Jason Bourne is a fictional character created by novelist Robert Ludlum. Bourne is the antihero in a series of subsequent film adaptations, he first appeared in the novel The Bourne Identity, adapted for television in 1988. The novel was adapted in 2002 into a feature film under the same name and starred Matt Damon in the lead role; the character featured in three novels by Ludlum, released between 1980 and 1990, followed by nine novels written by Eric Van Lustbader since 2004. Along with the first feature film, The Bourne Identity, Jason Bourne appears in three sequel movies The Bourne Supremacy, The Bourne Ultimatum, Jason Bourne, with Damon again in the lead role. Jeremy Renner stars in the fourth film of the franchise, The Bourne Legacy, released in August 2012. Damon stated in interviews that he would not do another Bourne film without Paul Greengrass, who had directed the second and third installments. Greengrass agreed to direct Damon in the fifth installment in Jason Bourne. Greengrass jointly wrote the screenplay with editor Christopher Rouse.
Jason Bourne is but one of many aliases used by David Webb, a career Force Reconnaissance Marine Captain, Foreign Service Officer and a specialist in Far Eastern affairs. Before the events in The Bourne Identity, Webb had a Thai wife named Dao and two children named Joshua and Alyssa in Phnom Penh. Webb's wife and two children were inadvertently killed during the Vietnam War when a fighter plane strayed into Cambodia, dropped two bombs, strafed a spot near the Mekong River. However, unknown to Bourne, Joshua survived. Due to Cambodia's neutrality in the war, every nation disclaimed the plane, therefore, no one took responsibility for the incident. Infuriated by both the utter injustice and randomness of his loss, Webb went to Saigon and, under the careful guidance of friend and CIA officer Alexander Conklin, ended up training for an elite Top Secret Special Forces unit called Medusa. Within that select organization Webb was known only by Delta One. An assassination team or death squad, Medusa was created to infiltrate Northern Vietnam and assassinate members of the Viet Cong and its collaborators.
Its members were criminals. He became well known for his ruthlessness, his disregard for orders, his disturbing success rate on his missions, resulting in the kidnapping of Webb's brother, U. S. Army Lieutenant Gordon Webb, during his tour of duty in Saigon. During the mission to save David Webb's brother, an original "Medusa" team member named Jason Charles Bourne was discovered to be a double agent who alerted a large number of North Vietnamese soldiers to their whereabouts; when Delta found Bourne after killing his way through the North Vietnamese, he executed Bourne in the jungles of Tam Quan. Bourne's murder was never exposed due to the Top Secret status of Medusa. Years a black ops arm of the CIA was formed to eliminate the notorious Carlos the Jackal and called Treadstone Seventy-One, named after a building on New York's Seventy-First Street, Webb was called up by the creator of Treadstone and Medusa, David Abbott, nicknamed The Monk, to be its principal agent. At this point, Webb takes the identity of Jason Bourne due to the actual Bourne's status as MIA in the war as well as the fact that Bourne was in reality a ruthless killer with a long criminal record.
The point of all this was to turn Jason Bourne into something more than he was, a contract assassin who would be known all over the world for terminating the lives of just about anyone. The assassin's alias was Cain; the reasoning for creating such a myth was to create competition for the well-known assassin named Carlos, or Carlos the Jackal who at that time was considered the world's best and most famous assassin. The name Cain was chosen. During Vietnam, Cain was used instead of Charlie in the phonetic alphabet because Charlie became synonymous with Viet Cong. So Delta dropped back one letter to Cain. In Spanish, Charlie is Carlos; the myth of Cain was created by having Cain take credit for any well-publicized killings that took place in Asia, in Europe, regardless of the circumstances. By creating this myth, Cain was to drive the reclusive Carlos out in the open "long enough to put a bullet in his head". To add insult to Carlos's name, Cain stole the credit for Carlos's kills when Cain had no part in them.
In the film series, Jason Bourne was born as David Webb on September 13, 1970 in Missouri. He joined the United States Army and was selected for Delta Force in 1998, his father, Richard Webb, a senior CIA analyst, created the Treadstone program, a black ops project intended to train and deploy elite assassins. He was monitored by the CIA, which murdered his father with a car bomb in Beirut in a bid to recruit Webb; the ploy worked. He was brought into a secret recruitment center in New York City, where Hirsch ordered him tortured for days — via waterboarding and sleep deprivation — to break his spirit and allow him to be molded into an assassin, he was accepted when he murdered an unidentified man without questioning. Afte
Roxy Music were an English rock band formed in 1970 by Bryan Ferry, who became the band's lead vocalist and chief songwriter, bassist Graham Simpson. Alongside Ferry, the other longtime members were Andy Mackay and Paul Thompson. Other members included Brian Eno, Eddie Jobson, John Gustafson. Although the band took a break from group activities in 1976 and again in 1983, they reunited for a concert tour in 2001, toured together intermittently between that time and their break-up in 2011. Ferry enlisted members of Roxy Music as session musicians for his solo releases. Roxy Music became a successful act in Australia during the 1970s; this success began with Roxy Music. The band pioneered more musically sophisticated elements of glam rock while influencing early English punk music, provided a model for many new wave acts while innovating elements of electronic composition; the group distinguished their visual and musical sophistication through a preoccupation with glamorous fashions. Ferry and co-founding member Eno have had influential solo careers.
The latter became one of Britain's most significant record producers of the late 20th century. Rolling Stone ranked Roxy Music No. 98 on its "The Immortals – 100 The Greatest Artists of All Time" list, though it dropped the group from its updated list in 2011. The band's final studio album was Avalon. In 2005 the band began recording a new studio album, which would have been their ninth, would have been their first record since 1973 with Brian Eno, who wrote two songs for it and played keyboards. However, Bryan Ferry confirmed that material from these sessions would be released as a Ferry solo album, with Eno playing on "a couple of tracks", that he does not think they will record as Roxy Music again; the album became Ferry's 2010 solo album Olympia, which featured contributions from Eno and Mackay Roxy Music played a series of 40th anniversary shows in 2011, but has since become inactive as a performing entity. In 2019, Roxy Music were inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame. In November 1970, Bryan Ferry, who had just lost his job teaching ceramics at a girls' school for holding impromptu record listening sessions, advertised for a keyboard player to collaborate with him and Graham Simpson including Alan Lewis, a bass player he knew from his Newcastle art college band, the Gas Board, with whom he collaborated on his first songs.
In early 1970 Ferry had auditioned as lead singer for King Crimson, who were seeking a replacement for Greg Lake. Although Robert Fripp and Pete Sinfield decided that Ferry's voice was unsuitable for King Crimson's material, they were impressed with his talent and helped the fledgling Roxy Music to obtain a contract with E. G. Records. Andy Mackay replied to Ferry's advertisement, not as a keyboard player but a saxophonist and oboist, though he did have a VCS3 synthesizer. Mackay had met Brian Eno during university days, as both were interested in avant-garde and electronic music. Although Eno was a non-musician, he could operate a synthesizer and owned a Revox reel-to-reel tape machine, so Mackay convinced him to join the band as a technical adviser. Before long Eno was an official member of the group. Rounding out the original sextet were guitarist Roger Bunn and drummer Dexter Lloyd, a classically trained timpanist; the group's name was an homage to the titles of old cinemas and dance halls, a pun on the word rock.
Ferry had named the band Roxy but after learning of an American band with the same name he changed the name to Roxy Music. Roxy played live through 1971, recorded a demo tape of some early compositions. In the spring of'71, Lloyd left the band, an advertisement was placed in Melody Maker saying "wonder drummer wanted for an avant rock group". Paul Thompson responded to the advertisement and joined the band in June 1971. Bunn left the group at the end of the summer of 1971, in October, Roxy advertised in Melody Maker seeking the "Perfect Guitarist"; the successful applicant was former guitarist with The Nice. Phil Manzanera -- soon to become a group member -- was one of about twenty other players who auditioned. Although he did not make the band as a guitarist, the group were impressed enough with Manzanera that he was invited to become Roxy Music's roadie, an offer which he accepted; the band's fortunes were increased by the support of broadcaster John Peel and Melody Maker journalist Richard Williams.
Williams became an enthusiastic fan after meeting Ferry and being given a demonstration tape during mid-1971, wrote the first major article on the band, featured on Melody Maker's "Horizons" page in the edition of 7 August 1971. This line-up of Roxy Music recorded a BBC session shortly thereafter. In early February 1972, guitarist O'List quit the group abruptly after an altercation with Paul Thompson, which took place at their audition for David Enthoven of EG Management; when O'List didn't show up for the next rehearsal, Manzanera was asked to come along, on the pretext of becoming the band's sound mixer. When he arrived he was invited to play guitar and realised that it was an informal audition. Unbeknownst to the rest of the group, Manzanera had learned their entire repertoire and as a result, he was hired as O'List's permanent replacement, joining on 14 February 1972. Manzanera, the son of an English f
The Testament (Van Lustbader novel)
Redirect to Lustbader. Van Lustbader in incorrect, as Van is a middle nameThe Testament is a 2006 thriller novel by Eric Van Lustbader; the book is about Braverman Shaw, whose Dexter Shaw, is killed by an explosion. After his death, Braverman, or Bravo to his friends, finds out that his father was a member of the Gnostic Observant, a group who possess a old secret of Jesus Christ. Bravo has to find the secret and keep it hidden from their sworn enemies, the Knights of Saint-Clemens, his father left behind a maze. During his journey, he is attacked by the Knights multiple times, they are closer than he thinks
Bernard John Taupin is an English lyricist and singer. He is best known for his long-term collaboration with Elton John, having written the lyrics for most of John's songs. In 1967, Taupin answered an advertisement placed in the UK music paper New Musical Express by Liberty Records, a company, seeking new songwriters. Around the same time, John responded to the same advertisement, the duo were brought together, collaborating on many projects since. In 1971, journalist Penny Valentine wrote that "Bernie Taupin's lyrics were to become as important as Elton himself, proved to have a mercurial brilliance. Not just in their atmospheric qualities and descriptive powers, but in the way he handled words to form them into straightforward poems that were easy to relate to." Taupin was born at Flatters House, a farmhouse located between the village of Anwick and the town of Sleaford in the southern part of Lincolnshire, England. Of French ancestry, Taupin's father was educated in Dijon, was employed as a stockman by a large farm estate near the town of Market Rasen.
Taupin's mother worked as a nanny, having lived in Switzerland. The family moved to Rowston Manor, a significant step up from Flatters farmhouse, which had no electricity. Taupin's father decided to try his hand at independent farming, the family moved to the run-down Maltkiln Farm in the north-Lincolnshire village of Owmby-by-Spital. Taupin's 11-year younger brother, was born there. Unlike his older brother Tony who attended a grammar school, Taupin was not a diligent student, although he showed an early flair for writing. At age 15, he left school and started work as a trainee in the print room of the local newspaper, The Lincolnshire Standard, with aspirations of becoming a journalist. Taupin soon left that job, spent the rest of his teenage years hanging out with friends, hitchhiking the country roads to attend youth club dances in the surrounding villages, playing snooker in the Aston Arms Pub in Market Rasen and drinking. Taupin had worked at several part-time, dead-end jobs when, at age 17, he answered the advertisement that led to his collaboration with Elton John.
Taupin's mother had studied French literature and his maternal grandfather Poppy was a classics teacher and graduate of the University of Cambridge. They taught him an appreciation for nature and literature and narrative poetry, both of which influenced his early lyrics. In 1967, Taupin answered an advertisement for talent, placed in the New Musical Express by Liberty records A&R man Ray Williams. Elton John answered the same advert. Neither Taupin nor John passed the audition for Liberty Records. Elton told the man behind the desk that he could not write lyrics, so the man handed Elton a sealed envelope from the pile of people submitting lyrics, which he opened on the London Underground ride home; the envelope contained poems by Taupin. The duo have collaborated on more than thirty albums to date; the team took some time off from each other for a while between 1977 and 1979, while Taupin worked with other songwriters, including Alice Cooper, John worked with other lyricists, including Gary Osborne and Tom Robinson.
John and Taupin resumed writing together on an occasional basis in 1980, with Taupin contributing lyrics to only three or four songs each on albums such as The Fox, 21 at 33 and Jump Up!. However, by 1983's Too Low for Zero, the two renewed their partnership on a full-time basis and from that point forward Taupin was again John's primary lyricist. Taupin's lyrics include such songs as "Rocket Man", "Levon", "Crocodile Rock", "Honky Cat", "Tiny Dancer", "Candle in the Wind", "Saturday Night's Alright for Fighting", "Bennie and the Jets", "Goodbye Yellow Brick Road", "Mona Lisas and Mad Hatters", "Don't Let the Sun Go Down on Me", "The Bitch is Back", "Daniel", 1970's "Your Song", their first hit. Hits in the 1980s include "I'm Still Standing", "I Guess That's Why They Call It The Blues", "Sad Songs", "Nikita." In the 1990s, Taupin and John had more hits, including "The One", "Simple Life", "The Last Song", "Club at the End of the Street" and "Believe." In September 1997, Taupin rewrote the lyrics of "Candle in the Wind" for "Candle in the Wind 1997", a tribute to the late Diana, Princess of Wales.
The 1991 film documentary, Two Rooms, described the John/Taupin writing style, which involves Taupin writing the lyrics on his own and John putting them to music, with no further interaction between the two. The process is still fundamentally the same, with John composing to Taupin's words, but the two interact on songs far more today, with Taupin joining John in the studio as the songs are written and during recording sessions. Taupin and John had their first Broadway musical open in March 2006 with Lestat: The Musical. Taupin wrote lyrics for 10 songs for John's 2006 album The Captain & The Kid and appeared on the cover with him for the first time marking their 40th anniversary of working together. On 25 March 2007, Taupin made a surprise appearance at John's 60th birthday celebration at Madison Square Garden discussi
John Winston Ono Lennon was an English singer and peace activist who co-founded the Beatles, the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music. He and fellow member Paul McCartney formed a much-celebrated songwriting partnership. Along with George Harrison and Ringo Starr, the group achieved worldwide fame during the 1960s. In 1969, Lennon started the Plastic Ono Band with his second wife, Yoko Ono, he continued to pursue a solo career following the the Beatles' break-up in April 1970, he was born as John Winston Lennon in Liverpool, where he became involved in the skiffle craze as a teenager. In 1957, he formed his first band, the Quarrymen, which evolved into the Beatles in 1960. Further to his Plastic Ono Band singles such as "Give Peace a Chance" and "Instant Karma!", Lennon subsequently produced albums that included John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band and Imagine, songs such as "Working Class Hero", "Imagine" and "Happy Xmas". After moving to New York City in 1971, he never returned to England for the remainder of his life.
In 1975, he disengaged himself from the music business to raise his infant son Sean, but re-emerged with Ono in 1980 with the album Double Fantasy. He was shot and killed in the archway of his Manhattan apartment building three weeks after the album's release. Lennon revealed a rebellious nature and acerbic wit in his music, drawings, on film and in interviews, he was controversial through his political and peace activism. From 1971 onwards, his criticism of the Vietnam War resulted in a three-year attempt by the Nixon administration to deport him; some of his songs were adopted as anthems by the larger counterculture. By 2012, Lennon's solo album sales in the United States had exceeded 14 million units, he had 25 number-one singles on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart as a co-writer or performer. In 2002, Lennon was voted eighth in a BBC poll of the 100 Greatest Britons and in 2008, Rolling Stone ranked him the fifth-greatest singer of all time. In 1987, he was posthumously inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame.
Lennon was twice posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: first in 1988 as a member of the Beatles and again in 1994 as a solo artist. Lennon was born on 9 October 1940 at Liverpool Maternity Hospital, to Alfred Lennon. Alfred was a merchant seaman of Irish descent, away at the time of his son's birth, his parents named him John Winston Lennon after his paternal grandfather, John "Jack" Lennon, Prime Minister Winston Churchill. His father was away from home but sent regular pay cheques to 9 Newcastle Road, where Lennon lived with his mother; when he came home six months he offered to look after the family, but Julia, by pregnant with another man's child, rejected the idea. After her sister Mimi complained to Liverpool's Social Services twice, Julia gave her custody of Lennon. In July 1946, Lennon's father visited her and took his son to Blackpool, secretly intending to emigrate to New Zealand with him. Julia followed them – with her partner at the time, Bobby Dykins – and after a heated argument, his father forced the five-year-old to choose between them.
In one account of this incident, Lennon twice chose his father, but as his mother walked away, he began to cry and followed her. According to author Mark Lewisohn, Lennon's parents agreed that Julia should take him and give him a home. A witness, there that day, Billy Hall, has said that the dramatic portrayal of a young John Lennon being forced to make a decision between his parents is inaccurate. Lennon had no further contact with Alf for close to 20 years. Throughout the rest of his childhood and adolescence, Lennon lived at Mendips, 251 Menlove Avenue, with Mimi and her husband George Toogood Smith, who had no children of their own, his aunt purchased volumes of short stories for him, his uncle, a dairyman at his family's farm, bought him a mouth organ and engaged him in solving crossword puzzles. Julia visited Mendips on a regular basis, when John was 11 years old, he visited her at 1 Blomfield Road, where she played him Elvis Presley records, taught him the banjo, showed him how to play "Ain't That a Shame" by Fats Domino.
In September 1980, Lennon commented about his family and his rebellious nature: Part of me would like to be accepted by all facets of society and not be this loudmouthed lunatic poet/musician. But I cannot be what I am not... I was the one who all the other boys' parents – including Paul's father – would say, "Keep away from him"... The parents instinctively recognised I was a troublemaker, meaning I did not conform and I would influence their children, which I did. I did my best to disrupt every friend's home... Out of envy that I didn't have this so-called home... but I did... There were five women. Five strong, beautiful women, five sisters. One happened to be my mother. Just couldn't deal with life, she was the youngest and she had a husband who ran away to sea and the war was on and she couldn't cope with me, I ended up living with her elder sister. Now those women were fantastic... And, my first feminist education... I would infiltrate the other boys' minds. I could say, "Parents are not gods because I don't live with mine and, therefore, I know."
He visited his cousin, Stanley Parkes, who lived in Fleetwood and took him on trips to local cinemas. During the school holidays, Parkes visited Lennon with Leila Harvey, another cousin, the threesome travelled to Blackpool two or three times a week to watch shows, they would
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog