Albert Hastings Markham
Admiral Sir Albert Hastings Markham, KCB was a British explorer and officer in the Royal Navy. In 1903 he was made Knight Commander in the Order of the Bath and he died in London, England at the age of 76. He is remembered for designing the flag of New Zealand, Albert Markham was the fifth son of Captain John Markham, who had retired from the navy because of ill health with the rank of lieutenant. John Markhams grandfather, William Markham, had been Archbishop of York, Albert was born in Bagnères-de-Bigorre in the Hautes-Pyrénées department of France, where the family lived before moving to a farm on Guernsey. At age thirteen Albert was sent to London to live with his aunt, neighbours included the explorer Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy and novelist William Thackeray. He was educated at home and at Eastmans Royal Naval Academy, Markhams father was short of money for his education and had for some time tried to find a naval officer willing to sponsor Albert for admission to the navy. He only succeeded in doing so after Albert had passed the entry age of fourteen.
His aunts son Clements Markham, who was eleven years older than Albert, had joined the navy before leaving to become a geographer and explorer. He became a friend to his cousin Albert and exerted a considerable influence on his career. When away from Clements and his wife Minna, who for much of his life he regarded as his family, Albert was often moody, irritable. He had a sense of duty as a naval officer, which compelled him to serve with a strict adherence to rules and established practices. He did not smoke, allowing that a gentleman might have an occasional cigar, but believing that cigarettes were for effeminate weaklings and he did not drink and disapproved of those who did. He found it difficult to socialise with other officers and he disliked the peacetime navy, with its endless social engagements and ritual displays. Markhams family emigrated to the United States and John Markham bought a farm at La Crosse in Wisconsin, Albert visited them twice and he was unimpressed. He found the slow, the hotels disreputable, and travelling companions murderous.
He was impressed by the grandeur and wildlife of the Mississippi Valley and was invited to hunt with General Mackenzie in Indian territory. Throughout his life he enjoyed hunting all manner of beasts, the only killing at which he showed disgust was the drawn-out deaths of whales, which he saw on Arctic voyages. He married Theodora Gervers in 1894, with whom he had one daughter, Markham had no great conviction for a naval career, but accepted the constraints it placed upon him in return for the opportunities it presented to further his other interests
Bath is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859, Bath is in the valley of the River Avon,97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol. The city became a World Heritage Site in 1987, the city became a spa with the Latin name Aquæ Sulis c. AD60 when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, Bath Abbey was founded in the 7th century and became a religious centre, the building was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries. In the 17th century, claims were made for the properties of water from the springs. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, and in the 18th century the city became fashionable, Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century. Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II, the city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a centre for tourism with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year.
There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, Victoria Art Gallery, Museum of East Asian Art, the city has two universities, the University of Bath and Bath Spa University, with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C. while TeamBath is the name for all of the University of Bath sports teams. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century, solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, and the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down, messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists. The tablets were written in Latin, and cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them, for example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, and a complex was built up over the next 300 years.
Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, in the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls, probably in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, in March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig
The British Antarctic Expedition 1907–09, otherwise known as the Nimrod Expedition, was the first of three expeditions to the Antarctic led by Ernest Shackleton. Its main target, among a range of geographical and scientific objectives, was to be first to the South Pole and this was not attained, but the expeditions southern march reached a Farthest South latitude of 88°23 S, just 97.5 nautical miles from the pole. This was by far the longest southern polar journey to that date, the expedition lacked governmental or institutional support, and relied on private loans and individual contributions. It was beset by problems and its preparations were hurried. Its ship, was less than half of the size of Robert Falcon Scotts 1901–04 expedition ship Discovery, and Shackletons crew lacked relevant experience. Controversy arose from Shackletons decision to base the expedition in McMurdo Sound, close to Scotts old headquarters, although the expeditions profile was initially much lower than that of Scotts six years earlier, its achievements attracted nationwide interest and made Shackleton a public hero.
The scientific team, which included the future Australasian Antarctic Expedition leader Douglas Mawson, on his return, Shackleton overcame the Royal Geographical Societys initial scepticism about his achievements and received many public honours, including a knighthood from King Edward VII. He made little financial gain from the expedition and eventually depended on a government grant to cover its liabilities, within three years his southernmost record had been surpassed, as first Amundsen and Scott reached the South Pole. In his own moment of triumph, Amundsen nevertheless observed, Sir Ernest Shackletons name will always be written in the annals of Antarctic exploration in letters of fire, Shackleton had been a junior officer on Scotts first Antarctic expedition in the Discovery. He had been sent home on the relief ship Morning in 1903, Scotts verdict was that he ought not to risk further hardships in his present state of health. During the next few years, while nursing intermittent hopes of resuming his Antarctic career, in 1906 he was working for the industrial magnate Sir William Beardmore as a public relations officer.
According to his biographer Roland Huntford, the references to Shackletons physical breakdown made in Scotts The Voyage of the Discovery, published in 1905 and it became a personal mission that he should return to the Antarctic and outperform Scott. He began looking for potential backers for an expedition of his own and these include a cost estimate of £17,000 for the entire expedition. He received his first promise of financial backing when early in 1907 his employer, with this in hand, Shackleton felt confident enough to announce his intentions to the Royal Geographical Society on 12 February 1907. One reason for Shackletons sense of urgency was the knowledge that the Polish explorer Henryk Arctowski was planning an expedition, in the event, Arctowskis plans were stillborn. Shackletons original unpublished plan envisaged basing himself at the old Discovery Expedition headquarters in McMurdo Sound, from there he proposed to launch attempts to reach the geographical South Pole and the South Magnetic Pole.
Other journeys would follow, and there would be a programme of scientific work. This early plan revealed Shackletons proposed transport methods, involving a combination of dogs, neither ponies nor motor traction had been used in the Antarctic before, though ponies had been used by Frederick Jackson during the Jackson-Harmsworth Arctic expedition of 1894–97
Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig
Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, KT, GCB, OM, GCVO, KCIE, ADC was a senior officer of the British Army. During the First World War he commanded the British Expeditionary Force on the Western Front from late 1915 until the end of the war and he was nicknamed Butcher Haig for the two million British casualties endured under his command. The Canadian War Museum comments, His epic but costly offensives at the Somme and Passchendaele have become synonymous with the carnage. Haig was born in a house on Charlotte Square, Edinburgh but technically it was addressed as 19 Hope Street and he was not an aristocrat by birth, or landed gentry. His father John Haig—an irascible alcoholic—was middle class, and as head of the familys successful Haig & Haig whisky distillery had an income of £10,000 per year and his mother was from a gentry family fallen on straitened circumstances. Rachels cousin, Violet Veitch, was mother of the playwright, Haigs education began in 1869 as a boarder at Mr Batesons School in Clifton Bank, St Andrews.
Later in 1869, he switched to Edinburgh Collegiate School, and in 1871 to Orwell House, both of Haigs parents died by the time he was eighteen. After a tour of the United States with his brother, Haig attended university, studying Political Economy, Ancient History and French Literature at Brasenose College, Oxford and he devoted much of his time to socialising – he was a member of the Bullingdon Club – and equestrian sports. He was one of the best young horsemen at Oxford and quickly found his way into the University polo team and he was commissioned as a lieutenant into the 7th Hussars on 7 February 1885. Haig played polo for England on a tour of the United States and he would remain a polo enthusiast all his life, serving as Chairman of the Hurlingham Polo Committee from its reorganization in May 1914 until 1922. He would be President of the Army Polo Committee and founder of the Indian Polo Association and he saw overseas service in India, where he was appointed the regiments adjutant in 1888.
He was something of a disciplinarian, but impressed his superiors by his skill at sorting out paperwork and he was promoted to captain on 23 January 1891. Haig left India in November 1892 to prepare for the exam for the Staff College, Camberley. Although he was placed in the top 28 candidates he was not awarded a place as he had failed the compulsory mathematics paper. He concealed this failure for the rest of his life and recommended dropping the mathematics paper as a requirement. Haigs colour blindness would not have been an issue if he had passed the mathematics paper. Fraser was one of those who had lobbied for Haig to enter the Staff College, and he was nominated in late 1894. While waiting to take up his place, he travelled to Germany to report on cavalry manoeuvres there, the careers of French and Haig were to be entwined for the next twenty-five years, and Haig helped French write the cavalry drillbook, published 1896
Willem Barentsz was a Dutch navigator and Arctic explorer. He went on three expeditions to the far north in search for a Northeast passage, during his third expedition, the crew was stranded on Novaya Zemlya for almost a year. Barentsz died on the voyage in 1597. In the 19th century, the Barents Sea was named after him, Willem Barentsz was born around 1550 on the island Terschelling in the Seventeen Provinces, present-day Netherlands. Barentsz was not his surname but rather his name, short for Barentszoon Barents son. A cartographer by trade, Barentsz sailed to Spain and the Mediterranean to complete an atlas of the Mediterranean region, between 23 and 29 June, Barentsz stayed at Kildin Island. On 9 July, the crew encountered a bear for the first time. After shooting it with a musket when it tried to climb aboard the ship, once leashed and brought aboard the ship however, the bear rampaged and had to be killed. This occurred in Bear Creek, Williams Island, upon discovering the Orange Islands, the crew came across a herd of approximately 200 walruses and tried to kill them with hatchets and pikes.
Finding the task more difficult than imagined, they left with only a few ivory tusks. Barentsz reached the west coast of Novaya Zemlya, and followed it northward before being forced to back in the face of large icebergs. Although they did not reach their goal, the trip was considered a success. Setting out on 2 June 1595, the voyage went between the Siberian coast and Vaygach Island, on 30 August, the party came across approximately 20 Samoyed wild men with whom they were able to speak, due to a crewmember speaking their language. 4 September saw a crew sent to States Island to search for a type of crystal that had been noticed earlier. The party was attacked by a bear, and two sailors were killed. Eventually, the turned back upon discovering that unexpected weather had left the Kara Sea frozen. This expedition was considered to be a failure. The Town Council of Amsterdam purchased and outfitted two small ships, captained by Jan Rijp and Jacob van Heemskerk, to search for the channel under the command of Barentsz
Royal Geographical Society
The Royal Geographical Society is the UKs learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences. Today, it is the centre for geographers and geographical learning. The Society has over 16,500 members and its work reaches millions of people each year through publications, research groups, the Geographical Society of London was founded in 1830 under the name Geographical Society of London as an institution to promote the advancement of geographical science. It absorbed the older African Association, which had been founded by Sir Joseph Banks in 1788, as well as the Raleigh Club and the Palestine Association. Like many learned societies, it had started as a club in London. Founding members of the Society included Sir John Barrow, Sir John Franklin, under the patronage of King William IV it became known as The Royal Geographical Society and was granted its Royal Charter under Queen Victoria in 1859. From 1830 –1840 the RGS met in the rooms of the Horticultural Society in Regent Street and from 1854 -1870 at 15 Whitehall Place, London.
In 1870, the Society finally found a home when it moved to 1 Savile Row, London – an address that became associated with adventure. The Society used a lecture theatre in Burlington Gardens, London which was lent to it by the Civil Service Commission, the arrangements were thought to be rather cramped and squalid. A new impetus was given to the Societys affairs in 1911, with the election of Earl Curzon, the premises in Savile Row were sold and the present site, Lowther Lodge in Kensington Gore, was purchased for £100,000 and opened for use in April 1913. In the same year the Societys ban on women was lifted, Lowther Lodge was built in 1874 for the Hon William Lowther by Norman Shaw, one of the most outstanding domestic architects of his day. Extensions to the east wing were added in 1929, and included the New Map Room, the extension was formally opened by HRH the Duke of York at the Centenary Celebrations on 21 October 1930. The history of the Society was closely allied for many of its years with colonial exploration in Africa, the Indian subcontinent, the polar regions.
It has been a key associate and supporter of many explorers and expeditions, including those of Darwin, Stanley, Shackleton, Hunt. The early history of the Society is inter-linked with the history of British Geography, information, maps and knowledge gathered on expeditions was sent to the RGS, making up its now unique geographical collections. The Society published its first journal in 1831 and from 1855, accounts of meetings, in 1893, this was replaced by The Geographical Journal which is still published today. With the advent of a systematic study of geography, the Institute of British Geographers was formed in 1933, by some academic Society fellows. Its activities included organising conferences, field trips and specialist research groups and publishing the journal, the RGS and IBG co-existed for 60 years until 1992 when a merger was discussed
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
North Russia Intervention
The intervention brought about the involvement of foreign troops in the Russian Civil War on the side of the White movement. The campaign lasted from 1918, during the months of World War I. In March 1917, after the abdication of Russian Tsar Nicholas II and the formation of a democratic government in Russia. The U. S. government declared war on the German Empire in April after learning of the attempt to persuade Mexico to join the Central Powers. The Russian Provisional Government, led by Alexander Kerensky, pledged to continue fighting Imperial Germany on the Eastern Front, in return, the U. S. began providing economic and technical support to the Russian provisional government, so they could carry out their military pledge. The Russian offensive of 18 June 1917, was crushed by a German counteroffensive, the Russian Army was plagued by mutinies and desertions. Allied war materiel still in transit quickly began piling up in warehouses at Arkhangelsk, anxious to keep Russia in the war, the Royal Navy established the British North Russia Squadron under Admiral Kemp.
The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, came to power in October 1917, five months later, they signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany, which formally ended the war on the Eastern Front. This allowed the German army to begin redeploying troops to the Western Front, faced with these events, the leaders of the British and French governments decided the western Allies needed to begin a military intervention in North Russia. The British 6th Battalion Royal Marines Light Infantry was scratched together from a company of the Royal Marine Artillery, very few of their officers had seen any land fighting. Their original purpose had been only to deploy to Flensburg to supervise a vote to decide whether northern Schleswig-Holstein should remain German or be given to Denmark, many of the Marines were less than 19 years old, it would have been unusual to send them overseas. Others were ex-prisoners of war who had recently returned from Germany and had no home leave. There was outrage when on short notice, the 6th Battalion was shipped to Murmansk, Russia, on the Arctic Ocean, still not expecting to have to fight, the battalion was ordered forward under army command to hold certain outposts.
A British Royal Air Force contingent comprising Airco DH.4 bombers, Fairey Campania, opposing this international force was the Seventh and Eighth Red Army, the Army of the North West, which was poorly prepared for battle in May 1918. In September 1918, the Allies took Obozerskaya, around 100 miles south of Archangel, during the attack, the RAF provided air support to the advancing Allied infantry, conducting bombing and strafing runs. The attack on the village was disorganized and resulted in three Marines killed and 18 wounded, including the commander who had ineffectually led the attack himself. A week later, B and C companies, led this time by a major, made a second attempt to take Koikori. The British were again repulsed at Koikori, the major was killed
John Ross (Royal Navy officer)
Admiral Sir John Ross, CB, RN was a British naval officer and Arctic explorer. Ross was the son of the Rev. Andrew Ross of Balsarroch, minister of Inch in Wigtownshire, and Elizabeth Corsane, daughter of Robert Corsane, in 1786, aged only nine, he joined the Royal Navy as an apprentice. He served in the Mediterranean until 1789 and in the English Channel, in 1808, he acted as a captain of the Swedish Navy and in 1812 became a Commander. Sir John was the uncle of Captain Sir James Clark Ross, RN who explored the Arctic with him and this entailed going around the extreme northeast coast of America and sailing to the Bering Strait. He was to note the currents, the state of ice and magnetism and he left London in April 1818 in the Isabella accompanied by the Alexander under Lieutenant William Edward Parry. He sailed counter-clockwise around Baffin Bay repeating the observations made by William Baffin two hundred years before, in August he reached Lancaster Sound at the north end of Baffin Island and entered Lancaster Sound which proved to be the eastern gate of the Northwest Passage.
He sailed a number of miles west but went no further and he named the apparent mountains Croker Mountains, in honor of John Wilson Croker, First Secretary of the Admiralty. He returned to England despite the protests of several of his officers, including Parry, the account of his voyage, published a year later, brought to light their disagreement, and the ensuing controversy over the existence of Croker Mountains ruined his reputation. This expedition failed to discover much that was new and its main effect was to open a route for whale ships to northern Baffin Bay and provoke William Edward Parry to re-explore Lancaster Sound and find a major portion of the northwest passage. Ross attained the rank of captain on his return to Scotland and about this time built the house North West Castle, in Stranraer, partly to redeem his reputation Ross proposed to use a shallow-draft steam ship to break through the ice. The Admiralty was not interested, but he was able to convince the gin-magnate Felix Booth to finance a second expedition and his ship was the Victory, a side-wheel steamer with paddles that could be lifted away from the ice and an experimental high-pressure boiler built by John Ericsson.
It carried four officers and 19 men, the goal was Prince Regent Inlet at the west end of Baffin Island where Parry had lost his ship in 1825. He left the Thames on 23 May 1829, Baffin Bay was unusually ice free and on 6 August 1829 he passed the point where he had turned back 10 years before. On 11 August 1829 he turned south into Prince Regent Inlet, the hulk was gone but there were heaps of stores on the beach, some of which he took. Continuing south he became the first European in the Gulf of Boothia and he took winter quarters at Felix Harbour at the eastern tip of the Boothia Peninsula. In January 1830 a group of Netsilik Inuit arrived and provided food, for one of them the ships carpenter made a wooden leg. In the spring of 1830 James Clark Ross made several trips west into the interior. On 9 April 1830 he reached the west side of the Boothia Peninsula and in May 1830 crossed over ice to the northwest shore of King William Island and it was mid-September 1830 before the ice broke part of its grip
Emmanuel College, Cambridge
Emmanuel College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college was founded in 1584 by Sir Walter Mildmay, Chancellor of the Exchequer to Elizabeth I, in every year since 1998 Emmanuel has been among the top five colleges in the Tompkins Table, which ranks colleges according to end-of-year examination results. Emmanuel has topped the five times since and placed second six times. Emmanuel is one of the colleges at Cambridge with a financial endowment of approximately £105 million. The college was founded in 1584 by Sir Walter Mildmay, Chancellor of the Exchequer to Elizabeth I, the site had been occupied by a Dominican friary until the Dissolution of the Monasteries, some 45 years earlier. Mildmays foundation made use of the existing buildings, Mildmay, a Puritan, intended Emmanuel to be a college of training for Protestant preachers. Like all of the older Cambridge Colleges, Emmanuel originally took only male students and it first admitted female students in 1979. Under Mildmays instruction, the chapel of the original Dominican Friary had been converted to be the Colleges dining hall, in the late 17th century, the College commissioned a new chapel, one of three buildings in Cambridge to be designed by Christopher Wren.
After Wrens construction, the chapel became the College library until it outgrew the space. There is a fish pond in the grounds, part of the legacy of the friary. The pond is home of a colony of ducks, the Fellows Garden contains a swimming pool, which was originally the friars bathing pool, making it one of the oldest bathing pools in Europe. It includes an Oriental plane tree, in the Fellows Garden, the Emmanuel College Students Union is the society of all undergraduate students at Emmanuel College. It provides a shop, a bar, a common room, eCSUs Executive Committee is elected on a yearly basis at the end of Michaelmas Term. The Emmanuel College Middle Combination Room is the society of all students at Emmanuel College. The Room itself is a comfortable and well equipped space in the Queens Building, the MCR committee organises regular social events for graduate students, including well-attended formal dinners in hall every few weeks. A large number of student societies and sports clubs exist at Emmanuel College, sports clubs include Emmanuel Boat Club, badminton, squash, football and netball.
Funding for societies and new, come from applications to the Emmanuel College Student union, Emmanuel graduates had a large involvement in the settling of North America. Of the first 100 university graduates in New England, one-third were graduates of Emmanuel College, Harvard University, the first college in the United States, was organised on the model of Emmanuel, as it was run
Born in Kilkea, County Kildare, Ireland and his Anglo-Irish family moved to Sydenham in suburban south London when he was ten. Also, members of his team climbed Mount Erebus, the most active Antarctic volcano, for these achievements, Shackleton was knighted by King Edward VII on his return home. After the race to the South Pole ended in December 1911 with Roald Amundsens conquest, Shackleton turned his attention to the crossing of Antarctica from sea to sea, to this end he made preparations for what became the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914–17. Disaster struck this expedition when its ship, became trapped in ice and was slowly crushed before the shore parties could be landed. In 1921, he returned to the Antarctic with the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition, at his wifes request he was buried there. Away from his expeditions, Shackletons life was generally restless and unfulfilled, in his search for rapid pathways to wealth and security, he launched business ventures which failed to prosper, and he died heavily in debt.
Upon his death, he was lauded in the press, but was largely forgotten. Ernest Shackleton was born on 15 February 1874 in Kilkea near Athy, County Kildare, ernests father was Henry Shackleton, and his mother was Henrietta Letitia Sophia Gavan. His fathers family was Anglo-Irish, originally from Yorkshire and his mothers family was Irish, from counties Cork and Kerry. Ernest was the second of their ten children and the first of two sons, the second, achieved notoriety as a suspect, exonerated, in the 1907 theft of the Irish Crown Jewels. In 1880, when Ernest was six, Henry Shackleton gave up his life as a landowner to study medicine at Trinity College, four years later, the family moved again, from Ireland to Sydenham in suburban London. From early childhood, Shackleton was a reader, a pursuit which sparked a passion for adventure. He was schooled by a governess until the age of eleven, at the age of thirteen, he entered Dulwich College. The young Shackleton did not particularly distinguish himself as a scholar and he was quoted as saying, I never learned much geography at school.
Literature, consisted in the dissection, the parsing, teachers should be very careful not to spoil taste for poetry for all time by making it a task and an imposition. In his final term at the school he was able to achieve fifth place in his class of thirty-one. Shackletons restlessness at school was such that he was allowed to leave at 16 and his father was able to secure him a berth with the North Western Shipping Company, aboard the square-rigged sailing ship Hoghton Tower. In August 1894, he passed his examination for Second Mate, two years later, he had obtained his First Mates ticket, and in 1898, he was certified as a Master Mariner, qualifying him to command a British ship anywhere in the world
Order of Saint Stanislaus
The Order of Saint Stanislaus, spelled Stanislas, was a Polish order of knighthood founded in 1765 by King Stanisław August Poniatowski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It remained under the Kingdom of Poland between 1765 and 1831, and was incorporated under the Russian Empire from 1831 to 1917, until the Russian revolution. Stanisław August Poniatowski, King of Poland, established the Order of the Knights of Saint Stanislaus, initially, the order was limited to 100 members who were required to prove four generations of nobility. The knights were required to pay for donations to poor people, due to the rising influence of the Russian Empire on Central European affairs, the rules of awarding of the order were broken. After the Partitions of Poland, the order was resurrected in the Duchy of Warsaw, bestowing upon its recipients the title of hereditary nobility, since 1815 in the Polish Kingdom, the order, originally in a single class, was retained and divided into four classes. On 25 January 1831, the Polish Parliament deposed Emperor Nicholas I of Russia from the throne of Poland, the newly founded Order of Polonia Restituta was created as an attributed Polish successor to the order.
Both the Polish and Russian badges hung from a red ribbon with white strips near its borders, the star has essentially the same design in both its Polish and Russian forms. In its original Polish form the knights of the Order wore a red, there is a semi-circle of gold rays between each of the points of arms of the Maltese cross. Two other organisations in Poland, the Ordo Sancti Stanislai and the International Order of Saint Stanislaus, contemporarly describe themselves as merely private charitable organisations