Mark Brandt Dayton is an American politician who served as the 40th governor of Minnesota from 2011 to 2019. He was a United States Senator for Minnesota from 2001 to 2007, the Minnesota State Auditor from 1991 to 1995, he is a member of the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party, which affiliates with the national Democratic Party. A native of Minnesota, Dayton is the great-grandson of businessman George Dayton, the founder of Dayton's, a department store that became the Target Corporation, he embarked on a career in teaching and social work in New York City and Boston after graduating from Yale University in 1969. During the 1970s, he served as a legislative aide to U. S. Senator Walter Mondale and Minnesota Governor Rudy Perpich. In 1978, Dayton was appointed the Minnesota Economic Development Commissioner and married Alida Rockefeller Messinger, a member of the Rockefeller family. Dayton ran for the U. S. Senate in 1982 against Republican Party incumbent David Durenberger, he defeated former U.
S. Senator Eugene McCarthy in the Democratic primary, the general election became one of the most expensive in state history. Dayton campaigned as a populist in opposition to Reaganomics and famously promised "to close tax loopholes for the rich and the corporations – and if you think that includes the Daytons, you're right". Durenberger won the election, Dayton returned to the Perpich administration until his election as Minnesota State Auditor in 1990. In 1998, Dayton ran for governor, losing the Democratic nomination to Hubert Humphrey III. In 2000, he was elected to the U. S. Senate, defeating Republican incumbent Rod Grams; as senator, Dayton voted against the authorization for Iraq War, became the first senator to introduce legislation creating a cabinet-level United States Department of Peace. In 2006, he chose not to seek reelection, citing his disillusionment with Washington, D. C. and fundraising. In 2010, Dayton defeated Republican Tom Emmer to become governor of Minnesota despite national success for the Republican Party, including in the Minnesota legislature.
His major legislative initiatives as governor include the legalization of same-sex marriage and the construction of U. S. Bank Stadium for the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League. Dayton was born on January 26, 1947 in Minneapolis and is the eldest of Gwendolen May and Bruce Bliss Dayton's four children, he is a great-grandson of businessman George Dayton, the founder of the Dayton's department store chain. His father, Bruce Dayton, served as the chairman and CEO of Dayton Hudson Corporation, the company that became the Target Corporation. Bruce Dayton founded the B. Dalton bookstore chain in 1966. Mark Dayton was raised in Long Lake and graduated from the Blake School in Minneapolis, where he was an all-state ice-hockey goaltender as a senior. Dayton attended Yale University. During his time at Yale, he joined the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and received his B. A. in psychology in 1969. After college, Dayton worked as teacher in the Lower East Side of New York City from 1969 to 1971, as the chief financial officer of a social service agency in Boston from 1971 to 1975.
Dayton first became politically active in the 1960s. He protested the Vietnam War in April 1970 at one of Minnesota's major antiwar protests against Honeywell, where he was maced by police. Dayton's father served on the Honeywell board of directors and the two had a strained relationship after the incident. From 1975 to 1976 he was a legislative aide to Senator Walter Mondale, until Mondale's election as Vice President of the United States. From 1977 to 1978, Dayton served as an aide to Minnesota Governor Rudy Perpich. In 1978, Perpich appointed Dayton to head the Department of Economic Development and the Department of Energy and Economic Development. In 1998, Dayton ran an unsuccessful campaign for governor, losing the Democratic nomination to Hubert Humphrey III. In 2000, he was elected to the U. S. Senate, defeating Republican incumbent Rod Grams; as senator, Dayton voted against the authorization for Iraq War, was the first senator to introduce legislation creating a cabinet-level United States Department of Peace.
In 2006, he chose not to seek reelection, citing his disillusionment with Washington, D. C. and fundraising. Dayton was elected Minnesota State Auditor in 1990 and served until 1995. Dayton first ran for the United States Senate in 1982 but lost to Republican incumbent David Durenberger, he defeated former U. S. Senator Eugene McCarthy in the Democratic primary, the general election became one of the most expensive in state history. Dayton campaigned as a populist in opposition to Reaganomics and famously promised "to close tax loopholes for the rich and the corporations – and if you think that includes the Daytons, you're right", he was elected to the Senate in 2000. Dayton self-financed his 2000 campaign with $12 million. While in the Senate, Dayton donated his salary to fund bus trips for seniors to buy cheaper prescription drugs in Canada, he voted with his fellow Democrats. On February 9, 2005, he announced that he would not run for reelection, saying, "Everything I've worked for, everything I believe in, depends upon this Senate seat remaining in the Democratic caucus in 2007.
I do not believe that I am the best candidate to lead the DFL Party to victory next year." He cited his dislike of fundraising and political campaigns. Dayton was succeeded in the Senate by another DFLer. On September 22, 2005, the 44th anniversary of the day President John F. Kennedy signed the Peace Corps into law, Dayton became the first U. S. Senator to introduce legislation c
Gordon Research Conferences
Gordon Research Conferences are a group of prestigious international scientific conferences organized by a non-profit organization of the same name. The conference topics cover frontier research in the biological and physical sciences, their related technologies; the conferences have been held since 1931, have expanded to 200 conferences per year. Conference locations are chosen for their scenic and isolated nature, to encourage an informal community atmosphere. Contributions are "off-record" to encourage free discussion of unpublished research. Conferences were extended to cover science education in 1991; the conference topics are publicised in the journal Science: 2017, 2015, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006. The forerunner of the Gordon Conferences was the summer sessions held at the chemistry department of Johns Hopkins University in the late 1920s. By 1931 this had evolved into a graduate seminar, attended by external participants; the Gordon Research Conferences were initiated by Prof. Neil Gordon while at the Johns Hopkins University.
Gordon Research Conferences website
Governor of Minnesota
The Governor of Minnesota is the chief executive of the U. S. state of Minnesota, leading the state's executive branch. Forty people have been governor of Minnesota, though there were three governors of Minnesota Territory. Alexander Ramsey, the first territorial governor served as state governor several years later. State governors are elected to office by popular vote, but territorial governors were appointed to the office by the United States president; the current governor of Minnesota is Tim Walz of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party. Similar to the U. S. President, the governor has veto power over bills passed by the Minnesota State Legislature; as in most states, but unlike the U. S. President, the governor can make line-item vetoes, where specific provisions in bills can be stripped out while allowing the overall bill to be signed into law; the governor of Minnesota must be 25 years old upon assuming office, must have been a Minnesota resident for one year before the election. Since a 1958 amendment to the Minnesota Constitution governors are elected to four-year terms, with no limits on the number of terms they may serve.
The governor has a cabinet consisting of the leaders of various state departments. The governor appoints these department heads, other than the head of the Department of Military Affairs and the chairs of the Metropolitan Council and the Metropolitan Sports Facilities Commission, are called commissioners. Cabinet members include: The Minnesota Governor's Residence is located in Saint Paul, at 1006 Summit Avenue. List of Minnesota gubernatorial elections List of Lieutenant Governors of Minnesota Minnesota Secretary of State Minnesota Attorney General Minnesota State Auditor Minnesota State Treasurer Politics of Minnesota Website of the governor and lieutenant governor Minnesota Constitution, Article V
Burlington is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Vermont and the seat of Chittenden County. It is located 45 miles south of the Canada–United States border and 94 miles south of Montreal; the city's population was 42,452 according to a 2015 U. S. census estimate. It is the least populous municipality in the United States to be the most populous incorporated area in a state. A regional college town, Burlington is home to the University of Vermont and Champlain College, a small private college. Vermont's largest hospital, the UVM Medical Center, is located within the city limits; the City of Burlington owns the state of Vermont's largest airport, the Burlington International Airport, in neighboring South Burlington. In 2015, Burlington became the first city in the U. S. to run on renewable energy. Two theories have been put forward regarding the origin of Burlington's name; the first is that it was named after Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, the second is that the name honors the politically prominent and wealthy Burling family of New York.
While no Burling family members are listed as grantees of the town, the family held large tracts of land in nearby towns, some of which were granted on the same day as Burlington. One of the New Hampshire grants, the land, developed as Burlington was awarded by New Hampshire colonial governor Benning Wentworth on June 7, 1763, to Samuel Willis and 63 others. In the summer of 1775, settlers began clearing land and built two or three log huts, but the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War delayed permanent settlement until after its conclusion. In 1783, Stephen Lawrence arrived with his family; the town was organized in 1785. The War of 1812 was unpopular in Vermont and New England, which had numerous trading ties with Canada. Neither Vermont nor other New England states provided financial support. Vermont voters supported the Federalist Party. At one point during the war, the U. S. had 5,000 troops stationed in Burlington, outnumbering residents and putting a strain on resources. About 500 soldiers died of disease, always a problem due to poor sanitation in army camps.
Some soldiers were quartered in the main building at the University of Vermont, where a memorial plaque commemorates them. In a skirmish on August 2, 1813, British forces from Canada shelled Burlington; this is described as either a bold stroke by the British with an ineffectual response from the Americans, or a weak sally by the British, rightly ignored by the Americans. The cannonade caused no casualties; the American troops involved were commanded by Naval Lieutenant Thomas Macdonough hero of the Battle of Lake Champlain. The town's position on Lake Champlain helped it develop into a port of entry and center for trade after completion of the Champlain Canal in 1823, the Erie Canal in 1825, the Chambly Canal in 1843. Wharves allowed steamboats to connect freight and passengers with the Rutland & Burlington Railroad and Vermont Central Railroad. Burlington became a bustling lumbering and manufacturing center and was incorporated as a city in 1865, its Victorian era prosperity left behind much fine architecture, including buildings by Ammi B.
Young, H. H. Richardson, McKim, Mead & White. In 1870, the waterfront was extended by construction of the Pine Street Barge Canal; this became polluted over the years and was a focus for cleanup in 2009 under the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund program. In 1978, the ice cream enterprise Ben & Jerry's was founded in Burlington in a renovated gas station, it became a national brand, with retail outlets in numerous cities. In 2007, the city was named one of the top four "places to watch" in the United States by the American Association of Retired Persons; the ratings were based on. Criteria included the factors that make a community livable: new urbanism, smart growth, mixed-use development, easy-living standards. Forbes magazine ranked the city in 2010 as one of the "prettiest" towns in America, featuring a picture of the Church Street Marketplace on its cover. Burlington is situated on the eastern shore of Lake Champlain, north of Shelburne Bay, it was built on a strip of land extending about 6 miles south from the mouth of the Winooski River along the lake shore, rises from the water's edge to a height of 300 feet.
A large ravine in what is now downtown was filled in with refuse and raw sewage in the 19th century to make way for further development. Burlington's neighborhoods are recognized by residents, but have no legal or political authority. Downtown: The city's commercial hub is north of Maple Street, south of Pearl Street, west of Willard Street. Hill Section: Burlington's wealthiest neighborhood is east of U. S. Route 7 and south of U. S. excludes UVM and University Terrace, while including all of Champlain College. The Hill Section is; the Intervale: The Intervale cannot be considered a neighborhood but is a large area encompassing many locally owned organic farms and natural preserves along the Winooski River. It is included on this list because its total area is larger than that of most neighborhoods in Burlington. New North End: Burlington's most populous neighborhood, a northwest suburban extension of the city, includes all points north of Burlington High School, as well as Leddy Park and North Beach, is west of Vermont Route 127.
Old North End: Burlington's oldest and most densely populated neighborhood is north of all properties along Pearl Street, west of
Battelle Memorial Institute
Battelle Memorial Institute is a private nonprofit applied science and technology development company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio. Battelle is a charitable trust organized as a nonprofit corporation under the laws of the State of Ohio and is exempt from taxation under Section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code because it is organized for charitable and education purposes; the institute opened in 1929 but traces its origins to the 1923 will of Ohio industrialist Gordon Battelle which provided for its creation. Focusing on contract research and development work in the areas of metals and material science, Battelle is now an international science and technology enterprise that explores emerging areas of science and commercializes technology, manages laboratories for customers. Battelle serves the following: Consumer & Industrial: Agribusiness, Battelle Manufacturing, BATTELLE Verity, Battelle Village, Critical Infrastructure, Consumer Products, Cyber Innovations, Industrial Products & Services Economic Analysis & Tech Strategies Energy & Environment: Agribusiness, Alternative Energy, Environmental Services, Oil & Gas, Utilities Health & Analytics: Data Analytics, Healthcare Improvement, Medical Readiness & Response, Public Health Improvement & Response Laboratory Management: Battelle manages the following: Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory National Security: Applied Genomics, Applied Technology, Battelle Manufacturing, CBRNE Defense, Critical Infrastructure, Cyber Innovations, Data Analytics, Life Sciences Research, Maritime Technologies, Medical Readiness & Response, Tactical Systems Pharmaceutical & Medical Devices: Life Sciences Research, Manufacturing & Design, Medical Devices STEM Education: BattelleEd, Battelle Arts Grant, STEM Learning NetworksIn addition to its Columbus headquarters, Battelle has offices in Aberdeen, West Jefferson, Arlington, Charlottesville, Baltimore and Egg Harbor Township.
In addition to operating its own research facilities, as of 2019, Battelle manages or co-manages on behalf of the United States Department of Energy the following national laboratories: Brookhaven National Laboratory Idaho National Laboratory Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryAdditionally, on behalf of the Department of Homeland Security: National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures CenterNational Science Foundation projects: In March 2016, Battelle was selected to manage the completion of the National Ecological Observatory Network for the National Science Foundation. In the 1940s, Battelle's Vice-President of Engineering, John Crout made it possible for Battelle researchers, including William Bixby and Paul Andrus, to develop Chester Carlson's concept of dry copying. Carlson had been turned down for funding by more than a dozen agencies including the U.
S. Navy. Work led to the first commercial xerographic equipment, to the formation of Xerox corporation. Battelle developed the first nuclear fuel rods for nuclear reactors, numerous advances in metallurgy that helped advance the United States space program and coatings that led to the first optical digital recorder developed by James Russell, which paved the way for the first compact disc, the first generation jet engines using titanium alloys. Other advances included the armor plating for tanks in World War II. In 1987, PIRI, a fiber optics venture with Mitsubishi and NTT, was launched, which resulted in a $1.8 billion market. In conjunction with Kevin M. Amula, Battelle Geneva developed "No-melt" chocolate in 1988. Battelle has made numerous medical advances, including a 1972 breakthrough development of special tubing to prevent blood clots during surgical procedures, more the development of reusable insulin injection pen, including dose memory, with Eli Lilly and Co.. Battelle was the contractor for a computer system on which the Voter News Service relied for tallying exit polling data in the November 2002 U.
S. Congressional and Senate elections; the failure led to the disbanding of the
L. E. Scriven
Laurence Edward "Skip" Scriven was an American chemical engineer and educator a Regents Professor at University of Minnesota in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science. He achieved numerous breakthroughs in the fields of fluid mechanics, capillary hydrodynamics, coating flows, microscopy, his contributions to chemical engineering have been internationally recognized. Elected fellow of the National Academy of Engineering, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Scriven gave the prestigious Josiah Willard Gibbs Lectureship of American Mathematical Society. In addition to his passion for teaching and research, he loved music. Scriven made contributions in the fields of capillary hydrodynamics, gradient theory, interfacial phenomena and the theory of bicontinuous structures, enhanced oil recovery, wetting transition, cyrogenic electron microscopy, Galerkin weighted residuals in finite element methods, coating process fundamentals, his most cited papers include analysis of the Marangoni effect, equation of change of internal angular momentum of continua, analysis of air-lubricated edge moving over viscoelastic liquid, a foundational explanation of the origin of bicontinuous structures, a description of an apparatus that allows fast freezing of complex liquid specimens for cryomicroscopy.
His 1988 paper "Physics and Applications of Dip Coating and Spin Coating" is referenced in various industries. Scriven advised over 100 Ph. D. students during his career in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minnesota. He co-founded NSF Center for Interfacial Engineering at the University of Minnesota. Among many of his recognitions some more recent ones were: American Chemical Society's Murphree Award. Scriven was a historian of chemical engineering which included the preparation of numerous historical articles, he had some thoughts on the future: In brief, the practice of chemical engineering, like seasonal foliage, changes. For the better part of a century, the profession in the United States has broadened its base - now rejoining materials science - and built on it to fulfill the needs of both the existing and the emerging chemical process technologies of each era; as past high technologies have matured, turned senescent or moribund, the profession has again and again moved on to new frontiers enough to avoid any danger of extinction.
What factors are to be important for the next hundred years? Those that have been important over the past hundred. My encounters with them leave me with two deep questions that remain unanswered. What constitutes an engineering discipline like chemical engineering? And what maintains the associated profession? Scriven has authored numerous journal articles. A section is listed below. L. E. Scriven. "On the dynamics of phase growth", Chemical Engineering Science, 10, 1-13, on Citation Classic, Jul 28, 1980 L. E. Scriven, C. V. Sternling. "The Marangoni Effects", Nature, 187, 186-188. L. E. Scriven. "Dynamics of a fluid interface Equation of motion for Newtonian surface fluids", Chemical Engineering Science, 12, 98. L. E. Scriven, C. V. Sternling. "On cellular convection driven by surface-tension gradients: effects of mean surface tension and surface viscosity", Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 19, 321-340. B. A. Finlayson, L. E. Scriven. "The Method of Weighted Residuals - A Review", Applied Mechanics Reviews, 19:735-48 on Citation Classic, Oct. 3, 1983 Chun Huh, L.
E. Scriven. "Hydrodynamic model of steady movement of a solid/liquid/fluid contact line", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 35, 85-101. L. E. Scriven. "Equilibrium bicontinuous structure", Nature, 263, 123-125. Perspectives in Chemical Engineering, edited by C. K. Colton D. J. Norris, E. G. Arlinghaus, L. Meng, R. Heiny, L. E. Scriven. "Opaline Photonic Crystals: How Does Self‐Assembly Work?", Advanced Materials, 16, 1393. In honor of Scriven International Society of Coating Science and Technology established L. E. Scriven Young Investigator Award. L. E. “Skip” Scriven Chair is an Endowed Professorship at the University of Minnesota
California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology is a private doctorate-granting research university in Pasadena, California. Known for its strength in natural science and engineering, Caltech is ranked as one of the world's top-ten universities. Although founded as a preparatory and vocational school by Amos G. Throop in 1891, the college attracted influential scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes and Robert Andrews Millikan in the early 20th century; the vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910 and the college assumed its present name in 1921. In 1934, Caltech was elected to the Association of American Universities and the antecedents of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which Caltech continues to manage and operate, were established between 1936 and 1943 under Theodore von Kármán; the university is one among a small group of institutes of technology in the United States, devoted to the instruction of pure and applied sciences. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering, managing $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research.
Its 124-acre primary campus is located 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles. First-year students are required to live on campus and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at Caltech. Although Caltech has a strong tradition of practical jokes and pranks, student life is governed by an honor code which allows faculty to assign take-home examinations; the Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division III's Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. As of October 2018, Caltech alumni and researchers include 73 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners. In addition, there are 53 non-emeritus faculty members who have been elected to one of the United States National Academies, 4 Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force and 71 have won the United States National Medal of Technology. Numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA. According to a 2015 Pomona College study, Caltech ranked number one in the U.
S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD. Caltech started as a vocational school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop; the school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute and Throop College of Technology before acquiring its current name in 1920. The vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907. At a time when scientific research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale, a solar astronomer from the University of Chicago, founded the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1904, he joined Throop's board of trustees in 1907, soon began developing it and the whole of Pasadena into a major scientific and cultural destination. He engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, to Throop's presidency in 1908. Scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus.
In 1910, Throop moved to its current site. Arthur Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. Theodore Roosevelt delivered an address at Throop Institute on March 21, 1911, he declared: I want to see institutions like Throop turn out ninety-nine of every hundred students as men who are to do given pieces of industrial work better than any one else can do them. In the same year, a bill was introduced in the California Legislature calling for the establishment of a publicly funded "California Institute of Technology", with an initial budget of a million dollars, ten times the budget of Throop at the time; the board of trustees offered to turn Throop over to the state, but the presidents of Stanford University and the University of California lobbied to defeat the bill, which allowed Throop to develop as the only scientific research-oriented education institute in southern California, public or private, until the onset of the World War II necessitated the broader development of research-based science education.
The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science and technology. With the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. While he supported the idea of federal appropriations for science, he took exception to a federal bill that would have funded engineering research at land-grant colleges, instead sought to raise a $1 million national research fund from private sources. To that end, as Hale wrote in The New York Times: Throop College of Technology, in Pasadena California has afforded a striking illustration of one way in which the Research Council can secure co-operation and advance scientific investigation; this institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, could be of great service in any broad scheme of cooperation. President S