Calder Memorial Trophy
The Calder Memorial Trophy is an annual award given "to the player selected as the most proficient in his first year of competition in the National Hockey League." It is named after Frank Calder, the first president of the NHL. Serving as the NHL's Rookie of the Year award, this version of the trophy has been awarded since its creation for the 1936–37 NHL season; the voting is conducted by members of the Professional Hockey Writers' Association at the conclusion of each regular season to determine the winner. The Calder Memorial Trophy is named in honour of Frank Calder, the former President of the National Hockey League from its inception in 1917 to his death in 1943. Although Rookie of the Year honors were handed out beginning in 1932–33, the Calder Trophy was first presented at the conclusion of the 1936–37 NHL season. After Calder's death in 1943 the trophy was renamed the Calder Memorial Trophy. In 1990, Sergei Makarov of the Calgary Flames became the oldest player, at age 31, to win the trophy though he had played for HC CSKA Moscow in the Soviet Union.
After that season, the rules for awarding the Calder were amended so that players could only be eligible if they were younger than 27 years old by September 15 of their rookie season. To be eligible for the award, a player cannot have played any more than 25 regular season games in any single season, nor have played in more than six regular season games in each of two separate preceding seasons in any major professional league; the latter fact was most prominent when in the 1979–80 season, first-year phenom Wayne Gretzky was not eligible to win the Calder Trophy despite scoring 137 points, because he had played a full season the previous year in the World Hockey Association. In 1991, goaltender Ed Belfour won the Calder having appeared in 32 games with the Chicago Blackhawks over the 1988–89 and 1989–90 seasons. Belfour was eligible for the award because nine of those appearances came during the 1990 Stanley Cup playoffs, the other 23 appearances were made during the 1988-89 season; the nine playoff games did not count towards the regular season eligibility requirements.
In 2010–11, Logan Couture was eligible for the Calder Trophy despite having played in 40 previous games, while Alex Pietrangelo was ineligible despite having played only 17 previous games. The trophy has been won the most times by rookies from the Toronto Maple Leafs, who have won it on ten occasions, with the most recent being Auston Matthews in 2017; the voting is conducted at the end of the regular season by members of the Professional Hockey Writers' Association, each individual voter ranks their top five candidates on a 10–7–5–3–1 points system. Three finalists are named and the trophy is awarded at the NHL Awards ceremony after the playoffs. List of National Hockey League awards List of NHL players List of NHL statistical leaders Calder Trophy history at NHL.com Calder Trophy profile at Legends of Hockey.net
The Atlanta Thrashers were a professional ice hockey team based in Atlanta. Atlanta was granted a franchise in the National Hockey League on June 25, 1997, became the League's 28th franchise when it began play in the 1999–2000 season, they were members of the Southeast Division of the NHL's Eastern Conference, played their home games at Philips Arena in downtown Atlanta. The Thrashers qualified for the Stanley Cup playoffs only once, during the 2006–07 season in which they won the Southeast Division, but were swept in the first round by the New York Rangers. In May 2011, the Thrashers were sold to Canadian-based ownership group True North Sports & Entertainment; the group moved the franchise to Winnipeg, which became the second incarnation of the Winnipeg Jets. The sale and relocation were approved by the NHL on June 21, 2011. With the sale and relocation of the team, Atlanta became the first city in the NHL's modern era to have two ice hockey teams relocate to different cities. In both cases, the team moved from Atlanta to a Western Canadian city.
After the departure of the International Hockey League's Atlanta Knights to become the Quebec Rafales, the city of Atlanta was awarded an NHL franchise on June 25, 1997, as part of a four-team tiered expansion. This included teams in Nashville, Columbus and St. Paul, in which each new franchise would begin play as its respective new arena was completed; the birth of the new franchise marked NHL hockey's return to Georgia, as the Atlanta Flames, established in 1972, departed for Canada in 1980 to become the Calgary Flames. The Flames had been the League's first foray into the southern U. S. and their failure discouraged further efforts to bring NHL hockey to the region for another decade. The nickname "Thrashers," after Georgia's state bird, the brown thrasher, was selected from a fan poll. "Thrashers" had been runner-up to "Flames" in the poll, Philips Arena, the Thrashers' new home, was built on the site of the former Omni, home to the Flames. By coincidence, the first encampment which would become Atlanta was called Thrasherville, a historical marker of this is located just down from the arena in front of the State Bar of Georgia.
The newly formed Thrashers selected Patrik Stefan with the first overall selection and Luke Sellars with their 30th overall pick in the 1999 NHL Entry Draft. However, the entire 1999 NHL Entry Draft was a major disappointment for the Thrashers, as all 11 of their draft picks were out of the NHL by the team's last season of existence, their first two picks were called two of the biggest disappointments in draft history. This turn of events was a major surprise, as not only did the media hype Stefan as a franchise player, but hockey experts considered then-Thrashers General Manager Don Waddell to be a man with excellent scouting ability; the Thrashers played their first game on October 1999, losing 4 -- 1 to the New Jersey Devils. Captain Kelly Buchberger scored the franchise's first goal in the loss and the team went on to finish their first season in last place in the Southeast Division, with a record of 14 wins, 61 losses and seven ties for a total of 39 points. Atlanta had the second overall pick in the 2000 NHL Entry Draft.
The team had a fine choice in the 2001 Draft, with first overall pick Ilya Kovalchuk. Both Heatley and Kovalchuk played their first season in the NHL in 2001–02; the early years of the Atlanta Thrashers saw a sharp increase of hockey fans in Atlanta. Ticket sales for Thrashers games averaged at 10,000 per night, with many of them being season tickets; the overall experience of a Thrasher's game was unique compared to other Atlanta teams. A section of the arena was dedicated to season ticket holders that called themselves the "Nasty Nest"; the "Nasty Nest" would shout at the opposing team to disrupt them while they played. The Thrashers had two Thrasher bird heads that would face opposite to the scoreboard; the Thrasher heads would open their beaks to reveal a flamethrower, which would ignite when the team scored a goal. It was at this time that the franchise adopted a motto "Believe in Blueland", used in advertising. Marcel Comeau was named director of amateur scouting for the Thrashers, on July 9, 2003, stayed in the role until the team was sold.
On September 21, 2003, Time Warner, the owners of both the Thrashers and the National Basketball Association's Atlanta Hawks, sold both teams to Atlanta Spirit, LLC, a group consisting of businessmen based both in Atlanta and elsewhere. Tragedy struck the team just eight days after the sale, as star forward Dany Heatley crashed his Ferrari in a one-car accident that injured both himself and Thrashers center Dan Snyder. Heatley suffered a broken jaw and arm, a sprained wrist and a torn anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament; the Thrashers dedicated their entire 2003–04 season to Snyder's memory, Thrashers players wore black patches with Snyd
Timmins is a city in northeastern Ontario, Canada, on the Mattagami River. The city is the fourth-largest city in the Northeastern Ontario region with a population of 41,788; the city's economy is based on natural resource extraction and is supported by industries related to lumbering and to the mining of gold, copper and silver. Timmins serves as a distribution centre; the city has a large Francophone community, with more than 50 % bilingual in English. Research performed by archaeologists indicate that human settlement in the area is at least 6,000 years old. Up until contact with settlers, the land belonged to the Mattagami First Nation peoples. Treaty Number Nine of 1906 pushed this tribe to the north side of the Mattagami Lake, the site of a Hudson's Bay trading post first established in 1794. In the 1950s, the reserve was relocated to its present-day location. Gold discoveries in the Porcupine Camp during the early years of the 20th Century attracted investors to the area. On June 9, 1909, Harry Preston slipped on a rocky knoll and the heels of his boots stripped the moss to reveal a large vein of gold, which became the Dome Mine.
On October 9, 1909, Benny Hollinger discovered the gold-bearing quartz dike that became known as the Hollinger Mines. Brothers Noah Timmins and Henry Timmins bought Benny Hollinger's share from him, thus partnering with Hollinger's employers, the McMartin brothers. On the same day as the Hollinger discovery, Sandy McIntyre discovered the McIntyre Mine near Pearl Lake, four miles away; these mines are known as the "Big Three". Hollinger Mines was incorporated in 1910 with five equal partners consisting of former Mattawa, Ontario shopkeeper brothers and Henry Timmins. In November 1912, 1,200 members of the Western Federation of Miners Local 145 held a strike at all three mines in response to a proposal to lower their wages. Mine operators hired gun thugs, who fired on the picket line and were ordered out by the provincial government. After months without work, many men chose to leave the settlement; the strike won the men a pay increase. The Great Depression did not adversely affect the economy of the area, jobs were available in mining and lumber.
The gold mines declined in the 1950s. The area became home to dozens of prospectors during the "Porcupine Gold Rush" who explored the areas around Porcupine Lake and the Frederick House River. Rich ore deposits in the Canadian Shield led to Timmins being founded as a company town to house Hollinger employees. In 1912, mine manager Alphonse "Al" Paré named the mining settlement for his uncle, Noah Timmins, President of Hollinger Mines. Most settlers grouped around the Dome, one mile from the lake. Four miles down the road, around the McIntyre Mine, the hamlet of Schumacher was established; the rail system that began to operate around Timmins in 1911 accelerated the growth of the camp. That same year, two days after the first train arrived in the Porcupine, the entire camp was destroyed in the fire of 1911, although the area was rebuilt within two months. In 1917, a dam was built at Kenogamissi Falls, downriver from Mattagami Lake, to provide power for the Timmins-Porcupine mining camp. In 1973, 35 townships covering 1,260 square mile, including Porcupine, South Porcupine and Timmins were organized into the City of Timmins.
In the 1990s, the City of Timmins became a regional service and distribution centre for Northeastern Ontario. Timmins is near the northern periphery of the hemiboreal humid continental climate. Timmins has cold winters, being in northern Ontario, but temperatures in late summer and autumn tend to be among the coldest for any major city in any Canadian province, although during the spring and summer it can get hot; the highest temperature recorded in Timmins was 39.4 °C on 12 July 1936. The coldest temperature recorded was −45.6 °C on 1 February 1962. The 2006 census indicated that Timmins was 91.1% White, 7.7% Aboriginal, 1.2% Visible Minorities. After several years of decline, the city's population has grown again, with an intercensal population estimate of 44,507 in 2008 and a rapid increase in new retail development projects in the city's west end. In Timmins, according to the 2016 census, 63.7% of the population reported English as their first language, 35.6% reported French as their first language, 0.12% reported a non-official language, neither English nor French, as their first language.
50.8 % of the population is bilingual in French. Some of the main tourist attractions within the city include: The Timmins Museum and National Exhibition Centre, Cedar Meadows Wilderness Tours, Kamiskotia Snow Resort, Porcupine Ski Runners Cross-Country Trails and Chalet, Hollinger Golf Club, Spruce Needles Golf Club, the Sandy Falls Golf Club, the McIntyre Community Building and the Timmins Snowmobile Club. Snowmobiling impacts the Timmins economy as tourists travel from all over North America to explore area trails. Hollinger Park is one of the city's main recreational spaces; the park is divided in two sections, the north side being the public park area, with the south side having a regulation sized baseball diamond and two soccer fields for more organized outdoor recreational endeavours. The baseball park has been home to the Timmins Men's Baseball League since 1985. Former Timmins resident Shania Twain played a concert at Hollinger Park on July 1, 1999. An
George Clifford "Cliff" Fletcher is a National Hockey League executive and is a former general manager of the Atlanta Flames/Calgary Flames, Toronto Maple Leafs, Phoenix Coyotes. He is a Senior Advisor to the Toronto Maple Leafs; some of his nicknames are the "Silver Fox" and "Trader Cliff". Fletcher started his career in 1956 for the Montreal Canadiens as a scout under Sam Pollock later became the General Manager of the Verdun Blues junior team, he joined the expansion St. Louis Blues in 1966 as a scout for Eastern Canada worked his way up to the assistant GM position. With Fletcher's help, the Blues advanced to the Stanley Cup finals in each of their first three years, a feat unmatched to this day. Fletcher's general manager career started in the Central Hockey League with the Kansas City Blues when he was awarded the top job in January 1971 during a mid-season shake-up that saw John Choyce appointed as the team's new head coach. In 1972, he accepted the opportunity to run an NHL team. Fletcher joined the newly minted expansion Atlanta Flames team as General Manager, remaining with the Flames in that capacity through and after the team's move to Calgary, Alberta in 1980.
Over the next 10 years, he oversaw the Calgary Flames to two Smythe division titles, two Clarence S. Campbell Bowls as Campbell Conference Champions, two Presidents' Trophies, given to the team with the best NHL Regular season record. During his tenure in Calgary, he was the first GM to bring a player from the Soviet Union when Sergei Priakin played in 1988; the Flames won the Stanley Cup Championship in 1989 against the Montreal Canadiens. He served as the GM of Team Canada for the 1981 Canada Cup. Fletcher moved to the Toronto Maple Leafs in 1991, to serve as Chief Operating Officer and General Manager, he made a blockbuster trade with Doug Risebrough, his successor as the Flames' General Manager, sending Gary Leeman, Michel Petit, Jeff Reese, Craig Berube, Alexander Godynyuk to the Flames for Doug Gilmour, Jamie Macoun, Ric Nattress, Rick Wamsley and Kent Manderville on January 2, 1992. That year, Fletcher hired Pat Burns as head coach for the upcoming season; the positive impact on the Toronto team was immediate.
During the 1992–93 season, his second year as GM, the Leafs set team records with wins and points, while Gilmour emerged as a superstar and scored a franchise-high 127 points. During the postseason awards ceremony, Gilmour finished as runner-up for the Hart Trophy and won the Frank J. Selke Trophy as best defensive forward, while Burns won the Jack Adams Award as coach of the year. Fletcher himself was named as the "Man of the Year" and the "Executive of the Year" by The Hockey News in 1993; the Leafs reached the conference finals in 1993 and 1994 - the only team in the NHL to make it that far in the playoffs in both seasons and the only one of the seven teams from those two years to not make a Stanley Cup Final since expansion. He remained with the Toronto Maple Leafs for six seasons before retiring to Florida. In 1999, Fletcher joined the Tampa Bay Lightning as Senior Advisor to the GM for two seasons at the request of Jacques Demers Tampa's coach and GM; when Demers left the franchise in 1999, so did Fletcher.
Fletcher joined the Phoenix Coyotes on February 17, 2001 as General Manager and Executive Vice-President. On August 28, 2001, he passed his GM role to Mike Barnett and became Senior Executive Vice-President of Hockey Operations. On April 11, 2007, Fletcher and General Manager Mike Barnett were fired after the Coyotes finished the 2006–07 season with its worst record since relocating from Winnipeg to Phoenix in 1996. Fletcher was named the interim general manager of the Toronto Maple Leafs on January 22, 2008, replacing John Ferguson Jr. Fletcher signed a nineteen-month contract with the franchise, he was replaced as GM of the Toronto Maple Leafs by Brian Burke. Team President Richard Peddie announced that Fletcher would be the general manager through the 2008–09 NHL season, although it was announced on November 27, 2008 that Brian Burke had agreed to a six-year contract as the Maple Leafs' GM. Fletcher served the remainder of his contract with the Maple Leafs as an adviser for the Maple Leafs management team.
During the off season of 2009, Fletcher signed a multi-year contract extension. Fletcher spent 7 years on the Hockey Hall of Fame Board of Directors, having stepped down in 2002-03, he spent time on the Hall of Fame selection committee. In 2004, he was selected to the HHOF as a builder and was inducted on November 8, 2004. Fletcher's son Chuck Fletcher served as the General Manager of the Minnesota Wild from 2009 to 2018 and was named General Manager of the Philadelphia Flyers on December 3, 2018, he served as Assistant General Manager of the Florida Panthers and Director of Hockey Operations of the Anaheim Ducks. He has a daughter Kristy who resides In Toronto and worked for MlLSE. "Legends of Hockey - The Legends - Honoured Builder - Fletcher, Cliff - Biography". Retrieved November 26, 2007. "Building a Franchise Is Fletcher's forte". Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved November 26, 2007; the second time around for Fletcher Biographical information and career statistics from Legends of Hockey
Sault Ste. Marie Greyhounds
The Sault Ste. Marie Greyhounds are a major junior ice hockey team in the Ontario Hockey League; the Greyhounds play home games at the GFL Memorial Gardens. The present team was founded in 1962 as a team in the Northern Ontario Hockey Association; the Greyhounds name has been used by several ice hockey teams based in Sault Ste. Marie, Canada, since 1919; the first Greyhounds team formed in 1919, playing in the now defunct Upper-Peninsula League. The team's coach was George MacNamara, he suggested the team be called the Greyhounds since, "a greyhound is much faster than a wolf." That reference was to the established rival club, the Sudbury Wolves. A couple of seasons the Greyhounds switched to the Northern Ontario Hockey Association Senior "A" division; the team won the Senior A championship in 1921, 1923, 1924 and 1925. The 1924 Greyhounds won the Allan Cup, becoming the only team from Sault Ste. Marie to do so. In October 1925, the club received an offer from New York to play as the Knickerbockers in the Eastern Amateur Hockey League.
The Greyhounds joined the Central Amateur Hockey Association, a division of the United States Amateur Hockey Association for the 1925–26 season. After the season, several players joined the team folded. In 1929, a junior Greyhounds team was organized, competing in the Northern Ontario Junior Hockey League; the juniors won the league championship four consecutive years from 1928 to 1931, added a fifth title in 1942. Junior hockey in Sault Ste. Marie came to an abrupt end in 1945, when the Gouin Street Arena was destroyed by fire; the senior Greyhounds team was revived in 1948. The new team played out of a temporary home at Pullar Stadium, in Sault Sainte Marie, Michigan, U. S. A. until the Memorial Gardens opened in 1949. The senior Greyhounds won the NOHA championship four times, in 1950, 1951, 1952 and 1955; this team folded, along with the league. The current Greyhounds Junior A franchise was founded in 1962 as a member of the Northern Ontario Junior Hockey League; the team's founders were Lloyd Prokop, Phil Suraci, Pat Esposito and Bill Kelly.
The Greyhounds played for ten seasons in the NOJHL. They were successful, never having a losing season, winning the league championship three times. In 1972, the Greyhounds entered the Ontario Hockey Association as a Major Junior A expansion team; the original directors were joined by Frank Sarlo. In 1977, the Sault Ste. Marie Greyhounds picked a 16-year-old Wayne Gretzky, standing at 5 ft 8 in and weighing 155 pounds, with the third pick in the Ontario Midget Draft, he was still small in stature, but would have a big impact on the game. Gretzky requested to wear # 9 for his idol Gordie Howe, but that number was taken by teammate Brian Gualazzi. Gretzky chose # 14 instead. After a few games, coach Muzz MacPherson suggested. From that season on, Gretzky always wore the legendary # 99. In 63 games that year, he set the Greyhounds all-time record, scoring 70 goals and had 112 assists for a total of 182 points. Gretzky would have won the scoring title, except for a 192-point season by Bobby Smith. Gretzky was awarded the Emms Family Award as the rookie of the year, the William Hanley Trophy as most gentlemanly player.
After winning the OHL championship, the Greyhounds travelled to Shawinigan, Quebec to compete in the Memorial Cup tournament, for the national junior hockey title. The Greyhounds played against the host team Shawinigan Cataractes, the QMJHL champion Verdun Junior Canadiens, the WHL champion Prince Albert Raiders; the Greyhounds were led by future NHLers, Jeff Beukeboom, Chris Felix, Derek King, Wayne Presley, Bob Probert and Rob Zettler. Leading scorers in the regular season were Wayne Groulx, Graeme Bonar and Sault Ste. Marie native Mike Oliverio; the Greyhounds won the first game on May 11 in Shawinigan versus the home team, by a score 4-3, in front of 3,276 fans. Televising games from the Aréna Jacques Plante in Shawinigan proved difficult due to roof support pillars around the ice surface. After two games in Shawinigan, the remainder of the tournament was played in the Centre Marcel Dionne in Drummondville, Quebec; the Greyhounds won their first game in Drummondville 6-3 over Verdun, with two goals from Derek King.
Their first loss of the tournament came in game three. With the loss, the Cataractes and Greyhounds would all finish the round-robin with two wins and a loss. Shawinigan earned a spot in the finals on best goals for and against difference, with Sault Ste. Marie and Prince Albert to have a rematch in the semi-final game. On May 16, the Greyhounds lost again to the Raiders; the Greyhounds season of 1990–91 marked an incredible turnaround from seventh place the season before, to finishing first place and winning the Emms division. General manager Sherwood Bassin put together pieces for coach Ted Nolan to win. Bassin was awarded Bill Long Award for distinguished service to the OHL, was named both the OHL Executive of the Year, the CHL Executive of the Year in 1991; the Greyhounds swept both playoff series and earned a second round bye to reach the OHL finals against the defending champions, the Oshawa Generals. The J. Ross Robertson Cup finals had many subplots due to the big trade between the clubs in the previous season.
Added to the mix was Joe Busillo, an overager picked up from Oshawa, who won the Memorial Cup with the Generals the previous year. Fans from the Soo were still bitter towards Eric Lindros, now the captain of the Generals; the Soo crowd. The Greyhounds upset the favoured defending champions in
The Calgary Flames are a professional ice hockey team based in Calgary, Alberta. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League; the club is the third major-professional ice hockey team to represent the city of Calgary, following the Calgary Tigers and Calgary Cowboys. The Flames are one of two NHL franchises in Alberta; the cities' proximity has led to a rivalry known as the "Battle of Alberta". The team was founded in 1972 in Atlanta as the Atlanta Flames until relocating to Calgary in 1980; the Flames played their first three seasons in Calgary at the Stampede Corral before moving into their current home arena, the Scotiabank Saddledome, in 1983. In 1985–86, the Flames became the first Calgary team since the 1923–24 Tigers to compete for the Stanley Cup. In 1988 -- 89, the Flames won their only championship; the Flames' unexpected run to the 2004 Stanley Cup Finals gave rise to the Red Mile, in 2011 the team hosted and won the second Heritage Classic outdoor game.
The Flames have won two Presidents' Trophies as the NHL's top regular season team, have claimed seven division championships. Individually, Jarome Iginla is the franchise leader in games played and points and is a two-time winner of the Maurice "Rocket" Richard Trophy as the NHL's leading goal scorer. Miikka Kiprusoff has the most wins by a goaltender in a Calgary Flames uniform. Nine people associated with the Flames have been inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. Off the ice, Calgary Sports and Entertainment, which owns the Flames own a Western Hockey League franchise, a National Lacrosse League franchise and a Canadian Football League franchise. Through the Flames Foundation, the team has donated more than CA$32 million to charity throughout southern Alberta since the franchise arrived; the Flames were the result of the NHL's first pre-emptive strike against the upstart World Hockey Association. In December 1971, the NHL hastily granted a team to Long Island—the New York Islanders —to keep the WHA's New York Raiders out of the brand new Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum.
Needing another team to balance the schedule, the NHL awarded a team to an Atlanta-based group that owned the National Basketball Association's Atlanta Hawks, headed by prominent local real estate developer Tom Cousins. Cousins named the team the "Flames" after the fire resulting from the March to the Sea in the American Civil War by General William Tecumseh Sherman, in which Atlanta was nearly destroyed, they played home games in the Omni Coliseum in downtown Atlanta. The Flames were successful early on. Under head coaches Bernie "Boom Boom" Geoffrion, Fred Creighton and Al MacNeil, the Flames made the playoffs in six of eight seasons in Atlanta. In marked contrast, their expansion cousins, the Islanders, won only 31 games during their first two years in the league combined. However, this relative success did not carry over to the playoffs, as the Flames won only two post-season games during their time in Atlanta. Despite the on-ice success, the Atlanta ownership was never on sound financial footing.
Longtime general manager Cliff Fletcher said years that Cousins' initial financial projections for an NHL team did not account for the WHA entering the picture. The Flames were a poor draw, never signed a major television contract. In 1980, Cousins was in considerable financial difficulty and was forced to sell the Flames to stave off bankruptcy. With few serious offers from local groups, he was receptive to an offer from Canadian entrepreneur Nelson Skalbania, he was fronting a group of Calgary businessmen that included oil magnates Harley Hotchkiss, Ralph T. Scurfield, Norman Green and Byron Seaman, former Calgary Stampeders great Norman Kwong. A last-ditch effort to keep the team in Atlanta fell short, Cousins sold the team to Skalbania for US$16 million, a record sale price for an NHL team at the time. On May 21, 1980, Skalbania announced, he chose to retain the Flames name, feeling it would be a good fit for an oil town like Calgary, while the flaming "A" logo was replaced by a flaming "C".
Skalbania sold his interest in 1981, the Flames have been locally owned since. Unlike the WHA's Calgary Cowboys, who folded three years earlier, the Flames were embraced by the city of Calgary. While the Cowboys could manage to sell only 2,000 season tickets in their final campaign of 1976–77, the Flames sold 10,000 full- and half-season ticket packages in the 7,000 seat Stampede Corral. Led by Kent Nilsson's 49-goal, 131-point season, the Flames qualified for the playoffs in their first season in Calgary with a 39–27–14 record, good for third in the Patrick Division; the team found much greater playoff success in Calgary than it did in Atlanta, winning their first two playoff series over the Chicago Black Hawks and Philadelphia Flyers before bowing out to the Minnesota North Stars in the semi-finals. This early success was not soon repeated. After a losing record in 1981–82, Fletcher jettisoned several holdovers from the Atlanta days who could not adjust to the higher-pressure hockey environment and rebuilt the roster.
Over the next three seasons, he put together a core of players that would remain together through the early 1990s. Fletcher's efforts to match the Oilers led him to draw talent from areas neglected by the NHL; the Flames were among the earliest teams to sign large numbers of U. S. college players, including Joel Otto, Gary Suter and Colin Patterson. Fletcher stepped up the search for European hockey talent, acquiring Hakan Loob and other key players, he was am
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a