Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
McNeese State University
McNeese State University is a public university in Lake Charles, Louisiana. Founded in 1939 as Lake Charles Junior College, it was renamed McNeese Junior College after John McNeese, an early local educator; the present name was adopted in 1970. McNeese is classified as a Master's University; the selective admissions university consists of six colleges and the Doré School of Graduate Studies. McNeese is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, all programs of study are accredited by their respective national boards. McNeese State University was founded in 1939 as a division of Louisiana State University and was called Lake Charles Junior College, it offered only the first two years of higher education. McNeese opened its doors on an 86-acre tract donated by the Calcasieu Parish Police Jury, the parish governing board. There were two original buildings: the McNeese Arena; the auditorium, now Francis G. Bulber Auditorium, was completed in 1940 as the third building on the campus.
These three buildings are still in use today. The name became John McNeese Junior College in 1940 by resolution of the University Board of Supervisors in honor of Imperial Calcasieu Parish's first superintendent of schools. In 1950, the college became an autonomous four-year institution as McNeese State College; the bill was advanced by State Senator Gilbert Franklin Hennigan of DeRidder in neighboring Beauregard Parish. It was separated from renamed McNeese State College, its administration was transferred to the Louisiana State Board of Education. In 1960, legislators authorized McNeese to offer curricula leading to the master's degree. In 1970, its name changed to McNeese State University. McNeese was first accredited in 1954 by the Southern Association of Schools. Dr. Joseph T. Farrar Dr. William B. Hatcher Dr. Rodney Cline Dr. Lether Edward Frazar Retired in 1955, became lieutenant governor of Louisiana thereafter. Dr. Wayne N. Cusic Retired in 1969. Dr. Thomas S. Leary Resigned from presidency.
Dr. Jack Doland Resigned. Dr. Robert Hébert Dr. Philip C. Williams Dr. Daryl Burckel The main campus occupies 121 acres lined with oak trees in the heart of south Lake Charles; the main campus includes 68 main buildings. In addition, the physical plant includes the 503-acre McNeese Farm, a 65-acre Athletic plant, Burton Coliseum, the Louisiana Environmental Research Center, nearly 1,600 acres of donated farm property used for research and ranching. A renovation of the quadrangle was completed to relieve the flooding that plagued students during rainy days; the Southwest Louisiana Entrepreneurial and Economic Development Center has been completed, allowing local business leaders and McNeese students to work in tandem. The newly renovated Jack V. Doland Field House, which now houses offices for all of the football coaches, equipment manager and strength coach and members of the athletic administration as well as the ticket office, held its official grand opening and ribbon cutting ceremony September 9, 2011.
A commemorative statue of John McNeese has been placed near Smith Hall, new decorative signs have been built on each corner of the main campus. A recent $16 million annex to the Shearman Fine Arts Center has been completed and renovations have begun on the older sections of the facility; the McNeese State Recreational Sports Complex includes two weight rooms, basketball courts, tennis courts, an indoor track, an Olympic-size swimming pool. McNeese State University offers 83 degree programs in its eight colleges and divisions: The Division of General and Basic Studies The College of Business The Burton College of Education The College of Engineering and Engineering Technology The College of Liberal Arts The College of Nursing and Health Professions The College of Science The Doré School of Graduate StudiesMcNeese is the first university in the State of Louisiana to offer a concentration in forensic chemistry, it is one of the first schools in the nation to offer a concentration in terrorism and security.
The College of Nursing and the Department of Mass Communications are housed in the Juliet Hardtner Hall, named for a McNeese donor and daughter of the Louisiana timber magnate and conservationist, Henry E. Hardtner of La Salle Parish; the Department of English and Foreign Languages, in conjunction with the local chapter of Sigma Tau Delta, publishes The Arena, an annual collection of art, essays and poetry by students, regardless of major. Fifteen members of faculty have received Fulbright Awards. Faculty members in the Departments of Engineering, Performing Arts, Social Sciences and English and Foreign Languages have taught in Rwanda, Greece and Wales, among other countries. In the Department of English and Foreign Languages alone, four faculty members have received Fulbrights. McNeese is the only institution in the state of Louisiana to have a Kodály Certification Program as part of its Music Education degree; the College of Business is accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business.
Less than 5% of the world's business schools are accredited by this prestigious association. The College of Engineering offers a multi-discipline curriculum to all students with majors in chemical, civil and mechanical engineering; that is, students in these individual disciplines are
Delta Sigma Pi
Delta Sigma Pi is one of the largest co-ed professional business fraternities in the United States. Delta Sigma Pi was founded on November 7, 1907, at the School of Commerce and Finance of New York University in New York, New York and is headquartered in Oxford, Ohio; the Fraternity has 224 active collegiate chapters and 7 colonies, as well as 57 active alumni chapters, with over 280,000 initiated members. Delta Sigma Pi is a professional fraternity organized to foster the study of business in universities. Delta Sigma Pi was founded by four men: Alexander Frank Makay, Henry Albert Tienken, Harold Valentine Jacobs, Alfred Moysello; these four men, along with a fifth student, grew close to one another in their classes and from sharing the same subway route on their way home every evening. They discussed topics of mutual interest including school affairs. One such topic that came up involved the dominance of Alpha Kappa Psi, founded a few years earlier as the only fraternity at NYU's School of Commerce and Finance.
The men felt they had been ignored by the fraternity due to their race and religion, so they decided to develop a new organization to provide students with an alternative. They decided the new organization would be a club open to all students, but the idea did not take off with the student body. In 1907, the fifth student, Charlie Cashmore, dropped from the group when he was offered the opportunity to join the aforementioned organization; the four abandoned their plans for a club in favor of forming another Greek letter fraternity. In 1911, the fraternity published its first newsletter; the second chapter was founded at Northwestern School of Commerce. National meetings, called the Grand Chapter Congress, became a regular tradition and to this day the national fraternity meets every other year to conduct business and elect its national leaders. After rapid expansion in the early 1920s, the fraternity opened its national headquarters in Chicago, Illinois. In 1957, the central office moved to Ohio adjacent to the campus of Miami University.
The biggest change in the history of the Fraternity took place in 1975, as the Board of Directors mandated that chapters were allowed to initiate female business students, to conform with Title IX. The red rose was adopted as the official flower of Deltasig at the first Board of Directors Meeting in 1921, it was the gift given to the wives and courted women of Deltasig brothers. One of the founding fathers, Harold V. Jacobs, suggested a rose as the official fraternity flower because his wife loved roses and it was her first name. Five years in 1926, Jacobs suggested that the song sung at LEAD schools and Grand Chapter Congress events, "Rose of Deltasig," be adopted as the official song of the fraternity; the Central Office of Delta Sigma Pi, national administrative headquarters, was established in Chicago, Illinois, in 1924. In the fall of 1956, it moved to 330 South Campus Avenue in Ohio. In 1970, the original building nearly doubled in size with the addition of wings on either side of the building.
In 2010 extensive renovations, including a courtyard featuring engraved bricks, were completed to make the building more functional and accessible. The Executive Director has a full-time staff. Leadership and Excellence Academies for Deltasigs focus on the educational development of members of Delta Sigma Pi. LEAD academies are held at several locations around the United States each year. Examples of these academies includes LEAD Schools, Provincial Conferences, Volunteer Leadership Workshops, the LeaderShape Institute. Since its inception in 1907, Delta Sigma Pi has installed 298 chapters, of which 224 are active. In addition to these chapters, Delta Sigma Pi has active colonies at 7 universities. Delta Sigma Pi has 57 franchised Alumni Chapters on its roll for the 2018-2019 year in the United States, over 40 more locations worldwide have Brothers with an interest in starting a new Alumni Chapter
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
University of Washington
The University of Washington is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1861, Washington was first established in downtown Seattle a decade after the city's founding to aid its economic development. Today, the university's 703-acre main Seattle campus is situated in the University District above the Montlake Cut, within the urban Puget Sound region of the Pacific Northwest; the university has two additional campuses in Bothell. Overall, UW encompasses over 500 buildings and over 20 million gross square footage of space, including one of the largest library systems in the world with over 26 university libraries, as well as the UW Tower, lecture halls, art centers, laboratories and conference centers; the university offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees through 140 departments in various colleges and schools, sees about 46,000 in total student enrollment every year, functions on a quarter system. Washington is a member of the Association of American Universities and classified as an R1 Doctoral Research University classification under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.
It is cited as a leading university in the world for scientific performance and research output by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the CWTS Leiden Ranking. In the 2015 fiscal year, the UW received nearly $1.2 billion in research funding, the 3rd largest among all universities in the United States. As the flagship institution of the six public universities in Washington State, it is known for its research in medicine, science, as well as its highly-competitive computer science and engineering programs. Additionally, Washington continues to benefit from its deep historical ties and major collaborations with numerous technology giants in the region, such as Amazon, Boeing and Microsoft. Paul G. Allen, Bill Gates and others spent significant time at Washington computer labs for a prior venture before founding Microsoft, its 22 varsity sports teams are highly competitive, competing as the Huskies in the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA Division I, representing the United States at the Olympic Games, other major competitions.
The University has been affiliated with many notable alumni and faculty, including 20 Nobel Prize laureates and numerous Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars, as well as members of other distinguished institutions. In 1854, territorial governor Isaac Stevens recommended the establishment of a university in the Washington Territory. Prominent Seattle-area residents, including Methodist preacher Daniel Bagley, saw this as a chance to add to the city's potential and prestige. Bagley learned of a law that allowed United States territories to sell land to raise money in support of public schools. At the time, Arthur A. Denny, an early founder of Seattle and member of the territorial legislature, aimed to increase the city's importance by moving the territory's capital from Olympia to Seattle. However, Bagley convinced Denny that the establishment of a university would assist more in the development of Seattle's economy. Two universities were chartered, but the decision was repealed in favor of a single university in Lewis County provided that locally donated land was available.
When no site emerged, Denny petitioned the legislature to reconsider Seattle as a location in 1858. In 1861, scouting began for an appropriate 10 acres site in Seattle to serve as a new university campus. Arthur and Mary Denny donated eight acres, while fellow pioneers Edward Lander, Charlie and Mary Terry, donated two acres on Denny's Knoll in downtown Seattle. More this tract was bounded by 4th Avenue to the west, 6th Avenue to the east, Union Street to the north, Seneca Streets to the south. John Pike, for whom Pike Street is named was the builder. On November 4, 1861, the university opened as the Territorial University of Washington; the legislature passed articles incorporating the University, establishing its Board of Regents in 1862. The school struggled, closing three times: in 1863 for low enrollment and again in 1867 and 1876 due to funds shortage. Washington awarded its first graduate Clara Antoinette McCarty Wilt in 1876, with a bachelor's degree in science. By the time Washington State entered the Union in 1889, both Seattle and the University had grown substantially.
Washington's total undergraduate enrollment increased from 30 to nearly 300 students, the campus's relative isolation in downtown Seattle faced encroaching development. A special legislative committee, headed by UW graduate Edmond Meany, was created to find a new campus to better serve the growing student population and faculty; the committee selected a site on the northeast of downtown Seattle called Union Bay, the land of the Duwamish, the legislature appropriated funds for its purchase and construction. In 1895, the University relocated to the new campus by moving into the newly built Denny Hall; the University Regents tried and failed to sell the old campus settling with leasing the area. This would become one of the University's most valuable pieces of real estate in modern-day Seattle, generating millions in annual revenue with what is now called the Metropolitan Tract; the original Territorial University building was torn down in 1908, its former site now houses the Fairmont Olympic Hotel.
The sole-surviving remnants of Washington's first building are four 24-foot, hand-fluted cedar, Ionic columns. They were salvaged by Edmond S. Meany, one of the University's first graduates and former head of its history dep
African-American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. It begins with the works of such late 18th-century writers as Phillis Wheatley. Before the high point of slave narratives, African-American literature was dominated by autobiographical spiritual narratives; the genre known as slave narratives in the 19th century were accounts by people who had escaped from slavery, about their journeys to freedom and ways they claimed their lives. The Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s was a great period of flowering in literature and the arts, influenced both by writers who came North in the Great Migration and those who were immigrants from Jamaica and other Caribbean islands. African-American writers have been recognized by the highest awards, including the Nobel Prize to Toni Morrison. Among the themes and issues explored in this literature are the role of African Americans within the larger American society, African-American culture, racism and social equality.
African-American writing has tended to incorporate oral forms, such as spirituals, gospel music, blues, or rap. As African Americans' place in American society has changed over the centuries, so has the focus of African-American literature. Before the American Civil War, the literature consisted of memoirs by people who had escaped from slavery. There was an early distinction between the literature of freed slaves and the literature of free blacks born in the North. Free blacks expressed their oppression in a different narrative form. Free blacks in the North spoke out against slavery and racial injustices by using the spiritual narrative; the spiritual addressed many of the same themes of slave narratives, but has been ignored in current scholarly conversation. At the turn of the 20th century, non-fiction works by authors such as W. E. B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington debated. During the Civil Rights Movement, authors such as Richard Wright and Gwendolyn Brooks wrote about issues of racial segregation and black nationalism.
Today, African-American literature has become accepted as an integral part of American literature, with books such as Roots: The Saga of an American Family by Alex Haley, The Color Purple by Alice Walker, which won the Pulitzer Prize. In broad terms, African-American literature can be defined as writings by people of African descent living in the United States, it is varied. African-American literature has focused on the role of African Americans within the larger American society and what it means to be an American; as Princeton University professor Albert J. Raboteau has said, all African-American study "speaks to the deeper meaning of the African-American presence in this nation; this presence has always been a test case of the nation's claims to freedom, equality, the inclusiveness of all." African-American literature explores the issues of freedom and equality long denied to Blacks in the United States, along with further themes such as African-American culture, religion, slavery, a sense of home, migration and more.
African-American literature presents experience from an African-American point of view. In the early Republic, African-American literature represented a way for free blacks to negotiate their identity in an individualized republic, they tried to exercise their political and social autonomy in the face of resistance from the white public. Thus, an early theme of African-American literature was, like other American writings, what it meant to be a citizen in post-Revolutionary America. African-American literature has both been influenced by the great African diasporic heritage and shaped it in many countries, it has been created within the larger realm of post-colonial literature, although scholars distinguish between the two, saying that "African American literature differs from most post-colonial literature in that it is written by members of a minority community who reside within a nation of vast wealth and economic power."African-American oral culture is rich in poetry, including spirituals, gospel music and rap.
This oral poetry appears in the African-American tradition of Christian sermons, which make use of deliberate repetition and alliteration. African-American literature—especially written poetry, but prose—has a strong tradition of incorporating all of these forms of oral poetry; these characteristics do not occur in all works by African-American writers. Some scholars resist using Western literary theory to analyze African-American literature; as the Harvard literary scholar Henry Louis Gates, Jr. said, "My desire has been to allow the black tradition to speak for itself about its nature and various functions, rather than to read it, or analyze it, in terms of literary theories borrowed whole from other traditions, appropriated from without." One trope common to African-American literature is "signifying". Gates claims that signifying “is a trope in which are subsumed several other rhetorical tropes, including metaphor, metonymy and irony, hyperbole and litotes, metalepsis.” Signifying refers to the way in which African-American "authors read and critique other African American texts in an act of rhetorical self-definition".
African-American history predates the emergence of the United States as an independent country, African-American literature has deep roots. Lucy Terry is the author of the oldest known piece of African-American literature, "Bars Fight". Terry wrote the ballad in 1746 af