Puerto Rico and one of the most densely populated areas of the island. Santurce is one of the top ten most-populated areas of the island, it includes the neighborhoods of Miramar, Loíza, Isla Grande, Barrio Obrero, Condado, which are cultural hot spots for art, cuisine, hotels, multimedia, film and startups. The 2010 U. S. Census recorded a total population of 81,251 people living in an area of 5.24 square miles. It is the most populous borough in Puerto Rico and one of the most densely populated areas of San Juan, at 15,447.0 residents per square mile. Geographically speaking, Santurce is a peninsula, attached to the mainland in the east, where it borders with the Isla Verde district of Carolina, it is 7.6 km long from west to east, up to 3.0 km wide in the eastern part.
The peninsula is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean in the north, with more than five km of beaches from the Condado peninsula in the west, to a point 600 m east of "Punta Las Marías", where it borders on the Isla Verde area, "Laguna San José" and its northern embayment, "Laguna Los Corozos" to the east. To the south is the Martín Peña Channel, which separates Santurce from the northern barrios of former municipio Río Piedras: Hato Rey Norte, Hato Rey Central, Oriente. To the west is San Juan Bay, where three bridges, "Puente Dos Hermanos", "Puente G. Esteves" and "Puente San Antonio" connect Santurce with "La Isleta" where Old San Juan is located, it has a total area of 8.70 square miles composed of 5.24 square miles of land and 3.46 square miles of water area. The topography is flat with low hills toward the central areas and swampy areas to the south along the Martín Peña Channel and to the east near the Laguna San José; the highest point is at Monteflores with 23 meters. Santurce is located along the north-eastern coast of Puerto Rico.
It lies east of Old San Juan and west of Isla Verde. The district occupies an area of 5.24 square miles of 3.46 of water. It is surrounded by six bodies of water: San Juan Bay, Condado Natural Lagoon, the Martín Peña Channel, San José Lagoon, Los Corozos Lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean with its respective beaches and estuaries. Santurce was settled by the native Arawak and by slaves of African ancestry who arrived from the neighboring Danish West Indies. Throughout the centuries, the district continued to grow due to its crossfade location between San Juan and its southern suburbs. In 1876, an engineer from the port town of Santurtzi in Spain's autonomous Basque Country region known as Pablo Ubarri arrived on the island to help in the construction of a railroad system and a steam tramway between San Juan and the town of Río Piedras through the center of "Cangrejos" which prompted the gentrification of the district. Many years after his arrival he was granted the title of Count of Santurce by the Spanish Crown.
With his newly acquired title and influence, the district was renamed after his title. The neighboring Condado received its present-name from Ubarri's title, as the district's name translates to "county"; the Treaty of Paris provided that Cuba would become independent from Spain but the U. S. Congress made sure it would be under U. S. control through the Platt Amendment. It ceded to the United States Puerto Rico, other adjacent islands under Spanish sovereignty in the Caribbean, as well as Guam and the Philippines in Asia-Pacific region; the United States Army established the now historical Camp Las Casas, in the area of "Las Casas" in 1904. The camp was the main training base of the "Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry" The Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry was a segregated U. S. Army Regiment, renamed the "65th Infantry Regiment". Correction on the previous statement: The 65th Infantry Regiment was not segregated, it was a Regular Army Regiment that accepted personnel of every race but blacks, there was a black Regiment in the Island for that purpose, the 375th Regiment.
The base continued in operation until 1946, when it was closed and the Residencial Las Casas now stands. When after the Treaty of Paris, the U. S. conducted its first census of Puerto Rico, the population of Santurce was 5,840. In the 20th century the conurbation of the San Juan metropolis expanded beyond its walled confines of Old San Juan to incorporate the boroughs of suburban Miramar, Isla Grande, Condado, along the coast, as well as industrial Hato Rey, with its large sports stadium and modern financial district, the college town of Río Piedras to the southeast. Between 1937 and 1948, Santurce along with neighboring district Miramar became one of the most vibrant areas of the capital. However, by the 1970s, most of the district had fallen into decay, losing the luster and vibrancy it once had. Many residents left Santurce. By 1980 the San Juan metropolitan area included the surrounding municipalities to the east and west and had about one-third of Puerto Rico's total population.
Mathematical Sciences Research Institute
The Mathematical Sciences Research Institute is an independent nonprofit mathematical research institution in Berkeley, California. It is regarded as a world leading mathematical center for collaborative research, drawing thousands of visiting researchers from around the world each year. MSRI was founded in 1982, its funding sources include the National Science Foundation, foundations and more than 90 universities and institutions; the Institute is located at 17 Gauss Way on the University of California, Berkeley campus, close to Grizzly Peak. The Mathematical Sciences Research Institute was founded in September 1982 by three UC Berkeley professors Shiing-Shen Chern, Calvin Moore, Isadore M. Singer. Shiing-Shen Chern acted as the founding Director of the institute and Calvin Moore acted as the founding Deputy Director. MSRI was located at the UC Extension Building at 2223 Fulton Street, on April 1, 1985, MSRI moved into its current facility on Berkeley hills. MSRI paid rent for this new building to the University of California.
However, since August 2000, it has occupied the building without the rental burden, as one of several contributions of the UC campus. MSRI is governed by a Board of Trustees consisting of up to 35 elected members and 7 ex-officio members: the Director of the Institute, the Deputy Director, the Chair of the Committee of Academic Sponsors, the co-Chairs of the Human Resources Advisory Committee and the co-Chairs of the Scientific Advisory Committee. Unlike many mathematical institutes, MSRI has no permanent faculty or members, its research activities are overseen by its Scientific Advisory Committee, a panel of distinguished mathematicians drawn from a variety of different areas of mathematical research. There are 10 regular members in the SAC, each member serves a four-year term and is elected by the Board of Trustees. MSRI hosts about 85 mathematicians and postdoctoral research fellows each semester for extended stays and holds programs and workshops, which draw 2,000 visits by mathematical scientists throughout the year.
The visitors come to MSRI to work in an environment that promotes creativity and the effective interchange of ideas and techniques. MSRI features two focused programs each semester, attended by foremost mathematicians and postdocs from the United States and abroad. MSRI takes advantage of its close proximity to the University of California Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and collaborates nationally with organizations such as the Chicago Mercantile Exchange; the Institute’s prize-winning forty-eight thousand square foot building has views of the San Francisco Bay. After 30 years of activity, the reputation of the Institute is such that mathematicians make it a professional priority to participate in the Institute’s programs; because of its contribution to the nation’s scientific potential, MSRI’s activity is supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Security Agency. Private individuals and nearly 100 Academic Sponsor Institutions, including the top mathematics departments in the United States, provide crucial support and flexibility.
James Simons, founder of Renaissance Technologies and a University of California, Berkeley mathematics alumnus, is a long-time supporter of MSRI. MSRI serves a wider community through the development of human scientific capital, providing postdoctoral training to young scientists and increasing the diversity of the research workforce; the Institute advances the education of young people with conferences on critical issues in mathematics education. Additionally, they host research workshops that are unconnected to the main programs, such as its annual workshop on K-12 mathematics education Critical Issues in Mathematics Education. During the summer, workshops for graduate students are held through the MSRI-UP program. MSRI sponsors programs for middle and high school students and their teachers as part of the Math Circles and Circles for Teachers that meet weekly in San Francisco and Oakland, it sponsors the Bay Area Mathematical Olympiad, the Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival, the U. S. team of young girls that competes at the China Girls Math Olympiad.
The lectures given at MSRI events are made available for free on the internet. MSRI has sponsored a number of events that reach out to the non-mathematical public, its Simons Auditorium hosts special performances of classical music. Mathematician Robert Osserman has held a series of public "conversations" with artists who have been influenced by mathematics in their work, such as composer Philip Glass and writer Steve Martin, playwright Tom Stoppard, actor and author Alan Alda. MSRI collaborates with local playwrights for an annual program of new short mathematics-inspired plays at Monday Night Playground at the Berkeley Repertory Theater, co-sponsored a series of mathematics-inspired films with UC Berkeley's Pacific Film Archive for MSRI's 20th anniversary, it created a series of mathematical puzzles that were posted among the advertising placards on San Francisco Muni buses. Mathematical Sciences Research Institute MSRI streaming lectures NSF Math Institutes
John von Neumann
John von Neumann was a Hungarian-American mathematician, computer scientist, polymath. Von Neumann was regarded as the foremost mathematician of his time and said to be "the last representative of the great mathematicians", he made major contributions to a number of fields, including mathematics, economics and statistics. He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics in the development of functional analysis, a key figure in the development of game theory and the concepts of cellular automata, the universal constructor and the digital computer, he published over 150 papers in his life: about 60 in pure mathematics, 60 in applied mathematics, 20 in physics, the remainder on special mathematical subjects or non-mathematical ones. His last work, an unfinished manuscript written while in hospital, was published in book form as The Computer and the Brain, his analysis of the structure of self-replication preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA. In a short list of facts about his life he submitted to the National Academy of Sciences, he stated, "The part of my work I consider most essential is that on quantum mechanics, which developed in Göttingen in 1926, subsequently in Berlin in 1927–1929.
My work on various forms of operator theory, Berlin 1930 and Princeton 1935–1939. During World War II, von Neumann worked on the Manhattan Project with theoretical physicist Edward Teller, mathematician Stanisław Ulam and others, problem solving key steps in the nuclear physics involved in thermonuclear reactions and the hydrogen bomb, he developed the mathematical models behind the explosive lenses used in the implosion-type nuclear weapon, coined the term "kiloton", as a measure of the explosive force generated. After the war, he served on the General Advisory Committee of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, consulted for a number of organizations, including the United States Air Force, the Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory, the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; as a Hungarian émigré, concerned that the Soviets would achieve nuclear superiority, he designed and promoted the policy of mutually assured destruction to limit the arms race.
Von Neumann was born Neumann János Lajos to a wealthy and non-observant Jewish family. After his arrival in the U. S. he had been baptized a Roman Catholic prior to the marriage to his Catholic first wife. Von Neumann was born in Budapest, Kingdom of Hungary, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he was the eldest of three brothers. His father, Neumann Miksa was a banker, he had moved to Budapest from Pécs at the end of the 1880s. Miksa's father and grandfather were both born in Zemplén County, northern Hungary. John's mother was Kann Margit. Three generations of the Kann family lived in spacious apartments above the Kann-Heller offices in Budapest. On February 20, 1913, Emperor Franz Joseph elevated his father to the Hungarian nobility for his service to the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the Neumann family thus acquired the hereditary appellation Margittai. The family had no connection with the town. Neumann János became margittai Neumann János, which he changed to the German Johann von Neumann. Von Neumann was a child prodigy.
When he was 6 years old, he could divide two 8-digit numbers in his head and could converse in Ancient Greek. When the 6-year-old von Neumann caught his mother staring aimlessly, he asked her, "What are you calculating?"Children did not begin formal schooling in Hungary until they were ten years of age. Max believed that knowledge of languages in addition to Hungarian was essential, so the children were tutored in English, French and Italian. By the age of 8, von Neumann was familiar with differential and integral calculus, but he was interested in history, he read his way through Wilhelm Oncken's 46-volume Allgemeine Geschichte in Einzeldarstellungen. A copy was contained in a private library. One of the rooms in the apartment was converted into a library and reading room, with bookshelves from ceiling to floor. Von Neumann entered the Lutheran Fasori Evangélikus Gimnázium in 1911. Eugene Wigner soon became his friend; this was one of the best schools in Budapest and was part of a brilliant education system designed for the elite.
Under the Hungarian system, children received all their education at the one gymnasium. The Hungarian school system produced a generation noted for intellectual achie
Robert Simpson Woodward
Robert Simpson Woodward was an American civil engineer and mathematician. He was born at Rochester, Michigan on July 21, 1849, he graduated with a degree in civil engineering at the University of Michigan in 1872. He was appointed assistant engineer on the United States Lake Survey. In 1882 he became assistant astronomer for the United States Transit of Venus Commission. In 1884 he became astronomer to the United States Geological Survey, serving until 1890, when he was hired by Thomas Corwin Mendenhall as assistant in the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. In 1893 he was called to Columbia as professor of mechanics and subsequently became professor of mathematical physics as well, he was dean of the faculty of pure science at Columbia from 1895 to 1905, when he became president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, whose reputation and usefulness as a means of furthering scientific research was extended under his direction. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1896.
In 1898-1900 he was president of the American Mathematical Society, in 1900 he became President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1915 he was appointed to the Naval Consulting Board, he died on June 29, 1924 in Washington, D. C. Professor Woodward carried on researches and published papers in many departments of astronomy and mechanics. In the course of his work with the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey he devised and constructed the "iced bar and long tape base apparatus," which enables a base line to be measured with greater accuracy and with less expense than by methods employed, his work on the composition and structure of the earth and the variation of latitude found expression in a number of valuable papers. Geographical Tables Probability and Theory of Errors. Robert Simpson Woodward House This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead