1.
Bloomington, Indiana
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Bloomington is a city in and the county seat of Monroe County in the southern region of the U. S. state of Indiana. It is the seventh-largest city in Indiana and the fourth-largest outside the Indianapolis metropolitan area, according to the Monroe County History Center, Bloomington is known as the Gateway to Scenic Southern Indiana. The city was established in 1818 by a group of settlers from Kentucky, Tennessee, the population was 80,405 at the 2010 census. The citys population was estimated at 84,067 as of July 2016 by the U. S. Census Bureau, Bloomington is the home to Indiana University Bloomington. Established in 1820, IU Bloomington has 42,630 students, as of September 2014, most of the campus buildings are built of Indiana limestone. Bloomington has been designated a Tree City for 32 years, as of 2015, the city was also the location of the Academy Award-winning 1979 movie Breaking Away, featuring a reenactment of Indiana Universitys annual Little 500 bicycle race. Monroe Countys famous limestone quarries are also featured in the movie, a post office has been in operation at Bloomington since 1825. According to the 2010 census, Bloomington has an area of 23.359 square miles. Bloomington is the sixth largest city in Indiana, based on population, Southern Indiana receives an abundance of rain, with a yearly average of nearly 45 inches. Bloomington is an area of irregular limestone terrain characterized by sinks, ravines, fissures, underground streams, sinking streams, springs and it is situated in the rolling hills of southern Indiana, resting on the intersection of the Norman Uplands and the Mitchell Plain. The relatively varied topography of the city provides a sharp contrast to the terrain more typical of central to northern portions of Indiana. Bloomington is located on a high ground, the summit of the divide between the basins of the West Fork and East Fork of Indianas White River. Accordingly, there are no major watercourses within the city, nor is much groundwater available for wells, the largest stream within the city itself is Clear Creek, with its eastern branch known on the Indiana University campus as Jordan River. Early 20th century damming projects occurred at a number of locations southwest of the city, unfortunately, due to the limestone formations underlying the reservoirs and the dams, water kept seeping from the reservoirs through naturally developing underground channels. Despite all efforts, the city was never able to stop the leakage. By the 1920s, a radical solution was needed to deal with the water crisis. A new reservoir, known as Griffy Lake, was constructed in a more geologically suitable area north of the city, later, in the 1950s, two much larger reservoirs, Lake Lemon and Lake Monroe were created in the northeastern and southeastern parts of Monroe County. Monroe Lake was created by the US Army Corps of Engineers for flood control, but has since used to supply the city
2.
United States
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Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
3.
Cornell University
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Cornell University is an American private Ivy League and land-grant doctoral university located in Ithaca, New York. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornells motto, the university also administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, Qatar. Cornell is one of three private land grant universities in the nation and the one in New York. Of its seven colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural. Of Cornells graduate schools, only the college is state-supported. As a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension program in every county of New York. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens are considered. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race, the student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 7,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and more than 120 countries. Cornell University was founded on April 27,1865, the New York State Senate authorized the university as the land grant institution. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site, fellow senator and experienced educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty, the university was inaugurated on October 7,1868, and 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as an innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus as well as to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a dynamo to light the grounds. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes and it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses, since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar and it has partnerships with institutions in India, Singapore, and the Peoples Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its international profile. On March 9,2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new Bridging the Rift Center to be built, Cornells main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking the town and Cayuga Lake
4.
California Institute of Technology
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The California Institute of Technology is a private doctorate-granting university located in Pasadena, California, United States. The vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910, the university is one among a small group of Institutes of Technology in the United States which is primarily devoted to the instruction of technical arts and applied sciences. Caltech has six divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering, managing $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research. Its 124-acre primary campus is located approximately 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles, first-year students are required to live on campus, and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at Caltech. Although Caltech has a tradition of practical jokes and pranks. The Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division IIIs Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Caltech is frequently cited as one of the worlds best universities. There are 112 faculty members who have elected to the United States National Academies. In addition, numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA, according to a 2015 Pomona College study, Caltech ranked number one in the U. S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD. Caltech started as a school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop. The school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute, the vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907. At a time when research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale. He joined Throops board of trustees in 1907, and soon began developing it and he engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus. In 1910, Throop moved to its current site, arther Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science, with the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. This institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, through the National Research Council, Hale simultaneously lobbied for science to play a larger role in national affairs, and for Throop to play a national role in science. During the course of the war, Hale, Noyes and Millikan worked together in Washington on the NRC, subsequently, they continued their partnership in developing Caltech. Under the leadership of Hale, Noyes and Millikan, Caltech grew to prominence in the 1920s
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Wolfram Research
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Wolfram Research is a private company that creates computational technology. Wolframs flagship product is the technical computing program Mathematica, first released on June 23,1988, Wolfram Research founder Stephen Wolfram is the CEO. The company launched Wolfram Alpha, an engine on 16 May 2009. It brings a new approach to knowledge generation and acquisition that involves large amounts of curated computable data in addition to semantic indexing of text, Wolfram Research acquired MathCore Engineering AB on March 30,2011. On July 21,2011 Wolfram Research launched the Computable Document Format, CDF is an electronic document format designed to allow easy authoring of dynamically generated interactive content. In June 2014, Wolfram Research officially introduced the Wolfram Language as a new general multi-paradigm programming language and it is the primary programming language used in Mathematica. Other products include Wolfram SystemModeler, Wolfram Workbench, gridMathematica, Wolfram Finance Platform, webMathematica, the Wolfram Development Platform, Wolfram Research served as the mathematical consultant for the CBS television series Numb3rs, a show about the mathematical aspects of crime-solving. Wolfram Research publishes several websites including the MathWorld and ScienceWorld encyclopedias. The Wolfram Demonstrations Project is a site hosting interactive technical demonstrations powered by a free Mathematica Player runtime. Wolfram Research publishes The Mathematica Journal, Wolfram has also published several books via Wolfram Media, Wolframs publishing arm. Wolfram Research has organized three Wolfram Science conferences in Boston, MA, Washington, D. C. and Burlington, two other independent NKS Midwest conferences have taken place at the Indiana University, Bloomington in 2005 and 2008. Other independent workshops related to NKS research have also been organized overseas, such as JOUAL at the CNR in Pisa, Wolfram Research hosts the yearly Wolfram Technology Conference in Champaign, IL. During this three-day conference, developers discuss the latest Wolfram technologies for mobile devices, cloud computing, interactive deployment, Wolfram Research also hosts the annual Wolfram Data Summit, a high-level gathering of innovators in data science. They are experimenting with electronic textbook creation, a New Kind of Science Ed Pegg, Jr. Eric W. Weisstein Official website Official Wolfram Research Twitter Account Hoovers Fact Sheet on Wolfram Research, Inc. Michael Trott, The Science and Art of Mathematica by Tim McIntyre, Science, the Mathematics Behind NUMB3RS, Wolframs site on NUMB3RS mathematics. Wolfram releases revolutionary Mathematica 6, Mathematica 6 developer promises a revolution in computing by Jonny Evans, MacWorld, May 2,2007
6.
Planetary science
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Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets, moons, and planetary systems and the processes that form them. It studies objects ranging in size from micrometeoroids to gas giants, aiming to determine their composition, dynamics, formation, interrelations, allied disciplines include space physics, when concerned with the effects of the Sun on the bodies of the Solar System, and astrobiology. There are interrelated observational and theoretical branches of planetary science, the theoretical component involves considerable computer simulation and mathematical modelling. There are several major conferences each year, and a range of peer-reviewed journals. But that they are destroyed by colliding with one another, and that some ordered worlds are bare of animals and plants and all water. In more modern times, planetary science began in astronomy, from studies of the unresolved planets, advances in telescope construction and instrumental resolution gradually allowed increased identification of the atmospheric and surface details of the planets. In this scientific process, the instruments were astronomical optical telescopes. The Solar System has now been relatively well-studied, and an overall understanding of the formation and evolution of this planetary system exists. However, there are numbers of unsolved questions, and the rate of new discoveries is very high. This is both an observational and a theoretical science, theoretical planetary astronomy is concerned with dynamics, the application of the principles of celestial mechanics to the Solar System and extrasolar planetary systems. The best known research topics of planetary geology deal with the bodies in the near vicinity of the Earth, the Moon. Of these, the Moon was studied first, using methods developed earlier on the Earth, geomorphology studies the features on planetary surfaces and reconstructs the history of their formation, inferring the physical processes that acted on the surface. For example, the thin dust cover on the surface of the regolith is a result of micrometeorite bombardment. Hydrological features, the involved can range from water to hydrocarbon and ammonia. The history of a surface can be deciphered by mapping features from top to bottom according to their deposition sequence. For example, stratigraphic mapping prepared the Apollo astronauts for the geology they would encounter on their lunar missions. Overlapping sequences were identified on images taken by the Lunar Orbiter program, fortunately, direct samples from the Moon, asteroids and Mars are present on Earth, removed from their parent bodies and delivered as meteorites. The different types of meteorite that originate from the asteroid belt cover almost all parts of the structure of differentiated bodies, meteorites even exist that come from the core-mantle boundary
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Astronomy
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Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and comets, while the phenomena include supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, more generally, all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earths atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole, Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences. The early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Greeks, Indians, Egyptians, Nubians, Iranians, Chinese, during the 20th century, the field of professional astronomy split into observational and theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain the results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results. Astronomy is one of the few sciences where amateurs can play an active role, especially in the discovery. Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, Astronomy means law of the stars. Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two share a common origin, they are now entirely distinct. Generally, either the term astronomy or astrophysics may be used to refer to this subject, however, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could actually be called astrophysics. Few fields, such as astrometry, are purely astronomy rather than also astrophysics, some titles of the leading scientific journals in this field includeThe Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal and Astronomy and Astrophysics. In early times, astronomy only comprised the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye, in some locations, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that possibly had some astronomical purpose. Before tools such as the telescope were invented, early study of the stars was conducted using the naked eye, most of early astronomy actually consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, and the nature of the Sun, Moon, the Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the model of the Universe, or the Ptolemaic system. The Babylonians discovered that lunar eclipses recurred in a cycle known as a saros
8.
Physics
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Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. One of the most fundamental disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy, Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs, the United Nations named 2005 the World Year of Physics. Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, the stars and planets were often a target of worship, believed to represent their gods. While the explanations for these phenomena were often unscientific and lacking in evidence, according to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy. The most notable innovations were in the field of optics and vision, which came from the works of many scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna. The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn Al-Haitham, in which he was not only the first to disprove the ancient Greek idea about vision, but also came up with a new theory. In the book, he was also the first to study the phenomenon of the pinhole camera, many later European scholars and fellow polymaths, from Robert Grosseteste and Leonardo da Vinci to René Descartes, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, were in his debt. Indeed, the influence of Ibn al-Haythams Optics ranks alongside that of Newtons work of the same title, the translation of The Book of Optics had a huge impact on Europe. From it, later European scholars were able to build the devices as what Ibn al-Haytham did. From this, such important things as eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, telescopes, Physics became a separate science when early modern Europeans used experimental and quantitative methods to discover what are now considered to be the laws of physics. Newton also developed calculus, the study of change, which provided new mathematical methods for solving physical problems. The discovery of new laws in thermodynamics, chemistry, and electromagnetics resulted from greater research efforts during the Industrial Revolution as energy needs increased, however, inaccuracies in classical mechanics for very small objects and very high velocities led to the development of modern physics in the 20th century. Modern physics began in the early 20th century with the work of Max Planck in quantum theory, both of these theories came about due to inaccuracies in classical mechanics in certain situations. Quantum mechanics would come to be pioneered by Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, from this early work, and work in related fields, the Standard Model of particle physics was derived. Areas of mathematics in general are important to this field, such as the study of probabilities, in many ways, physics stems from ancient Greek philosophy
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Mathematics
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times
10.
Arecibo Observatory
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The Arecibo Observatory is a radio telescope in the municipality of Arecibo, Puerto Rico. This observatory is operated by SRI International, USRA and UMET, the observatory is the sole facility of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, which refers to the observatory, and the staff that operates it. From its construction in the 1960s until 2011, the observatory was managed by Cornell University and it is used in three major areas of research, radio astronomy, atmospheric science, and radar astronomy. Scientists who want to use the observatory submit proposals that are evaluated by an independent scientific board, the observatory has appeared in film and television productions, gaining more recognition in 1999 when it began to collect data for the SETI@home project. It has been listed on the American National Register of Historic Places starting in 2008 and it was the featured listing in the National Park Services weekly list of October 3,2008. The center was named an IEEE Milestone in 2001 and it has a visitor center that is open part-time. The main collecting dish is 305 m in diameter, constructed inside the left by a karst sinkhole. The dish surface is made of 38,778 perforated aluminum panels, each about 3 by 6 feet, the ground beneath is accessible and supports shade-tolerant vegetation. The observatory has four transmitters, with effective isotropic radiated powers of 20 TW at 2380 MHz,2.5 TW at 430 MHz,300 MW at 47 MHz. The reflector is a reflector, not a parabolic reflector. To aim the device, the receiver is moved to intercept signals reflected from different directions by the dish surface of 270 m radius. A parabolic mirror would have varying astigmatism when the receiver is off the focal point, the platform has a rotating, bow-shaped track 93 m long, called the azimuth arm, carrying the receiving antennas and secondary and tertiary reflectors. This allows the telescope to observe any region of the sky in a cone of visibility about the local zenith. Puerto Ricos location near the Northern Tropic allows Arecibo to view the planets in the Solar System over the Northern half of their orbit. The round trip time to objects beyond Saturn is longer than the 2.6 hour time that the telescope can track a celestial position. The origins of the trace to late 1950s efforts to develop anti-ballistic missile defences as part of the newly formed ARPAs ABM umbrella-effort. Even at this stage it was clear that the use of radar decoys would be a serious problem at the long ranges needed to successfully attack a warhead. Among the many Defender projects were several studies based on the concept that a nuclear warhead would cause unique physical signatures while still in the upper atmosphere
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Puerto Rico
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Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea. It is an archipelago that includes the island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra. The capital and most populous city is San Juan and its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The islands population is approximately 3.4 million, Puerto Ricos rich history, tropical climate, diverse natural scenery, renowned traditional cuisine, and attractive tax incentives make it a popular destination for travelers from around the world. Four centuries of Spanish colonial government transformed the ethnic, cultural and physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, and Canarian. In the Spanish imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played a secondary, in 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico together with most former Spanish colonies under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States, however, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. As a U. S. territory, American citizens residing on the island are disenfranchised at the level and may not vote for president. However, Congress approved a constitution, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. A fifth referendum will be held in June 2017, with only Statehood, in early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government. The outstanding bond debt that had climbed to $70 billion or $12,000 per capita at a time with 12. 4% unemployment, the debt had been increasing during a decade long recession. Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also known in Spanish as la isla del encanto. Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city. The islands name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898, the anglicized name was used by the US government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931, the ancient history of the archipelago known today as Puerto Rico is not well known. The scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish scholarly accounts from the colonial era constitute the basis of knowledge about them. The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, the first settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland
12.
Goddard Space Flight Center
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The Goddard Space Flight Center is a major NASA space research laboratory established on May 1,1959 as NASAs first space flight center. GSFC employs approximately 10,000 civil servants and contractors, and is located approximately 6.5 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States. GSFC, one of ten major NASA field centers, is named in recognition of Dr. Robert H. Goddard, GSFC is a major U. S. laboratory for developing and operating unmanned scientific spacecraft. GSFC conducts scientific investigation, development and operation of space systems, Goddard scientists can develop and support a mission, and Goddard engineers and technicians can design and build the spacecraft for that mission. Mather shared the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on COBE, past missions managed by GSFC include the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, SMM, COBE, IUE, and ROSAT. Goddard is NASAs first, and oldest, space center and its original charter was to perform five major functions on behalf of NASA, technology development and fabrication, planning, scientific research, technical operations, and project management. The center is organized into directorates, each charged with one of these key functions. Until May 1,1959, NASAs presence in Greenbelt, Maryland was known as the Beltsville Space Center and it was then renamed the Goddard Space Flight Center, after Dr. Robert H. Goddard. Goddard Space Flight Center contributed to Project Mercury, Americas first manned flight program. The Center assumed a role for the project in its early days and managed the first 250 employees involved in the effort. However, the size and scope of Project Mercury soon prompted NASA to build a new Manned Spacecraft Center, now the Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Project Mercurys personnel and activities were transferred there in 1961. However, the Center focused primarily on designing unmanned satellites and spacecraft for research missions. Goddard pioneered several fields of development, including modular spacecraft design. Goddards Solar Max satellite, launched in 1980, was repaired by astronauts on the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. The Hubble Space Telescope, launched in 1990, remains in service and continues to grow in capability thanks to its modular design, today, the center remains involved in each of NASAs key programs. Goddard has developed more instruments for planetary exploration than any other organization, Goddards partly wooded campus is a few miles northeast of Washington, D. C. in Prince Georges County. The center is on Greenbelt Road, which is Maryland Route 193, baltimore, Annapolis, and NASA Headquarters in Washington are 30–45 minutes away by highway. Greenbelt also has a station with access to the Washington Metro system
13.
Greenbelt, Maryland
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Greenbelt is a city in Prince Georges County, Maryland, United States. Contained within todays City of Greenbelt is the planned community now known locally as Old Greenbelt. Greenbelts population was 23,068 at the 2010 U. S. Census, Greenbelt is known widely as a public cooperative community founded in the New Deal Era. Greenbelt was one of three green towns planned in 1935 under the United States Resettlement Administration, along with Greendale, Wisconsin and Greenhills, Greenbelt is located at 39°0′2″N 76°53′18″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 6.34 square miles. Greenbelts ZIP codes are 20768,20770, and 20771, the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Goddard Space Flight Center is located in Greenbelt, as is Greenbelt Park, a unit of the National Park System. Two major highways pass through and have interchanges in Greenbelt, the Capital Beltway, Greenbelt Road is a portion of State Highway 193, which connects several suburban towns. Kenilworth Avenue traverses Greenbelt in a North-South direction, Washington Metro rapid transit rail service from Washington, D. C. serves Greenbelt Metro Station, the northern terminus of the systems Green Line. Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Berwyn Heights College Park Goddard Lanham New Carrollton Glenn Dale Old Greenbelt was settled in 1937 as a cooperative community in the New Deal Era. Construction of the new town would create jobs and thus help stimulate the national economic recovery following the Great Depression. Working alongside Tugwell was Charles W. Yost, the two other green towns are Greendale, Wisconsin and Greenhills, Ohio. A fourth green town, Roosevelt, New Jersey, was planned but was not fully developed on the large scale as Greenbelt. Eleanor Roosevelt, wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, helped Tugwell lay out the Maryland town on a site that had formerly consisted largely of tobacco fields. The architectural planning of Greenbelt was innovative, but no less so than the engineering involved in this federal government project. Applicants for residency were interviewed and screened based on income and occupation, African-Americans were initially excluded, but were later included by the Greenbelt Committee for Fair Housing founded in 1963, and came to number 41% of residents according to the 2000 census. Much of the community is now located within the Greenbelt Historic District, Greenbelt was the subject of the 1939 documentary film The City. As of the census of 2010, there were 23,068 people,9,747 households, the population density was 3,673.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,433 housing units at a density of 1,661.3 per square mile
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Jet Propulsion Laboratory
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The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in La Cañada Flintridge, California and Pasadena, California, United States. The JPL is managed by the nearby California Institute of Technology for NASA, the laboratorys primary function is the construction and operation of planetary robotic spacecraft, though it also conducts Earth-orbit and astronomy missions. It is also responsible for operating NASAs Deep Space Network and they are also responsible for managing the JPL Small-Body Database, and provides physical data and lists of publications for all known small Solar System bodies. The JPLs Space Flight Operations Facility and Twenty-Five-Foot Space Simulator are designated National Historic Landmarks, JPL traces its beginnings to 1936 in the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology when the first set of rocket experiments were carried out in the Arroyo Seco. Malinas thesis advisor was engineer/aerodynamicist Theodore von Kármán, who arranged for U. S. Army financial support for this GALCIT Rocket Project in 1939. In 1941, Malina, Parsons, Forman, Martin Summerfield, in 1943, von Kármán, Malina, Parsons, and Forman established the Aerojet Corporation to manufacture JATO motors. The project took on the name Jet Propulsion Laboratory in November 1943, during JPLs Army years, the laboratory developed two deployed weapon systems, the MGM-5 Corporal and MGM-29 Sergeant intermediate range ballistic missiles. These missiles were the first US ballistic missiles developed at JPL and it also developed a number of other weapons system prototypes, such as the Loki anti-aircraft missile system, and the forerunner of the Aerobee sounding rocket. At various times, it carried out testing at the White Sands Proving Ground, Edwards Air Force Base. A lunar lander was developed in 1938-39 which influenced design of the Apollo Lunar Module in the 1960s. The team lost that proposal to Project Vanguard, and instead embarked on a project to demonstrate ablative re-entry technology using a Jupiter-C rocket. They carried out three successful flights in 1956 and 1957. Using a spare Juno I, the two organizations then launched the United States first satellite, Explorer 1, on February 1,1958, JPL was transferred to NASA in December 1958, becoming the agencys primary planetary spacecraft center. JPL engineers designed and operated Ranger and Surveyor missions to the Moon that prepared the way for Apollo, JPL also led the way in interplanetary exploration with the Mariner missions to Venus, Mars, and Mercury. In 1998, JPL opened the Near-Earth Object Program Office for NASA, as of 2013, it has found 95% of asteroids that are a kilometer or more in diameter that cross Earths orbit. JPL was early to employ women mathematicians, in the 1940s and 1950s, using mechanical calculators, women in an all-female computations group performed trajectory calculations. In 1961, JPL hired Dana Ulery as their first woman engineer to work alongside male engineers as part of the Ranger and Mariner mission tracking teams, when founded, JPLs site was a rocky flood-plain just outside the city limits of Pasadena. Almost all of the 177 acres of the U. S, the city of La Cañada Flintridge, California was incorporated in 1976, well after JPL attained international recognition with a Pasadena address
15.
Research
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It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field, to test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of research are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development of methods. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences, there are several forms of research, scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577, Research has been defined in a number of different ways. Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell and it consists of three steps, pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question. Original research is research that is not exclusively based on a summary and this material is of a primary source character. The purpose of the research is to produce new knowledge. Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to, in analytical work, there are typically some new mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals, graduate students are commonly required to perform original research as part of a dissertation. Scientific research is a way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature, scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic, Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the correct answer to a question. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, an example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, other studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without particularly looking for reasons or motivations to explain these. These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, Artistic research, also seen as practice-based research, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge
16.
Scientist
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A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world. In a more restricted sense, a scientist may refer to an individual who uses the scientific method, the person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. The term scientist was coined by the theologian, philosopher and historian of science William Whewell and this article focuses on the more restricted use of the word. Scientists perform research toward a comprehensive understanding of nature, including physical, mathematical and social realms. Philosophers aim to provide an understanding of fundamental aspects of reality and experience, often pursuing inquiries with conceptual, rather than empirical. When science is done with a goal toward practical utility, it is called applied science, an applied scientist may not be designing something in particular, but rather is conducting research with the aim of developing new technologies and practical methods. When science seeks to answer questions about aspects of reality it is sometimes called natural philosophy. Science and technology have continually modified human existence through the engineering process, as a profession the scientist of today is widely recognized. Jurisprudence and mathematics are often grouped with the sciences, some of the greatest physicists have also been creative mathematicians and lawyers. There is a continuum from the most theoretical to the most empirical scientists with no distinct boundaries, in terms of personality, interests, training and professional activity, there is little difference between applied mathematicians and theoretical physicists. Scientists can be motivated in several ways, many have a desire to understand why the world is as we see it and how it came to be. They exhibit a strong curiosity about reality, other motivations are recognition by their peers and prestige, or the desire to apply scientific knowledge for the benefit of peoples health, the nations, the world, nature or industries. Scientists tend to be motivated by direct financial reward for their work than other careers. As a result, scientific researchers often accept lower average salaries when compared with other professions which require a similar amount of training. The number of scientists is vastly different from country to country, for instance, there are only 4 full-time scientists per 10,000 workers in India while this number is 79 for the United Kingdom and the United States. According to the US National Science Foundation 4.7 million people with science degrees worked in the United States in 2015, across all disciplines, the figure included twice as many men as women. Of that total, 17% worked in academia, that is, at universities and undergraduate institutions, 5% of scientists worked for the federal government and about 3. 5% were self-employed. Of the latter two groups, two-thirds were men, 59% of US scientists were employed in industry or business, and another 6% worked in non-profit positions
17.
Spectroscopy
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Spectroscopy /spɛkˈtrɒskəpi/ is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation. Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, later the concept was expanded greatly to include any interaction with radiative energy as a function of its wavelength or frequency. Spectroscopic data is represented by an emission spectrum, a plot of the response of interest as a function of wavelength or frequency. Spectroscopy and spectrography are terms used to refer to the measurement of radiation intensity as a function of wavelength and are used to describe experimental spectroscopic methods. Spectral measurement devices are referred to as spectrometers, spectrophotometers, spectrographs or spectral analyzers, daily observations of color can be related to spectroscopy. Neon lighting is an application of atomic spectroscopy. Neon and other noble gases have characteristic emission frequencies, neon lamps use collision of electrons with the gas to excite these emissions. Inks, dyes and paints include chemical compounds selected for their characteristics in order to generate specific colors. A commonly encountered molecular spectrum is that of nitrogen dioxide, gaseous nitrogen dioxide has a characteristic red absorption feature, and this gives air polluted with nitrogen dioxide a reddish-brown color. Rayleigh scattering is a spectroscopic scattering phenomenon that accounts for the color of the sky, Spectroscopy is used in physical and analytical chemistry because atoms and molecules have unique spectra. As a result, these spectra can be used to detect, identify and quantify information about the atoms, Spectroscopy is also used in astronomy and remote sensing on earth. The measured spectra are used to determine the composition and physical properties of astronomical objects. One of the concepts in spectroscopy is a resonance and its corresponding resonant frequency. Resonances were first characterized in mechanical systems such as pendulums, mechanical systems that vibrate or oscillate will experience large amplitude oscillations when they are driven at their resonant frequency. A plot of amplitude vs. excitation frequency will have a peak centered at the resonance frequency and this plot is one type of spectrum, with the peak often referred to as a spectral line, and most spectral lines have a similar appearance. In quantum mechanical systems, the resonance is a coupling of two quantum mechanical stationary states of one system, such as an atom, via an oscillatory source of energy such as a photon. The coupling of the two states is strongest when the energy of the matches the energy difference between the two states. The energy of a photon is related to its frequency by E = h ν where h is Plancks constant, spectra of atoms and molecules often consist of a series of spectral lines, each one representing a resonance between two different quantum states
18.
University of Virginia
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The University of Virginia, frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia. Founded in 1819 by Declaration of Independence author Thomas Jefferson, UVA is known for its foundations, student-run honor code. UNESCO designated UVA as Americas first and only collegiate World Heritage Site in 1987, the university was established in 1819, and its original governing Board of Visitors included Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Monroe was the sitting President of the United States at the time of its foundation, former Presidents Jefferson and Madison were UVAs first two rectors and the Academical Village and Jefferson conceived and designed the original courses of study. The universitys research endeavors are highly recognized, in 2015, Science honored UVA faculty for discovering two of its top 10 annual scientific breakthroughs, from the fields of Medicine and Psychology. UVA is one of 62 institutions in the Association of American Universities and it is the only AAU member university in Virginia. UVA is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation, the university was the first non-founding member, and the first university of the American South, to attain AAU membership in 1904. UVAs academic strength is broad, with 121 majors across the eight undergraduate, students compete in 26 collegiate sports and UVA leads the Atlantic Coast Conference in mens NCAA team national championships with 17. UVA is second in womens NCAA titles with 7, UVA was awarded the Capital One Cup in 2015 after fielding the top overall mens athletics programs in the nation. Students come to attend the university in Charlottesville from all 50 states and 147 countries, the historic 1, 682-acre campus is internationally protected by UNESCO and considered one of the most beautiful collegiate grounds in the country. UVA additionally maintains 2,913 acres southeast of the city, the university also manages the College at Wise in Southwest Virginia, and until 1972 operated George Mason University and the University of Mary Washington in Northern Virginia. In 1817, three Presidents and Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court John Marshall joined 24 other dignitaries at a meeting held in the Mountain Top Tavern at Rockfish Gap, after some deliberation, they selected nearby Charlottesville as the site of the new University of Virginia. Farmland just outside Charlottesville was purchased from James Monroe by the Board of Visitors as Central College, the school laid its first buildings cornerstone late in that same year, and the Commonwealth of Virginia chartered the new university on January 25,1819. John Hartwell Cocke collaborated with James Madison, Monroe, and Joseph Carrington Cabell to fulfill Jeffersons dream to establish the university, Cocke and Jefferson were appointed to the building committee to supervise the construction. The universitys first classes met on March 7,1825, another innovation of the new university was that higher education would be separated from religious doctrine. Jefferson opined to philosopher Thomas Cooper that a professorship of theology should have no place in our institution, Jefferson was intimately involved in the university to the end, hosting Sunday dinners at his Monticello home for faculty and students until his death. Thus, he eschewed mention of his accomplishments, such as the Louisiana Purchase. This was a source of frustration for Jefferson, who assembled the students during the schools first year, on October 3,1825, to such behavior
19.
Charlottesville, Virginia
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Charlottesville, colloquially Cville and formally the City of Charlottesville, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 48,210 and it is the county seat of Albemarle County, which surrounds the city, though the two are separate legal entities. It is named after the British Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the City of Charlottesville with the County of Albemarle for statistical purposes, bringing its steadily growing population to approximately 150,000. Charlottesville is the heart of the Charlottesville metropolitan area, which includes Albemarle, Fluvanna, Greene, Charlottesville was the home of two Presidents, Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe. While both served as Governor of Virginia, they lived in Charlottesville, and traveled to and from Richmond, Orange, located 26 miles northeast of the city, was the hometown of President James Madison. The University of Virginia, founded by Thomas Jefferson and one of the original Public Ivies, straddles the citys border with Albemarle. Monticello, located 3 miles southeast of the city, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, located on a hilltop overlooking Charlottesville, Monticello attracts thousands of tourists every year. At the time of European encounter, part of the area that became Charlottesville was occupied by a Monacan village called Monasukapanough, Charlottesville was formed in 1762 by an Act of the Assembly of Albemarle County. Thomas Walker was named its first trustee and it was along a trade route called Three Notched Road which led from Richmond to the Great Valley. It was named for Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, queen consort of the United Kingdom as the wife of King George III, during the American Revolutionary War, the Convention Army was imprisoned in Charlottesville between 1779 and 1781 at the Albemarle Barracks. Unlike much of Virginia, Charlottesville was spared the brunt of the American Civil War, the only battle to take place in Charlottesville was the skirmish at Rio Hill, an encounter in which George Armstrong Custer briefly engaged local Confederate home guards before he retreated. The mayor surrendered the city to Custers men to keep the town from being burned, 1820–30, was accidentally burnt during General Sheridans 1865 raid through the Shenandoah Valley. The factory had taken over by the Confederacy and used to manufacture woollen clothing for the soldiers. It caught fire when some coals taken by Union troops to burn the railroad bridge had been dropped on the floor. The factory was rebuilt immediately and was known as the Woolen Mills until its liquidation in 1962, the first black church in Charlottesville was established in 1864. Previously, it was illegal for African-Americans to have their own churches, a current predominantly African-American church can trace its lineage to that first church. Congregation Beth Israels 1882 building is the oldest synagogue building standing in Virginia. The closures were required by a series of laws collectively known as the Stanley plan
20.
Microsoft Word
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Microsoft Word is a word processor developed by Microsoft. It was first released on October 25,1983 under the name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix systems, commercial versions of Word are licensed as a standalone product or as a component of Microsoft Office, Windows RT or the discontinued Microsoft Works suite. Microsoft Word Viewer and Office Online are freeware editions of Word with limited features, in 1981, Microsoft hired Charles Simonyi, the primary developer of Bravo, the first GUI word processor, which was developed at Xerox PARC. Simonyi started work on a word processor called Multi-Tool Word and soon hired Richard Brodie, a former Xerox intern, Microsoft announced Multi-Tool Word for Xenix and MS-DOS in 1983. Its name was simplified to Microsoft Word. Free demonstration copies of the application were bundled with the November 1983 issue of PC World and that year Microsoft demonstrated Word running on Windows. Unlike most MS-DOS programs at the time, Microsoft Word was designed to be used with a mouse and it was not initially popular, since its user interface was different from the leading word processor at the time, WordStar. However, Microsoft steadily improved the product, releasing versions 2.0 through 5.0 over the six years. In 1985, Microsoft ported Word to Mac OS and this was made easier by Word for DOS having been designed for use with high-resolution displays and laser printers, even though none were yet available to the general public. Following the precedents of LisaWrite and MacWrite, Word for Mac OS added true WYSIWYG features and it fulfilled a need for a word processor that was more capable than MacWrite. After its release, Word for Mac OSs sales were higher than its MS-DOS counterpart for at least four years, Word 3.0 included numerous internal enhancements and new features, including the first implementation of the Rich Text Format specification, but was plagued with bugs. Within a few months, Word 3.0 was superseded by a more stable Word 3.01, after MacWrite Pro was discontinued in the mid-1990s, Word for Mac OS never had any serious rivals. Word 5.1 for Mac OS, released in 1992, was a popular word processor owing to its elegance, relative ease of use. Many users say it is the best version of Word for Mac OS ever created, in 1986, an agreement between Atari and Microsoft brought Word to the Atari ST under the name Microsoft Write. The Atari ST version was a port of Word 1.05 for the Mac OS and was never updated due to the degree of software piracy on the Atari platform. The first version of Word for Windows was released in 1989, with the release of Windows 3.0 the following year, sales began to pick up and Microsoft soon became the market leader for word processors for IBM PC-compatible computers. When Microsoft became aware of the Year 2000 problem, it made Microsoft Word 5.5 for DOS available for download free, as of March 2014, it is still available for download from Microsofts web site. In 1991, Microsoft embarked on a project code-named Pyramid to completely rewrite Microsoft Word from the ground up, both the Windows and Mac OS versions would start from the same code base
21.
CRC Press
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The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books. Many of their books relate to engineering, science and mathematics and their scope also includes books on business, forensics and information technology. CRC Press is now a division of Taylor & Francis, itself a subsidiary of Informa, the company gradually expanded to include sales of laboratory equipment to chemists. In 1913 the CRC offered a manual called the Rubber Handbook as an incentive for any purchase of a dozen aprons. Since then the Rubber Handbook has evolved into the CRCs flagship book, in 1986 CRC Press was bought by the Times Mirror Company. Times Mirror began exploring the possibility of a sale of CRC Press in 1996, in 2003, CRC became part of Taylor & Francis, which in 2004 became part of the UK publisher Informa. Chapman & Hall CRC Press website
22.
Algebra
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Algebra is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis. In its most general form, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols, as such, it includes everything from elementary equation solving to the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. The more basic parts of algebra are called elementary algebra, the abstract parts are called abstract algebra or modern algebra. Elementary algebra is generally considered to be essential for any study of mathematics, science, or engineering, as well as such applications as medicine, abstract algebra is a major area in advanced mathematics, studied primarily by professional mathematicians. Elementary algebra differs from arithmetic in the use of abstractions, such as using letters to stand for numbers that are unknown or allowed to take on many values. For example, in x +2 =5 the letter x is unknown, in E = mc2, the letters E and m are variables, and the letter c is a constant, the speed of light in a vacuum. Algebra gives methods for solving equations and expressing formulas that are easier than the older method of writing everything out in words. The word algebra is used in certain specialized ways. A special kind of object in abstract algebra is called an algebra. A mathematician who does research in algebra is called an algebraist, the word algebra comes from the Arabic الجبر from the title of the book Ilm al-jabr wal-muḳābala by Persian mathematician and astronomer al-Khwarizmi. The word entered the English language during the century, from either Spanish, Italian. It originally referred to the procedure of setting broken or dislocated bones. The mathematical meaning was first recorded in the sixteenth century, the word algebra has several related meanings in mathematics, as a single word or with qualifiers. As a single word without an article, algebra names a broad part of mathematics, as a single word with an article or in plural, an algebra or algebras denotes a specific mathematical structure, whose precise definition depends on the author. Usually the structure has an addition, multiplication, and a scalar multiplication, when some authors use the term algebra, they make a subset of the following additional assumptions, associative, commutative, unital, and/or finite-dimensional. In universal algebra, the word refers to a generalization of the above concept. With a qualifier, there is the distinction, Without an article, it means a part of algebra, such as linear algebra, elementary algebra. With an article, it means an instance of some abstract structure, like a Lie algebra, sometimes both meanings exist for the same qualifier, as in the sentence, Commutative algebra is the study of commutative rings, which are commutative algebras over the integers
23.
Geometry
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Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer, Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths, areas, and volumes. Geometry began to see elements of mathematical science emerging in the West as early as the 6th century BC. By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into a form by Euclid, whose treatment, Euclids Elements. Geometry arose independently in India, with texts providing rules for geometric constructions appearing as early as the 3rd century BC, islamic scientists preserved Greek ideas and expanded on them during the Middle Ages. By the early 17th century, geometry had been put on a solid footing by mathematicians such as René Descartes. Since then, and into modern times, geometry has expanded into non-Euclidean geometry and manifolds, while geometry has evolved significantly throughout the years, there are some general concepts that are more or less fundamental to geometry. These include the concepts of points, lines, planes, surfaces, angles, contemporary geometry has many subfields, Euclidean geometry is geometry in its classical sense. The mandatory educational curriculum of the majority of nations includes the study of points, lines, planes, angles, triangles, congruence, similarity, solid figures, circles, Euclidean geometry also has applications in computer science, crystallography, and various branches of modern mathematics. Differential geometry uses techniques of calculus and linear algebra to problems in geometry. It has applications in physics, including in general relativity, topology is the field concerned with the properties of geometric objects that are unchanged by continuous mappings. In practice, this often means dealing with large-scale properties of spaces, convex geometry investigates convex shapes in the Euclidean space and its more abstract analogues, often using techniques of real analysis. It has close connections to convex analysis, optimization and functional analysis, algebraic geometry studies geometry through the use of multivariate polynomials and other algebraic techniques. It has applications in areas, including cryptography and string theory. Discrete geometry is concerned mainly with questions of relative position of simple objects, such as points. It shares many methods and principles with combinatorics, Geometry has applications to many fields, including art, architecture, physics, as well as to other branches of mathematics. The earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced to ancient Mesopotamia, the earliest known texts on geometry are the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus and Moscow Papyrus, the Babylonian clay tablets such as Plimpton 322. For example, the Moscow Papyrus gives a formula for calculating the volume of a truncated pyramid, later clay tablets demonstrate that Babylonian astronomers implemented trapezoid procedures for computing Jupiters position and motion within time-velocity space
24.
Calculus
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Calculus is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two branches, differential calculus, and integral calculus, these two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus. Both branches make use of the notions of convergence of infinite sequences. Generally, modern calculus is considered to have developed in the 17th century by Isaac Newton. Today, calculus has widespread uses in science, engineering and economics, Calculus is a part of modern mathematics education. A course in calculus is a gateway to other, more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits, Calculus has historically been called the calculus of infinitesimals, or infinitesimal calculus. Calculus is also used for naming some methods of calculation or theories of computation, such as calculus, calculus of variations, lambda calculus. The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus, the method of exhaustion was later discovered independently in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. In the 5th century AD, Zu Gengzhi, son of Zu Chongzhi, indian mathematicians gave a non-rigorous method of a sort of differentiation of some trigonometric functions. In the Middle East, Alhazen derived a formula for the sum of fourth powers. He used the results to carry out what would now be called an integration, Cavalieris work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results, and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. The formal study of calculus brought together Cavalieris infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time, pierre de Fermat, claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus, introduced the concept of adequality, which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. The combination was achieved by John Wallis, Isaac Barrow, and James Gregory, in other work, he developed series expansions for functions, including fractional and irrational powers, and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. He did not publish all these discoveries, and at this time infinitesimal methods were considered disreputable. These ideas were arranged into a calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus, unlike Newton, Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism, often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. Leibniz and Newton are usually credited with the invention of calculus. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the used in calculus today
25.
Discrete mathematics
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Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. Discrete mathematics therefore excludes topics in mathematics such as calculus. Discrete objects can often be enumerated by integers, more formally, discrete mathematics has been characterized as the branch of mathematics dealing with countable sets. However, there is no definition of the term discrete mathematics. Indeed, discrete mathematics is described less by what is included than by what is excluded, continuously varying quantities, the set of objects studied in discrete mathematics can be finite or infinite. The term finite mathematics is sometimes applied to parts of the field of mathematics that deals with finite sets. Conversely, computer implementations are significant in applying ideas from mathematics to real-world problems. Although the main objects of study in mathematics are discrete objects. In university curricula, Discrete Mathematics appeared in the 1980s, initially as a computer science support course, some high-school-level discrete mathematics textbooks have appeared as well. At this level, discrete mathematics is seen as a preparatory course. The Fulkerson Prize is awarded for outstanding papers in discrete mathematics, the history of discrete mathematics has involved a number of challenging problems which have focused attention within areas of the field. In graph theory, much research was motivated by attempts to prove the four color theorem, first stated in 1852, in logic, the second problem on David Hilberts list of open problems presented in 1900 was to prove that the axioms of arithmetic are consistent. Gödels second incompleteness theorem, proved in 1931, showed that this was not possible – at least not within arithmetic itself, Hilberts tenth problem was to determine whether a given polynomial Diophantine equation with integer coefficients has an integer solution. In 1970, Yuri Matiyasevich proved that this could not be done, at the same time, military requirements motivated advances in operations research. The Cold War meant that cryptography remained important, with fundamental advances such as public-key cryptography being developed in the following decades, operations research remained important as a tool in business and project management, with the critical path method being developed in the 1950s. The telecommunication industry has also motivated advances in mathematics, particularly in graph theory. Formal verification of statements in logic has been necessary for development of safety-critical systems. Computational geometry has been an important part of the computer graphics incorporated into modern video games, currently, one of the most famous open problems in theoretical computer science is the P = NP problem, which involves the relationship between the complexity classes P and NP
26.
Topology
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In mathematics, topology is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing. This can be studied by considering a collection of subsets, called open sets, important topological properties include connectedness and compactness. Topology developed as a field of study out of geometry and set theory, through analysis of such as space, dimension. Such ideas go back to Gottfried Leibniz, who in the 17th century envisioned the geometria situs, Leonhard Eulers Seven Bridges of Königsberg Problem and Polyhedron Formula are arguably the fields first theorems. The term topology was introduced by Johann Benedict Listing in the 19th century, by the middle of the 20th century, topology had become a major branch of mathematics. It defines the basic notions used in all branches of topology. Algebraic topology tries to measure degrees of connectivity using algebraic constructs such as homology, differential topology is the field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds. It is closely related to geometry and together they make up the geometric theory of differentiable manifolds. Geometric topology primarily studies manifolds and their embeddings in other manifolds, a particularly active area is low-dimensional topology, which studies manifolds of four or fewer dimensions. This includes knot theory, the study of mathematical knots, Topology, as a well-defined mathematical discipline, originates in the early part of the twentieth century, but some isolated results can be traced back several centuries. Among these are certain questions in geometry investigated by Leonhard Euler and his 1736 paper on the Seven Bridges of Königsberg is regarded as one of the first practical applications of topology. On 14 November 1750 Euler wrote to a friend that he had realised the importance of the edges of a polyhedron and this led to his polyhedron formula, V − E + F =2. Some authorities regard this analysis as the first theorem, signalling the birth of topology, further contributions were made by Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Ludwig Schläfli, Johann Benedict Listing, Bernhard Riemann and Enrico Betti. Listing introduced the term Topologie in Vorstudien zur Topologie, written in his native German, in 1847, the term topologist in the sense of a specialist in topology was used in 1905 in the magazine Spectator. Their work was corrected, consolidated and greatly extended by Henri Poincaré, in 1895 he published his ground-breaking paper on Analysis Situs, which introduced the concepts now known as homotopy and homology, which are now considered part of algebraic topology. Unifying the work on function spaces of Georg Cantor, Vito Volterra, Cesare Arzelà, Jacques Hadamard, Giulio Ascoli and others, Maurice Fréchet introduced the metric space in 1906. A metric space is now considered a case of a general topological space. In 1914, Felix Hausdorff coined the term topological space and gave the definition for what is now called a Hausdorff space, currently, a topological space is a slight generalization of Hausdorff spaces, given in 1922 by Kazimierz Kuratowski
27.
Number theory
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Number theory or, in older usage, arithmetic is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers. It is sometimes called The Queen of Mathematics because of its place in the discipline. Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of objects out of integers or defined as generalizations of the integers. Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations, questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of analytical objects that encode properties of the integers, primes or other number-theoretic objects in some fashion. One may also study real numbers in relation to rational numbers, the older term for number theory is arithmetic. By the early century, it had been superseded by number theory. The use of the arithmetic for number theory regained some ground in the second half of the 20th century. In particular, arithmetical is preferred as an adjective to number-theoretic. The first historical find of a nature is a fragment of a table. The triples are too many and too large to have been obtained by brute force, the heading over the first column reads, The takiltum of the diagonal which has been subtracted such that the width. The tables layout suggests that it was constructed by means of what amounts, in language, to the identity 2 +1 =2. If some other method was used, the triples were first constructed and then reordered by c / a, presumably for use as a table. It is not known what these applications may have been, or whether there could have any, Babylonian astronomy, for example. It has been suggested instead that the table was a source of examples for school problems. While Babylonian number theory—or what survives of Babylonian mathematics that can be called thus—consists of this single, striking fragment, late Neoplatonic sources state that Pythagoras learned mathematics from the Babylonians. Much earlier sources state that Thales and Pythagoras traveled and studied in Egypt, Euclid IX 21—34 is very probably Pythagorean, it is very simple material, but it is all that is needed to prove that 2 is irrational. Pythagorean mystics gave great importance to the odd and the even, the discovery that 2 is irrational is credited to the early Pythagoreans. This forced a distinction between numbers, on the one hand, and lengths and proportions, on the other hand, the Pythagorean tradition spoke also of so-called polygonal or figurate numbers
28.
Statistics
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Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data. In applying statistics to, e. g. a scientific, industrial, or social problem, populations can be diverse topics such as all people living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Statistics deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys, statistician Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley defines statistics as Numerical statements of facts in any department of inquiry placed in relation to each other. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs, representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can safely extend from the sample to the population as a whole. In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation, inferences on mathematical statistics are made under the framework of probability theory, which deals with the analysis of random phenomena. A standard statistical procedure involves the test of the relationship between two data sets, or a data set and a synthetic data drawn from idealized model. A hypothesis is proposed for the relationship between the two data sets, and this is compared as an alternative to an idealized null hypothesis of no relationship between two data sets. Rejecting or disproving the hypothesis is done using statistical tests that quantify the sense in which the null can be proven false. Working from a hypothesis, two basic forms of error are recognized, Type I errors and Type II errors. Multiple problems have come to be associated with this framework, ranging from obtaining a sufficient sample size to specifying an adequate null hypothesis, measurement processes that generate statistical data are also subject to error. Many of these errors are classified as random or systematic, the presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address these problems. Statistics continues to be an area of research, for example on the problem of how to analyze Big data. Statistics is a body of science that pertains to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation. Some consider statistics to be a mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. While many scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with the use of data in the context of uncertainty, mathematical techniques used for this include mathematical analysis, linear algebra, stochastic analysis, differential equations, and measure-theoretic probability theory. In applying statistics to a problem, it is practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as all living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population and this may be organized by governmental statistical institutes
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PlanetMath
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PlanetMath is a free, collaborative, online mathematics encyclopedia. The emphasis is on rigour, openness, pedagogy, real-time content, interlinked content, intended to be comprehensive, the project is currently hosted by the University of Waterloo. The site is owned by a US-based nonprofit corporation, PlanetMath. org, the main PlanetMath focus is on encyclopedic entries, and some forum discussions. In addition, the project hosts data about books, expositions, a system for semi-private messaging among users is also in place. Developing software recommendations for improved content authoring and editorial functions, PlanetMath content is licensed under the copyleft Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. All content is written in LaTeX, a typesetting system popular among mathematicians because of its support of the needs of mathematical typesetting. The software running PlanetMath is written in Perl and runs on Linux and it is known as Noösphere and has been released under the free BSD License. As of March 13,2013 PlanethMath has retired Noösphere and runs now on a software called Planetary, encyclopedic content and bibliographic materials related to physics, mathematics and mathematical physics are developed by PlanetPhysics. The site, launched in 2005, uses similar software, but a significantly different moderation model with emphasis on current research in physics and peer review
30.
Stephen Wolfram
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Stephen Wolfram is a British-American computer scientist, physicist, and businessman. He is known for his work in science, mathematics. He is the author of the book A New Kind of Science, in 2012 he was named an inaugural fellow of the American Mathematical Society. As a businessman, he is the founder and CEO of the software company Wolfram Research where he worked as designer of Mathematica. His recent work has been on knowledge-based programming, expanding and refining the programming language of Mathematica into what is now called the Wolfram Language and his book An Elementary Introduction to the Wolfram Language appeared in 2015 and Idea Makers appeared in 2016. Stephen Wolfram was born in London in 1959 to Hugo and Sybil Wolfram, Wolframs father, Hugo Wolfram, a textile manufacturer born in Bochum, Germany, served as managing director of the Lurex Company, makers of the fabric Lurex and was the author of three novels. He emigrated to England in 1933, when World War II broke out, young Hugo left school at 15 and subsequently found it hard to get a job since he was regarded as an enemy alien. As an adult, he took courses in philosophy and psychology. Wolframs mother, Sybil Wolfram was a Fellow and Tutor in Philosophy at Lady Margaret Hall at University of Oxford from 1964 to 1993 and she published two books, Philosophical Logic, An Introduction and In-laws and Outlaws, Kinship and Marriage in England. She was the translator of Claude Lévi-Strausss La pensée sauvage, after the Reichstag fire in 1933, she emigrated from Berlin, Germany to England with her parents and Jewish psychoanalyst, Paula Heimann. Wolfram is married to a mathematician and they have four children, as a young child, Wolfram initially struggled in school and had difficulties learning arithmetic. At the age of 12, he wrote a dictionary on physics, by 13 or 14, he had written three books on particle physics. By age 15, he began research in applied quantum field theory and particle physics, fox on the theory of the strong interaction is still used in experimental particle physics. He was educated at Eton College, but left prematurely in 1976 and he entered St. Wolframs thesis committee was composed of Richard Feynman, Peter Goldreich, Frank J. Sciulli and Steven Frautschi, and chaired by Richard D. Field. A1981 letter from Feynman to Gerald Freund giving reference for Wolfram for the MacArthur grant appears in Feynmans collective letters, following his PhD, Wolfram joined the faculty at Caltech and became the youngest recipient of the MacArthur Fellowships in 1981, at age 21. In 1983, Wolfram left for the School of Natural Sciences of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and he conjectured that the Rule 110 cellular automaton might be Turing complete, which was later proved correct. A1985 letter, from Feynman to Wolfram, also appears in Feynmans letters, Wolfram led the development of the computer algebra system SMP in the Caltech physics department during 1979–1981. A dispute with the administration over the property rights regarding SMP—patents, copyright
31.
Chemistry
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Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter. Chemistry is sometimes called the science because it bridges other natural sciences, including physics. For the differences between chemistry and physics see comparison of chemistry and physics, the history of chemistry can be traced to alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world. The word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to a set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy, mysticism. An alchemist was called a chemist in popular speech, and later the suffix -ry was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as chemistry, the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία and this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, which is in turn derived from the word Chemi or Kimi, which is the ancient name of Egypt in Egyptian. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning cast together, in retrospect, the definition of chemistry has changed over time, as new discoveries and theories add to the functionality of the science. The term chymistry, in the view of noted scientist Robert Boyle in 1661, in 1837, Jean-Baptiste Dumas considered the word chemistry to refer to the science concerned with the laws and effects of molecular forces. More recently, in 1998, Professor Raymond Chang broadened the definition of chemistry to mean the study of matter, early civilizations, such as the Egyptians Babylonians, Indians amassed practical knowledge concerning the arts of metallurgy, pottery and dyes, but didnt develop a systematic theory. Greek atomism dates back to 440 BC, arising in works by such as Democritus and Epicurus. In 50 BC, the Roman philosopher Lucretius expanded upon the theory in his book De rerum natura, unlike modern concepts of science, Greek atomism was purely philosophical in nature, with little concern for empirical observations and no concern for chemical experiments. Work, particularly the development of distillation, continued in the early Byzantine period with the most famous practitioner being the 4th century Greek-Egyptian Zosimos of Panopolis. He formulated Boyles law, rejected the four elements and proposed a mechanistic alternative of atoms. Before his work, though, many important discoveries had been made, the Scottish chemist Joseph Black and the Dutchman J. B. English scientist John Dalton proposed the theory of atoms, that all substances are composed of indivisible atoms of matter. Davy discovered nine new elements including the alkali metals by extracting them from their oxides with electric current, british William Prout first proposed ordering all the elements by their atomic weight as all atoms had a weight that was an exact multiple of the atomic weight of hydrogen. The inert gases, later called the noble gases were discovered by William Ramsay in collaboration with Lord Rayleigh at the end of the century, thereby filling in the basic structure of the table. Organic chemistry was developed by Justus von Liebig and others, following Friedrich Wöhlers synthesis of urea which proved that organisms were, in theory
32.
Biography
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A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a persons life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, biographical works are usually non-fiction, but fiction can also be used to portray a persons life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing, works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written with the permission, cooperation, and at times, an autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. At first, biographical writings were regarded merely as a subsection of history with a focus on an individual of historical importance. The independent genre of biography as distinct from general history writing, began to emerge in the 18th century, one of the earliest of the biographers was Plutarch, and his Parallel Lives, published about 80 A. D. covers prominent figures in the classical world. Cornelius Nepos published a work, his Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae. Perhaps the earliest extant biography that does not contain mythological material is The Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius, in the early Middle Ages, there was a decline in awareness of the classical culture in Europe. During this time, the only repositories of knowledge and records of the history in Europe were those of the Roman Catholic Church. Hermits, monks, and priests used this period to write biographies. Their subjects were usually restricted to the fathers, martyrs, popes. Their works were meant to be inspirational to the people and vehicles for conversion to Christianity, one significant secular example of a biography from this period is the life of Charlemagne by his courtier Einhard. Early biographical dictionaries were published as compendia of famous Islamic personalities from the 9th century onwards and they contained more social data for a large segment of the population than other works of that period. And then began the documentation of the lives of other historical figures who lived in the medieval Islamic world. By the late Middle Ages, biographies became less church-oriented in Europe as biographies of kings, knights, the most famous of such biographies was Le Morte dArthur by Sir Thomas Malory. The book was an account of the life of the fabled King Arthur, following Malory, the new emphasis on humanism during the Renaissance promoted a focus on secular subjects, such as artists and poets, and encouraged writing in the vernacular. Giorgio Vasaris Lives of the Artists was the landmark biography focusing on secular lives, vasari made celebrities of his subjects, as the Lives became an early bestseller. Two other developments are noteworthy, the development of the press in the 15th century
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Computable Document Format
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Computable Document Format is an electronic document format designed to allow easy authoring of dynamically generated interactive content. CDF is a published public format created by Wolfram Research, computable Document Format supports GUI elements such as sliders, menus, and buttons. Content is updated using embedded computation in response to GUI interaction, contents can include formatted text, tables, images, sounds, and animations. CDF supports Mathematica typesetting and technical notation, paginated layout, structured drill down layout, and slideshow mode are supported. Styles can be controlled using a style sheet. CDF files can be using a proprietary CDF Player with a restrictive license. CDF Files can be created using Mathematica, list of numerical analysis software Comparison of numerical analysis software Wolfram Research CDF CDF Player download
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Wolfram Mathematica
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Wolfram Mathematica is a mathematical symbolic computation program, sometimes termed a computer algebra system or program, used in many scientific, engineering, mathematical, and computing fields. It was conceived by Stephen Wolfram and is developed by Wolfram Research of Champaign, the Wolfram Language is the programming language used in Mathematica. The kernel interprets expressions and returns result expressions, all content and formatting can be generated algorithmically or edited interactively. Standard word processing capabilities are supported, including real-time multi-lingual spell-checking, documents can be structured using a hierarchy of cells, which allow for outlining and sectioning of a document and support automatic numbering index creation. Documents can be presented in an environment for presentations. Notebooks and their contents are represented as Mathematica expressions that can be created, modified or analyzed by Mathematica programs or converted to other formats, the front end includes development tools such as a debugger, input completion, and automatic syntax highlighting. Among the alternative front ends is the Wolfram Workbench, an Eclipse based integrated development environment and it provides project-based code development tools for Mathematica, including revision management, debugging, profiling, and testing. There is a plugin for IntelliJ IDEA based IDEs to work with Wolfram Language code which in addition to syntax highlighting can analyse and auto-complete local variables, the Mathematica Kernel also includes a command line front end. Other interfaces include JMath, based on GNU readline and MASH which runs self-contained Mathematica programs from the UNIX command line, version 5.2 added automatic multi-threading when computations are performed on multi-core computers. This release included CPU specific optimized libraries, in addition Mathematica is supported by third party specialist acceleration hardware such as ClearSpeed. Support for CUDA and OpenCL GPU hardware was added in 2010, also, since version 8 it can generate C code, which is automatically compiled by a system C compiler, such as GCC or Microsoft Visual Studio. A free-of-charge version, Wolfram CDF Player, is provided for running Mathematica programs that have saved in the Computable Document Format. It can also view standard Mathematica files, but not run them and it includes plugins for common web browsers on Windows and Macintosh. WebMathematica allows a web browser to act as a front end to a remote Mathematica server and it is designed to allow a user written application to be remotely accessed via a browser on any platform. It may not be used to full access to Mathematica. Due to bandwidth limitations interactive 3D graphics is not fully supported within a web browser, Wolfram Language code can be converted to C code or to an automatically generated DLL. Wolfram Language code can be run on a Wolfram cloud service as a web-app or as an API either on Wolfram-hosted servers or in an installation of the Wolfram Enterprise Private Cloud. Communication with other applications occurs through a protocol called Wolfram Symbolic Transfer Protocol and it allows communication between the Wolfram Mathematica kernel and front-end, and also provides a general interface between the kernel and other applications
35.
Wolfram Alpha
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Wolfram Alpha is a computational knowledge engine or answer engine developed by Wolfram Research, which was founded by Stephen Wolfram. Users submit queries and computation requests via a text field, Wolfram Alpha then computes answers and relevant visualizations from a knowledge base of curated, structured data that come from other sites and books. The site use a portfolio of automated and manual methods, including statistics, visualization, source cross-checking, the curated data makes Alpha different from semantic search engines, which index a large number of answers and then try to match the question to one. It is able to respond to particularly-phrased natural language fact-based questions such as Where was Mary Robinson born, or more complex questions such as How old was Queen Elizabeth II in 1974. Wolfram Alpha does not answer queries which require a response such as What is the difference between the Julian and the Gregorian calendars. But will answer factual or computational questions such as June 1 in Julian calendar, mathematical symbolism can be parsed by the engine, which typically responds with more than the numerical results. For example, lim /x yields the correct limiting value of 1, as well as a plot, up to 235 terms of the Taylor series, and it is also able to perform calculations on data using more than one source. For example, What is the fifty-second smallest country by GDP per capita, Wolfram Alpha is written in 15 million lines of Wolfram Language code and runs on more than 10,000 CPUs. The database currently includes hundreds of datasets, such as All Current, the datasets have been accumulated over several years. The curated datasets are checked for quality either by a scientist or other expert in a relevant field, one example of a live dataset that Wolfram Alpha can use is the profile of a Facebook user, through inputting the facebook report query. Within two weeks of launching the Facebook analytics service,400,000 users had used it, downloadable query results are behind a pay wall but summaries are accessible to free accounts. Wolfram Alpha has been used to power some searches in the Microsoft Bing, launch preparations began on May 15,2009 at 7 pm CDT and were broadcast live on Justin. tv. The plan was to launch the service a few hours later. The service was launched on May 18,2009. Wolfram Alpha has received mixed reviews, Wolfram Alpha advocates point to its potential, some even stating that how it determines results is more important than current usefulness. On December 3,2009, an app was introduced. Some users considered the initial $50 price of the iOS app unnecessarily high and they also complained about the simultaneous removal of the mobile formatting option for the site. Wolfram responded by lowering the price to $2, offering a refund to existing customers, on October 6,2010 an Android version of the app was released and it is now available for Kindle Fire and Nook
36.
Wolfram Demonstrations Project
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It is hosted by Wolfram Research, whose stated goal is to bring computational exploration to the widest possible audience. At its launch, it contained 1300 demonstrations but has grown to over 10,000, the site won a Parents Choice Award in 2008. Each Demonstration also has a description of the concept. Demonstrations are now easily embeddable into any website or blog, each Demonstration page includes a snippet of JavaScript code in the Share section of the sidebar. The website is organized by topic, for example, science, mathematics, computer science, art, biology and they cover a variety of levels, from elementary school mathematics to much more advanced topics such as quantum mechanics and models of biological organisms. The site is aimed at educators and students, as well as researchers who wish to present their ideas to the broadest possible audience. Wolfram Researchs staff organizes and edits the Demonstrations, which may be created by any user of Mathematica, then freely published, the Demonstrations are open-source, which means that they not only demonstrate the concept itself but also show how to implement it. The use of the web to transmit small interactive programs is reminiscent of Suns Java applets, Adobes Flash, however, those creating Demonstrations have access to the algorithmic and visualization capabilities of Mathematica making it more suitable for technical demonstrations. The Demonstrations Project also has similarities to user-generated content websites like Wikipedia and its business model is similar to Adobes Acrobat and Flash strategy of charging for development tools but providing a free reader
37.
Wolfram SystemModeler
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Wolfram SystemModeler, developed by Wolfram MathCore, is a platform for engineering as well as life-science modeling and simulation based on the Modelica language. It provides a graphical modeling and simulation environment and a customizable set of component libraries. Models developed in Model Center can be simulated in the Simulation Center, the software also provides a tight integration with the Mathematica environment. Users can develop, simulate, document, and analyze their Wolfram SystemModeler models within Mathematica notebooks, the software is used in the engineering field as well as in the life sciences. Originally developed by MathCore Engineering as MathModelica, it was acquired by Wolfram Research on March 30,2011 and it was then re-released as Wolfram SystemModeler on May 23,2012, with improved integration with Wolfram Mathematica. Wolfram SystemModeler uses the free object-oriented modeling language Modelica, aMESim APMonitor Modelica Mathematica Modelling Simulation Computer simulation Dymola SimulationX Wolfram SystemModeler is proprietary software protected by both trade secret and copyright law. Wolfram MathCore, original developer of MathModelica Wolfram Research, developer of Mathematica
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Conrad Wolfram
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Conrad Wolfram is a British technologist and businessman known for his work in information technology and its application. In 2012, The Observer placed him at number 11 in its list of Britains 50 New Radicals, wolframs father Hugo Wolfram was a textile manufacturer and novelist and his mother Sybil Wolfram was a professor of philosophy at the University of Oxford. He is the brother of Stephen Wolfram. Born in Oxford, England, in 1970, Wolfram was educated at Dragon School, Eton College and Pembroke College, Cambridge, from which he holds an MA degree in Natural Sciences and he learned to program on a BBC Micro. He is married to primary care ophthalmology consultant Stella Hornby and has a daughter Sophia Wolfram, Wolfram has been a prominent proponent of Computer-Based Math- a reform of mathematics education to rebuild the curriculum assuming computers exist. And is the founder of www. computerbasedmath. org and he argues, There are a few cases where it is important to do calculations by hand, but these are small fractions of cases. The rest of the time you should assume that students should use a computer just like everyone does in the real world, and that School mathematics is very disconnected from mathematics used to solve problems in the real world. In an interview with the Guardian he described the replacement of hand calculation by computer use as democratising expertise and he argues that A good guide to how and what you should do with a computer in the classroom is what youd do with it outside. As much as possible, use tools in the classroom in an open-ended way not special education-only closed-ended approaches. In 2009, he spoke about education reform at the TEDx Conference at the EU Parliament. And again at TED Global 2010 where he argued that Maths should be practical and more conceptual, but less mechanical. In August 2012, he was a member of the panel at the Festival of Code. Wolfram is also part of Flooved advisory board, Conrad Wolfram founded Wolfram Research Europe Ltd. in 1991 and remains its CEO. Wolfram Research was founded by his brother Stephen Wolfram, the maker of Mathematica software and these technologies converged to form the Computable Document Format which Wolfram says can transfer knowledge in a much higher-bandwidth way. Conrad Wolfram personal website computerbasedmath. org Wolfram Research blog to which Conrad Wolfram contributes Conrad Wolfram at TED
39.
Theodore Gray
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Theodore W. Theo Gray is a co-founder of Wolfram Research, science author, and co-founder of app developer Touch Press. Theodore Gray was educated at the University of Illinois Laboratory High School and he would later graduate with a B. S. in chemistry from University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1986. In 1987, Gray left a PhD program in chemistry at the University of California at Berkeley to work with Stephen Wolfram. In that same year, he co-founded Wolfram Research and his initial work for the company involved creating the user interface for Mathematica. Gray would eventually leave Wolfram Research to become a writer and publisher full-time, after amassing thousands of samples of elements, he assembled them into a four-legged physical table representing the periodic table. The finished table was awarded the 2011 ACS Grady Stack Award for Interpreting Chemistry for the Public, as well as the 2002 Ig Nobel Award for Chemistry. Grays love of the table would lead him to team up with photographer Nick Mann in creating The Elements, A Visual Exploration of Every Known Atom in the Universe. For many years, Gray wrote a column for Popular Science entitled Gray Matter. The column was a finalist for a National Magazine Award for Best Column in 2010, in 2009, a collection of articles by Gray was published under the title Mad Science, Experiments You Can Do at Home—But Probably Shouldnt. A sequel to the book, Mad Science 2, Experiments You Can Do At Home, in 2010, Gray founded Touch Press together with Max Whitby, John Cromie and Stephen Wolfram shortly after the announcement of the launch of the iPad. The company was created to develop innovative educational apps using the technology of the iPad to its full potential, the first published app was The Elements, and in 2014 Gray released Molecules, which allows users to touch and discover the basic building blocks of the world. Of Touch Presss Disney Animated, which was named the best iPad app of 2013 worldwide by Apple, iTuness App Editor noted, throughout his career, Gray has been an advocate for a broader engagement between the scientific community and the public at large. Molecules, The Elements and the Architecture of Everything, Black Dog & Leventhal,2014, ISBN 1-57912-971-4 Theodore Grays Elements Vault, Treasures of the Periodic Table with Removable Archival Documents and Real Element Samples--Including Pure Gold. Black Dog & Leventhal,2011, 128pp, ISBN 1-57912-880-7 The Elements, A Visual Exploration of Every Known Atom in the Universe, Black Dog & Leventhal,2009, 240pp. ISBN 1-57912-814-9 Theo Grays Mad Science, Experiments You Can Do At Home - But Probably Shouldnt, Black Dog & Leventhal,2009, ISBN 1-57912-791-6 The Beginners Guide to Mathematica Version 3, Cambridge University Press,1997, 355pp. LSBN0521622026 Theo Grays Mad Science 2, Experiments You Can Do At Home, But STILL Probably Shouldnt, Black Dog & Leventhal,2013, ISBN 1-57912-932-3 Amateur chemistry Ig Nobel Prize Winners Stephen Wolfram Touch Press Amazon author page. Periodictable. com Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers Theodore Gray, Element enthusiast talks about making a table for the 21st century by Bethany Halford. C&EN,26 November 2007, page 50, Periodic Table display makes the elements more than elemental by Greg Kline, The News-Gazette, November 27,2003
40.
Ed Pegg Jr.
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Ed Pegg Jr. is an expert on mathematical puzzles and is a self-described recreational mathematician. He wrote an online column called Ed Pegg Jr. s Math Games for the Mathematical Association of America during the years 2003–2007. His puzzles have also used by Will Shortz on the puzzle segment of NPRs Weekend Edition Sunday. In 2000, he left NORAD to join Wolfram Research, where he collaborated on A New Kind of Science, in 2004 he started assisting Eric W. Weisstein at Wolfram MathWorld. He has made contributions to several hundred MathWorld articles and he was one of the chief consultants for Numb3rs. MathPuzzle Ed Pegg Jr. s Math Games Demonstrations by Ed Pegg Jr, the Math Behind Numb3rs CBS puzzle Ed Pegg Jr. s entry in the Numericana Hall of Fame
41.
Virtual International Authority File
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The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see also records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are also being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records