Classic of Filial Piety
The Classic of Filial Piety known by its Chinese name as the Xiaojing, is a Confucian classic treatise giving advice on filial piety: that is, how to behave towards a senior such as a father, an elder brother, or ruler. The text was most written during the early Han and claims to be a conversation between Confucius and his student, Zengzi; the text was used during the Han and dynasties to teach young children basic moral messages as they learnt to read. This document dates to the 4th century BC, it is not known who wrote the document. It is attributed to a conversation between his disciple Zengzi. A 12th-century author named He Yin claimed: "The Classic of Filial Piety was not made by Zengzi himself; when he retired from his conversation with Kung-ne on the subject of Filial Piety, he repeated to the disciples of his own school what had said, they classified the sayings, formed the treatise." As the title suggests, the text elaborates on filial piety, a core Confucian value. The text argues that if a person loves and serves their parents they will do the same for their rulers, leading to a harmonious society.
For example, 資於事父以事母，而愛同；資於事父以事君，而敬同 As they serve their fathers, so they serve their mothers, they love them equally. As they serve their fathers, so they serve their rulers, they reverence them equally; the Classic of Filial Piety occupied an important position in classical education as one of the most popular foundational texts through to late imperial China. The text was used in elementary and moral education together with the Analects, Elementary Learning, the Biographies of Exemplary Women. Study of the text was mentioned in epitaphs as an indication of a person's good character, it was a practice to read aloud the text. The text was important politically because filial piety was both a means of demonstrating moral virtue and entering officialdom for those with family connections to the imperial court; the text was important in Neo-Confucianism and was quoted by the influential Song figure and Neo-Confucian philosopher Zhu Xi. Many Japanese translations of the Xiaojing exist; the following are the primary Western language translations.
Legge, James. The Hsiâo King, in Sacred Books of the East, vol. III. Oxford University Press. De Rosny, Leon. Le Hiao-king. Paris: Maisonneuve et Ch. Leclerc. Republished as Le morale de Confucius: le livre sacré de la piété filiale. Paris: J. Maisonneuve. Chen, Ivan; the Book of Filial Piety. London: J. Murray. P. Dutton & Co. Wilhelm, Richard. Hiau Ging: das Buch der Ehrfurcht. Peking: Verlag der Pekinger Pappelinsel. Makra, Mary Lelia; the Hsiao Ching, Paul K. T. ed. New York: St. John's University Press. Ames, Roger T.. The Chinese Classic of Family Reverence: A Philosophical Translation of the Xiaojing. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Family as a model for the state Role the Classic of Loyalty. Xiaojing Xiao Jing Xiao Jing The Classic of Filial Piety 《孝經》
Khara-Khoto was a Tangut city in the Ejin Banner of Alxa League in western Inner Mongolia near Juyan Lake Basin. It has been identified as the city of Etzina; the present banner Ejin Banner is named after this city. Khara-Khoto is known by many names, including Chinese: 黑城 Hēichéng "black city", Tangut: /*zjɨ̱r²-nja̱¹/ "black water", Modern Mongolian Khar khot and to Chinese as Heishui City; the city became a thriving center of Western Xia trade in the 11th century. There are remains of 30-foot - 12-foot - thick outer walls; the outer walls ran for some 421 m east-west by 374 m north-south. The walled fortress was first taken by Genghis Khan in 1226, but—contrary to a circulated misunderstanding—the city continued to flourish under Mongol overlordship. During Kublai Khan's time, the city was expanded, reaching a size three times bigger than during the Tangut Empire. Toghon Temür concentrated his preparation for reconquest of China at Khara-Khoto; the city was located on the crossroads connecting Karakorum and Kumul.
In The Travels of Marco Polo, Marco Polo describes a visit to a city called Etzina or Edzina, identified with Khara-Khoto. When you leave the city of Campichu you ride for twelve days, reach a city called Etzina, towards the north on the verge of the Sandy Desert; the people are Idolaters, possess plenty of camels and cattle, the country produces a number of good falcons, both Sakers and Lanners. The inhabitants live by their cattle, for they have no trade. At this city you must needs lay in victuals for forty days, because when you quit Etzina, you enter on a desert which extends forty days' journey to the north, on which you meet with no habitation nor baiting-place. According to a legend of the local Torghut population, in 1372 a Mongol military general named Khara Bator was surrounded with his troops by the armies of China's Ming dynasty. Diverting the Ejin River, the city's water source that flowed just outside the fortress, the Han Chinese denied Khara-Khoto water for its gardens and wells.
As time passed and Khara Bator realised his fate, he murdered his family and himself. After his suicide, Khara Bator's soldiers waited within the fortress until the Ming attacked and killed the remaining inhabitants. Another version of the legend holds that Khara Bator made a breach in the northwestern corner of the city wall and escaped through it; the remains of the city has a breach. The defeat of the Mongols at Kharakhoto is described in the Ming dynasty annals: "In the fifth year of Hungu General Feng Sheng and his army reached Edzina; the town's defender Buyan'temur and Chinese troops reached the mountains of Bojiashan. The ruler of Yuan, Gyardzhipan', fled, his minister... and 27 others were captured, together with ten or more thousand head of horses and cattle." After the defeat, possibly due to real water shortage, the city was abandoned and left in ruins. Its exceedingly remote location preserved it from looters. Russian explorers Grigory Potanin and Vladimir Obruchev heard rumours that somewhere downstream the Ejin River an ancient city was waiting.
This knowledge gave impetus to the Asian Museum, St. Petersburg, to launch a new Mongol-Sichuan expedition under the command of Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov. However, Khara-Khoto was earlier discovered by a Buryat person called Tsokto Badmazhapov in the spring of 1907. Badmazhapov sent photographs and a handwritten description of Khara-khoto to the Geographical Society in St Petersburg. On May 1, 1908, during his 1907–1909 expedition to Central Asia, Kozlov arrived at Khara-Khoto and, with a dinner and gift of a grammophone to a local Torghut lord Dashi Beile, obtained permission to dig at the site. Over 2,000 books and manuscripts in the Tangut language were uncovered. Kozlov sent ten chests of manuscripts and Buddhist objects to St. Petersburg, returning again in May 1909 for more objects; the books and woodcuts were found in June, while excavating a stupa outside city walls some 400 m westward. Sir Aurel Stein excavated Khara-Khoto during his third Central Asian expedition from July 1913 to February 1916, surveying Khara-Khoto for eight days at the end of May 1914.
The findings from this research was incorporated in chapter 13 of Stein's first volume of Innermost Asia. Langdon Warner visited Khara-Khoto in 1925. Folke Bergman first travelled to Khara-Khoto in 1927, returning in 1929 and staying for a year and a half in the area, he made maps of Khara-Khoto and the Ejin River area, surveyed watchtowers and fortresses, finding a large number of xylographs. Bergman noted that Kozlov's and Stein's visits were cursory and some of their published documentation was incorrect. Sven Hedin and Xu Xusheng led the Sino-Swedish Expedition on archaeological excavations of the site between 1927–31. After Hedin, John DeFrancis visited in 1935. Further Chinese excavations between 1983 and 1984 by Li Yiyou, Inner Mongolian Institute of Archaeology, have produced some 3,000 more manuscripts. In addition to books, these excavations unearthed building materials, daily items, production instruments and religious art. Satellite photos show that the site is being preserved. Kozlov's findings, some 3,500 paintings and other objects, are in the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, while the books and xylographs are at the Institute of Oriental Studies.
These survived the Siege of Lening
The General's Garden (Tangut translation)
The Tangut translation of The General's Garden is a unique manuscript translation in the Tangut language and script of a Chinese military text, The General's Garden. The manuscript was collected from the abandoned fortress city of Khara-Khoto by Aurel Stein in 1914, is held at the British Library in London, where it is catalogued as Or.12380/1840. The translation dates to the 12th or early 13th century, predates any of the extant Chinese editions by some two hundred years; the Tangut text may therefore represent a version, closer to the original Chinese text than the extant Ming Dynasty Chinese editions. The manuscript is a paper scroll; when found by Stein it was twisted up, but has since been mounted on backing paper as a scroll, 230 cm long and 20 cm high. The beginning of the scroll, comprising about a half of the text, is missing. Additionally, the bottom of the scroll along its entire length has been damaged, with the result that each column of Tangut text is missing a few characters at the bottom.
There are a total of 115 surviving columns of text, each column comprising between 4 and 18 Tangut characters, depending upon the level of damage. Imre Galambos estimates; the Tangut characters are written in an elegant calligraphy in standard character forms. Red marks and editorial signs are used to indicate copying errors such as reversed characters or characters that should be deleted; the surviving text of the manuscript is divided into 18 sections, with the title and number of each section given at the bottom of the first column of each section. However, as the bottom of the manuscript is damaged, the section titles and numbers are missing or incomplete in most cases; the section numbers for the last few sections can be made out, from which it can be inferred that the complete Tangut text comprised thirty-seven sections numbered one through 37. This contrasts with the Ming editions of the Chinese text. Only the last 18 sections of the Tangut manuscript have survived, corresponding to sections 21–23, 26–29, 32, 34–36, 38–40, 42–43, 45, 46/50 of the Chinese version.
Thus the missing first half of the Tangut text must have comprised 19 sections corresponding to sections 1-21 of the Chinese version. Whereas the missing first half of the Tangut text seems to have been close to the Chinese version, the surviving second half omits eleven sections, in particular the final five sections relating to "barbarians" are reduced to a single section discussing the "Northern barabarians" only; the final line of the manuscript states "End of the Book of the General's Grove", notes that it has been collated or proofed, thereby indicating that there are no missing sections after last section of Tangut text in the manuscript. The title of the Ming Dynasty Chinese editions of the General's Garden is the Book of the Heart or the New Book, the title General's Garden is only recorded for lost Song Dynasty editions, so the fact that the Tangut title translates as "General's Grove" can be seen as evidence that the original text was called the General's Garden rather than the Book of the Heart or the New Book.
As the vast majority of surviving texts in the Tangut language are Buddhist in nature, the General's Garden is important as one of a small number of secular Tangut texts. However, it is not the only Tangut translation of a Chinese military text. Tangut translations of Sun Tzu's Art of War with three commentaries, the Six Secret Teachings, the Three Strategies of Huang Shigong are preserved in the collections of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts in Saint Petersburg; these three Tangut translations all exist in printed editions, were published during the second half of the 12th century as part of a state-sponsored translation and publishing project, which indicates the important position that military treatises were held in by the Tangut state. In contrast to the printed editions of the Tangut translations of the three military classics, the Tangut version of the General's Garden only exists in manuscript form; that it was not published as a printed edition reflects the lower status of the General's Garden as a military text, but at the same time, the fact that Tangut scholars were translating minor military texts such as the General's Garden indicates the importance, given to military texts in general.
The General's Garden is considered to be a Song Dynasty forgery incorporating elements of Sun Tzu's Art of War and other earlier military treatises. For this reason there are few surviving editions of the Chinese version of the General's Garden, the earliest known edition dates to the early Ming Dynasty, at least a hundred years after it was written; the Tangut manuscript dates to the second half of the 12th century or the early 13th century, as such it predates the earliest Chinese edition by about two hundred years, so may more reflect the original form of the text than the existing Chinese editions. The Tangut translation differs from the Chinese version in two important respects. Firstly, the Tangut translation comprises 37 sections, whereas the earliest Chinese
Carlsberg Foundation was founded by J. C. Jacobsen in 1876, by allocating some of his shares in Carlsberg Brewery to fund and operate the Carlsberg Laboratory and the natural history museum at Frederiksborg Palace; the foundation has since expanded to fund scientific research, to manage the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, via the Tuborg Foundation to fund social works. As of 2011 it controlled 74.2 % of the voting power. The foundation was started to run Carlsberg Laboratory. To finance its works the foundation received a portion of shares in Carlsberg Brewery. J. C. Jacobsen's wish was to create a foundation with firm obligations to the natural sciences and direct responsibility for the running of a corporate enterprise. In 1878 the foundation started to manage and fund the Museum of National History at Frederiksborg Palace. In 1882 after the death of J. C. Jacobsen the foundation inherited the remaining shares in the brewery. In 1902 Carl Jacobsen started the "New Carlsberg Foundation" to run New Carlsberg.
When the old and new Brewery merged, the obligations of New Carlsberg Foundation were added to those of the Carlsberg foundation, including the management and funding of Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. In 1931 the foundation started a Scholarship programme named after J. C. Jacobsen; the foundation sponsored the Danish excavation of Tell Shemshara in Iraq in 1957. In 1991 the foundation took over the responsibilities of the "Tuborg Foundation", after Carlsberg acquired Tuborg brewery in 1970. In 1882 at the death of J. C. Jacobsen the foundation inherited the remaining shares in Carlsberg Brewery, the testament stated that the foundation shall always at least own 51% of the brewery. In May 2007 the Danish Foundation Oversight Authority approved that the interpretation of the rules to mean that the foundation should own at least 25% of the capital assets of the brewery and 51% of the voting shares; the shares in Carlsberg are divided into two classes, where the A-class has twenty votes per share and the B-class has two votes per share.
As of May 2007 the foundation owns 81.9 % voting capacity in Carlsberg. Official website
University of London
The University of London is a collegiate federal research university located in London, England. As of October 2018, the university contains 18 member institutions, central academic bodies and research institutes; the university has over 52,000 distance learning external students and 161,270 campus-based internal students, making it the largest university by number of students in the United Kingdom. The university was established by royal charter in 1836, as a degree-awarding examination board for students holding certificates from University College London and King's College London and "other such other Institutions, corporate or unincorporated, as shall be established for the purpose of Education, whether within the Metropolis or elsewhere within our United Kingdom", allowing it to be one of three institutions to claim the title of the third-oldest university in England, moved to a federal structure in 1900, it is now incorporated by its fourth royal charter and governed by the University of London Act 1994.
It was the first university in the United Kingdom to introduce examinations for women in 1869 and, a decade the first to admit women to degrees. In 1948 it became the first British university to appoint a woman as its vice chancellor; the university's colleges house the oldest teaching hospitals in England. For most practical purposes, ranging from admissions to funding, the constituent colleges operate on an independent basis, with many awarding their own degrees whilst remaining in the federal university; the largest colleges by enrolment as of 2016/17 are UCL, King's College London, Queen Mary, the London School of Economics, Royal Holloway, Goldsmiths, each of which has over 9,000 students. Smaller, more specialist, colleges are the School of Oriental and African Studies, St George's, the Royal Veterinary College, London Business School, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the Royal Central School of Speech and Drama, the Royal Academy of Music, the Courtauld Institute of Art, the Institute of Cancer Research.
Imperial College London was a member from 1907 before it became an independent university in 2007, Heythrop College was a member from 1970 until its closure in 2018. City is the most recent constituent college, having joined on 1 September 2016; as of 2015, there are around 2 million University of London alumni across the world, including 12 monarchs or royalty, 52 presidents or prime ministers, 84 Nobel laureates, 6 Grammy winners, 2 Oscar winners, 3 Olympic gold medalists and the "Father of the Nation" of several countries. University College London was founded under the name “London University” in 1826 as a secular alternative to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which limited their degrees to members of the established Church of England; as a result of the controversy surrounding UCL's establishment, King's College London was founded as an Anglican college by royal charter in 1829. In 1830, UCL applied for a royal charter as a university; this was rejected, but renewed in 1834. In response to this, opposition to "exclusive" rights grew among the London medical schools.
The idea of a general degree awarding body for the schools was discussed in the medical press. And in evidence taken by the Select Committee on Medical Education. However, the blocking of a bill to open up Oxford and Cambridge degrees to dissenters led to renewed pressure on the Government to grant degree awarding powers to an institution that would not apply religious tests as the degrees of the new University of Durham were to be closed to non-Anglicans. In 1835, the government announced the response to UCL's petition for a charter. Two charters would be issued, one to UCL incorporating it as a college rather than a university, without degree awarding powers, a second "establishing a Metropolitan University, with power to grant academical degrees to those who should study at the London University College, or at any similar institution which his Majesty might please hereafter to name". Following the issuing of its charter on 28 November 1836, the new University of London started drawing up regulations for degrees in March 1837.
The death of William IV in June, resulted in a problem – the charter had been granted "during our Royal will and pleasure", meaning it was annulled by the king's death. Queen Victoria issued a second charter on 5 December 1837; the university awarded its first degrees in 1839, all to King's College. The university established by the charters of 1836 and 1837 was an examining board with the right to award degrees in arts and medicine. However, the university did not have the authority to grant degrees in theology, considered the senior faculty in the other three English universities. In medicine, the university was given the right to determine which medical schools provided sufficient medical training. In arts and law, by contrast, it would examine students from UCL, King's College, or any other school or college granted a royal warrant giving the government control of which colleges could affiliate to the university. Beyond the right to submit students for examination, there was no other connection between the affiliated colleges and the university.
In 1849 the university held its first graduation ceremony at Somerset House following a petition to the senate from the graduates, who had received their degrees without any ceremony. About 250 students graduated at this ceremony; the London academic robes of this period were distinguished by their "rich velvet facings". The list of affiliated colleges g
National Library of China
The National Library of China or NLC in Beijing is the national library of the People's Republic of China. With a collection of over 37 million items, it is the largest library in Asia and one of the largest in the world, it holds historical documents in the world. The forerunner of the National Library of China, the Imperial Library of Peking, was founded on 9 September 1909 by the government of the Qing dynasty, it was first formally opened after the Xinhai Revolution, in 1912. In 1916, the library received depository library status. In July 1928, its name was changed to National Peiping Library and was changed to the National Library; the earliest Chinese references to Western-style public libraries were by Lin Zexu in the Sizhou Zhi and Wei Yuan in the Illustrated Treatise on the Maritime Kingdoms, both of which were translations from Western books. In the late nineteenth century, in response to several military defeats against western powers, the government of the Qing dynasty sent several missions abroad to study western culture and institutions.
Several members of the first Chinese diplomatic mission, which sold to the United States, England and other countries from 1111 to 1870, recorded their views of western libraries, noting that they attracted a large number of readers. Journalist Liang Qichao, who became a prominent exiled intellectual after the failure of the Hundred Days' Reform in 1898, wrote about the Boston Public Library and the University of Chicago Library, praising their openness to the public and the virtue of readers who did not steal the books, lent to them. Dai Hongci, a member of another Qing mission sent abroad to study modern constitutions, noted the efficacy of book borrowing at the Library of Congress. In 1906, the governor of Hunan province Pang Hongshu memorialized to the throne to announce he had completed preparations for the creation of a provincial library in Changsha. In 1908 and 1909, high officials from the provinces of Fengtian, Shanxi and Yunnan petitioned the Imperial Court asking for permission to establish public libraries in their respective jurisdictions.
In response, on 2 May 1909, the Qing Ministry of Education announced plans to open libraries in every province of the country. On 9 September 1909, Zhang Zhidong, a long-time leader of the Self-Strengthening movement, viceroy of Huguang and was now serving on the powerful Grand Council, memorialized to request the foundation of a library in China's capital. Foundation of the library was approved by imperial edict that same day; the institution was called the Imperial Library of Peking or Metropolitan Library. Lu Xun and other famous scholars have made great efforts for its construction. Although the Qing government and Beiyang government after the revolution of 1911, the Treasury is empty, unable to maintain the library funds, but the rich collection of ancient books library, because the country has accepted the deposit of Museum status, it was a great progress in the development of Library Chinese. Philologist and bibliographer Miao Quansun, who had overseen the founding of Jiangnan Library in Nanjing two years earlier, was called in to administer the new establishment.
As in Jiangnan, his assistant Chen Qingnian took charge of most of the management. A private proposal made by Luo Zhenyu in the early 1900s stated that the library should be located in a place protected from both fire and floods, at some distance from noisy markets. Following these recommendations, the Ministry of Education first chose the Deshengmen neighborhood inside the northern city wall, a quiet area with lakes, but this plan would have required purchasing several buildings. For lack of funds, Guanghua Temple was chosen as the library's first site. Guanghua Temple was a complex of Buddhist halls and shrines located near the northern bank of the Shichahai, but inconveniently located for readers, too damp for long-term book storage; the Imperial Library of Peking would remain there until 1917. In 1916, the Ministry of education ordered the library, every published book should be registered in ministry of interior and all collected by library, The function of national library begins to manifest.
The National Peking Library opened to the public on 27 August 1912, a few months after the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor of the Qing dynasty. From on, it was managed by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of China; the day before the library's opening, its new chief librarian Jiang Han argued that the National Peking Library was a research library and recommended the opening of a new library with magazines and new publications that could attract a more popular readership. In June 1913, such a Branch Library was opened outside Xuanwumen Gate, more than 2,000 books were transferred there from the main library. On 29 October 1913, because Guanghua Temple proved too small and inaccessible, the main library itself was closed, pending the choice of a new site; the Library charged one copper coin as a reading fee, whereas the Tianjin Library charged twice as much and the Shandong public library charged three coins. At first, readers sometime before 1918 borrowing became allowed. In 1916, the Ministry of Education of the Republic of China ordered that a copy of every Chinese publication should be deposited at the Metropolitan Library after being registered with the Copyright Bureau.
After the Northern Expedition of Kuomintang in 1928, the National Peking Library changed its name to
Tangutology or Tangut studies is the study of the culture, history and language of the ancient Tangut people as seen through the study of contemporary documents written by the Tangut people themselves. As the Tanguts spoke an extinct language written in a unique and complex script, the cornerstone of Tangut studies has been the study of the Tangut language and the decipherment of the Tangut script; the Tangut people founded the Western Xia state in northwestern China, overthrown by the Mongols. The Tangut script, devised in 1036, was used in printed books and on monumental inscriptions during the Western Xia period, as well as during the Yuan Dynasty, but the language became extinct sometime during the Ming Dynasty; the latest known example of Tangut writing are Buddhist inscriptions dated 1502 on two dharani pillars from a temple in Baoding, Hebei. By the Qing Dynasty all knowledge of the Tangut language and script had been lost, no examples or descriptions of the Tangut script had been preserved in any surviving Chinese books from the Song, Yuan or Ming dynasties.
It was not until the 19th century that script was rediscovered. The earliest modern identification of the Tangut script occurred in 1804, when a Chinese scholar called Zhang Shu observed that the Chinese text of a Chinese-Tangut bilingual inscription on a stele known as the Liangzhou Stele at the Huguo Temple in Wuwei, Gansu had a Western Xia era name, so concluded that the corresponding inscription in an unknown script must be the native Western Xia script. However, Zhang's identification of the Tangut script was not known, more than a half a century scholars were still debating what the unknown script at the Cloud Platform was; the Cloud Platform, built in 1343–1345 as the base for a pagoda, was inscribed with Buddhist texts in six different scripts, but only the first five of these six were known to Chinese and Western scholars at the time. In 1870 Alexander Wylie wrote an influential paper entitled "An ancient Buddhist inscription at Keu-yung Kwan" in which he asserted that the unknown script was Jurchen, it was not until 1899 that Stephen Wootton Bushell published a paper demonstrating conclusively that the unknown script was in fact Tangut.
Bushell, a physician at the British Legation in Beijing from 1868 to 1900, was a keen numismatist, had collected a number of coins issued by the Western Xia state with inscriptions in the Tangut script. In order to read the inscriptions on these coins he attempted to decipher as many Tangut characters as possible by comparing the Chinese and Tangut texts on a bilingual stele from Liangzhou. In 1896 he published a list of thirty-seven Tangut characters with their corresponding meaning in Chinese, using this key he was able to decipher the four-character inscription on one of his Western Xia coins as meaning "Precious Coin of the Da'an period "; this was the first time that an unknown Tangut text, albeit only four characters in length, had been translated. At about the same time as Bushell was working on Tangut numismatic inscriptions, Gabriel Devéria, a diplomat at the French Legation in Beijing, was studying the bilingual Tangut-Chinese Liangzhou Stele, in 1898, a year before his death, he published two important articles on the Tangut script and the Liangzhou Stele.
The third European in China to undertake the study of Tangut was Georges Morisse, an interpreter at the French Legation in Beijing, who made progress in deciphering the Tangut script by comparing the text of the Chinese version of the Lotus Sutra with that of three volumes of a manuscript of the Tangut version, discovered in Beijing in 1900 during the aftermath of the Boxer Rebellion. By comparing the Tangut version of the sutra with the corresponding Chinese version of the sutra, Morisse was able to identify some 200 Tangut characters, deduce some grammatical rules for Tangut, which he published in 1901; the paucity of surviving Tangut texts and inscriptions, in particular the lack of any dictionary or glossary of the language, meant that it was difficult for scholars to go beyond the preliminary work on the decipherment of Tangut by Bushell and Morisse. The breakthrough in Tangut studies came in 1908 when Pyotr Kozlov discovered the abandoned Western Xia fortress city of Khara-Khoto on the edge of the Gobi Desert in Inner Mongolia.
Khara-Khoto had been abruptly abandoned at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, covered by sand, it had remained untouched for over 500 years. Inside a large stupa outside the city walls Kozlov discovered a hoard of some 2,000 printed books and manuscripts in Chinese and Tangut, as well as many pieces of Tangut Buddhist art, which he sent back to the Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg for preservation and study; the material was subsequently transferred to the Asiatic Museum of the Academy of Sciences, which became the Saint Petersburg branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It was the discovery of this unprecedented hoard of Tangut material by Kozlov that led to the development of Tangutology as a separate academic discipline within the field of oriental studies. After the arrival of the Khara-Khoto material in Saint Petersburg in autumn 1909, sinolog