Trsat is part of the city of Rijeka, with a historic castle or fortress in a strategic location and several historic churches, in one of which the Croatian noble Prince Vuk Krsto Frankopan is buried. Trsat is a steep hill, 138 m high, rising over the gorge of the Rječina river, about a kilometre away from the sea. Today, the University of Rijeka's newly constructed Campus lies in the western part of Trsat. In the time before the Illyrians there was a fortified settlement and the Illyrian fortress Tarsatica. Following this there was a Roman looking point, from the 13th century it was the property of the Counts of Krk, it belonged to the Frankopans. Together with Vinodol, the Croatian-Hungarian King Andrija II presented Trsat to Vid II of Krk. Towards the end of the 15th century the Habsburgs ruled Trsat and though it belonged to Croatia and the Frankopans, would not give it up because of its excellent position for the protection of Rijeka; the inhabitants of Trsat and Rijeka waged their fiercest battles with the Venetians in 1508, while in 1527 the Turks made inroads into the city for a short time.
In the 16th century, Trsat was more in Habsburg than in Frankopan hands, was ruled by the Captains of Rijeka or Senj or leaseholds. After the execution of Fran Krsto Frankopan in 1671 following the Zrinski-Frankopan conspiracy proposed by Petar Zrinski, the Habsburgs took Trsat over completely, it was attached for a short time to the state of Severin, in 1778 Maria Theresa placed it under the municipality of Bakar, where it remained, with a short break during the Napoleonic wars, until 1874 when the community of Trsat was founded. Trsat was an patriotic Croatian town, together with Sušak, demonstrated its attachment to its mother country at every opportunity, its independence from Rijeka, part of Hungary; the centre of political and cultural life in Trsat was the Croatian Reading Room, founded in 1877, with many cultural and sports societies. Many memorial inscriptions and monuments bear witness to the resistance by the people of Trsat and Sušak to Italian and German occupation, a mortuary made according to plans by the architect Zdenko Sila and Zdenko Kolacio being outstanding.
It stands on the site of an old Roman fortress and was built in the first half of the 13th century by the Frankopan Princes of Krk. From the beginning of the 15th century it had a succession of lords, but was most owned by the Habsburgs. In 1528 the Senj Capitan Gašpar Raab bought the castle and adapted and strengthened it. Once the danger from the Turks had passed at the end of the 17th century, fire arms had come into use, Trsat fortress was less important and was left allowed to fall into ruins, a process, completed by an earthquake in 1750. Count Laval Nugent and military commander of the Austrian coastal area, bought the ruins off the city, for an annual payment of one florint and had it restored in a Romantic Classicist-Biedermeier-style, he engaged the Venetian builder Paronuzzio and repaired the towers, decorated the interior and built himself a mausoleum in the style of a Doric temple with four marble pillars supporting the facade. After his death his impoverished descendants deserted the castle and it once again fell into ruin until 1960.
Since it has been restored and enriched by the presence of art exhibitions, summer concerts and theatrical performances. The Shrine of Our Lady of Trsat is a church on the flat area at the top of Trsat hill and the subject of a legend dating from the 13th century. In May 1291 Mary's house in Nazareth is said to have appeared here, moved by angels from Nazareth mysteriously disappeared to be discovered in Italy, in Loreto, where it still stands today as a shrine. According to one version the Holy House was brought from the Holy Land by the Crusaders. Prince Nikola Frankopan sent a delegation to Nazareth to measure the foundations as he had only the stones in his possession and not the whole walls, he rebuilt the Holy House and the Frankopan Family gave the Holy House to the Pope and, as the nearest Papal lands were near Ancona, the House was shipped there and placed in Loreto. Tradition ascribes the building of the church to Prince Nikola I Frankopan in 1291. In 1453 Prince Martin Frankopan added on a nave to house a painting of Mary, believed to have been donated by Pope Urban V in 1367 and thought to have been painted by Luke, built a monastery alongside the church, occupied since 1468 by the Franciscans who are the guardians of the cult, which attracts many of the faithful.
In 1644 a new nave was added to the church, extended and redone in Baroque style by the contributions of the members of congregation and Princes Frankopans. In 1691 the monastery was rebuilt after a fire and the complete reconstruction of the interior of the cathedral began, completed by the mid of the 18th century. In 1726 a new sanctuary above the crypt was built, giving the entire space luxury of ceiling decoration. A new artistic contribution to the church was made by Vladimir Kirin, with five pictures on the greenish marble slabs with which the shrine is lined, another by Ivo Režek who portrayed the 14 stations of the cross in fresco technique. One of the guardians of the Trsat monastery was the outstanding Glagolitic expert and writer of books in Croatian and Italian, Franjo Glavinič. (To see the article Petar Kružić stairca
Rijeka is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia. It is located in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County on Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea and has a population of 128,624 inhabitants; because of its strategic position and its excellent deep-water port, the city was fiercely contested among Italy and Croatia, changing hands and demographics many times over centuries. According to the 2011 census data, the overwhelming majority of its citizens are Croats, along with small numbers of Bosniaks and Serbs; the city has a strong sense of identity and the autochthonous inhabitants of Rijeka are referred to as Fiumans. Rijeka is the main city of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County; the city's economy depends on shipbuilding and maritime transport. Rijeka hosts the Croatian National Theatre Ivan pl. Zajc, first built in 1765, as well as the University of Rijeka, founded in 1973 but with roots dating back to 1632 School of Theology. Apart from Croatian and Italian, linguistically the city is home to its own unique dialect of the Venetian language, with an estimated 20,000 speakers among the autochthonous Italians and other minorities.
Fiuman served as the main lingua franca between the many ethnicities inhabiting the multiethnic port-town. In certain suburbs of the modern extended municipality the autochthonous population still speaks the Chakavian tongue, a dialect of the Croatian language. In 2016, Rijeka was selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2020, alongside Galway, Republic of Ireland. Rijeka was called Tharsatica, Vitopolis, or Flumen in Latin; the city is called Rijeka in Croatian, Reka in Slovene, Reka or Rika in the local dialects of the Chakavian language. It is called Fiume in Italian. All these names mean "river" in their respective languages. Meanwhile, Hungarian has adopted the Italian name while in German the city has been called Sankt Veit am Flaum—St Vito on the river Flaum—or Pflaum. Rijeka is located in western Croatia, 131 kilometres southwest of the capital, Zagreb, on the northern coast of Rijeka Bay, as part of a larger Kvarner Gulf of the Adriatic Sea, a large bay Mediterranean Sea most indented to the European mainland.
The Bay of Rijeka, bordered by Vela Vrata, Srednja Vrata and Mala Vrata is connected to the Bay of Kvarner and is deep enough for the biggest sailing ships. The City of Rijeka lies at the mouth of river Rječina and in the Vinodol micro-region of the Croatian coast. Two important land transport routes start in Rijeka due to its location; the first route is to the Pannonian Basin given that Rijeka is located alongside the narrowest point of the Dinaric Alps. The other route, across Postojna Gate connects Rijeka with Slovenia and beyond. Though traces of Neolithic settlements can be found in the region, the earliest modern settlements on the site were Celtic Tharsatica on the hill, the tribe of mariners, the Liburni, in the natural harbour below; the city long retained its dual character. Pliny mentioned Tarsatica in his Natural History. In the time of Augustus, the Romans rebuilt Tharsatica as a municipium Flumen, situated on the right bank of small river Rječina, it became a city within the Roman Province of Dalmatia until the 6th century.
After the 4th century Rijeka was rededicated to St. Vitus, the city's patron saint, as Terra Fluminis sancti Sancti Viti or in German Sankt Veit am Pflaum. From the 5th century onwards, the town was ruled successively by the Ostrogoths, the Byzantines, the Lombards, the Avars. Croats settled the city starting in the 7th century giving it Rika svetoga Vida. At the time, Rijeka was a feudal stronghold surrounded by a wall. At the center of the city, its highest point, was a fortress. In 799 Rijeka was attacked by the Frankish troops of Charlemagne, their Siege of Trsat was at first repulsed, during which the Frankish commander Duke Eric of Friuli was killed. However, the Frankish forces occupied and devastated the castle, while the Duchy of Croatia passed under the overlordship of the Carolingian Empire. From about 925, the town was part of the Kingdom of Croatia, from 1102 in personal union with Hungary. Trsat Castle and the town was rebuilt under the rule of the House of Frankopan. In 1288 the Rijeka citizens signed the Law codex of Vinodol, one of the oldest codes of law in Europe.
Rijeka rivalled with Venice when it was purchased by the Habsburg emperor Frederick III, Archduke of Austria in 1466. It would remain under Habsburg overlordship for over 450 years, except for French rule between 1805 and 1813, until its occupation by Croatian and subsequently Italian irregulars at the end of World War I. After coming under Habsburg rule in 1466, the town was attacked and plundered by Venetian forces in 1509. While Ottoman forces attacked the town several times, they never occupied it. From the 16th century onwards, Rijeka was rebuilt in its present Renaissance and Baroque style. Emperor Charles VI declared the Port of Rijeka a free port in 1719 and had the trade route to Vienna expanded in 1725. By order of Empress Maria Theresa in
Thomas Hodgkin (historian)
Thomas Hodgkin, FBA was a British historian and biographer. Hodgkin was son of John Hodgkin and Quaker minister, Elizabeth Howard. In 1861 he married Lucy Ann, they had three sons and three daughters Having been educated as a member of the Society of Friends and taken the degree of B. A. at the University of London, he became a partner in the banking house of Hodgkin, Barnett and Spence, Newcastle-on-Tyne, a firm afterwards amalgamated with Lloyds Bank. While continuing in business as a banker, Hodgkin devoted a good deal of time to historical study, soon became a leading authority on the history of the early Middle Ages, his books, his opus magnum became her Invaders, published in eight volumes. He died on 2 March 1913, his and the Hodgkin family papers are held at the Wellcome Library in London. The family of Thomas and Lucy Hodgkin is listed as: Lucy Violet married John Holdsworth, he was Provost of The Queen's College, author of A History of the Anglo-Saxons George married Mary Wilson. Their daughter, Lucy Violet Hodgkin Holdsworth, was a writer and gave the 1919 Swarthmore Lecture under the title Silent Worship: The way of wonder.
Their daughter, Ellen Sophia Bosanquet wrote an autobiography, published by her daughter, Diana Hardman, as Late Harvest: Memories, letters poems. L. V. Hodgkin assembled his letters and wrote a memorial to her brother, published in 1923 His chief works are: Italy and her Invaders, he wrote a Life of Charles the Great. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Hodgkin, Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13. Cambridge University Press. P. 557. Works by Thomas Hodgkin at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Thomas Hodgkin at Internet Archive Works by Thomas Hodgkin at LibriVox
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Drava or Drave is a river in southern Central Europe. With a length of 710 kilometres, 724 kilometres including the Sextner Bach source, it is the fifth or sixth longest tributary of the Danube, after the Tisza, Prut, Mureș and Siret, its source is near the market town of Innichen, in the Puster Valley of South Tyrol, Italy. The river flows eastwards through East Tirol and Carinthia in Austria into the Styria region of Slovenia, it turns southeast, passing through Croatia and, after merging with its main tributary Mur, forms most of the border between Croatia and Hungary, before it joins the Danube near Osijek. In ancient times the river was known as Latin: Dravus, cf. Sanskrit: द्रवति, dravati, "flow"; the name is most of Celtic or Illyrian origin. The river gives its name to the dravite species of tourmaline; the Drava and the Spöl are the only two rivers originating in Italy that belong to the Danube drainage basin. Its main left tributaries are the Isel, the Möll, the Lieser, the Gurk and the Lavant in Austria, the Mur near Legrad at the Croatian–Hungarian border.
Its main right tributaries are the Gail in Austria, the Meža and Dravinja in Slovenia, the Bednja in Croatia. Mean discharge is for the last station in the country mentioned in the source; the Drava sources are located at the drainage divide between the market town of Innichen and neighbouring Toblach in the west, where the Rienz River rises, a tributary of the Adige. At Innichen itself the 16+ km Sextner Bach, originating near the Sextener Rotwand, joins the ~2 km long source creek; the river than flows eastwards and after 8 kilometres crosses into East Tyrol in Austria. At Lienz it flows into the Isel, sourced from the glaciers of the Glockner Groups; the Isel is three times larger than the Drava where they meet and, starting from the source of its tributary Schwarzach under the Rötspitze, the Isel is longer than the combined Drava and Sextner Bach to that point. The river flows east into Carinthia at Oberdrauburg; the river separates the Kreuzeck range of the High Tauern in the north and the Gailtal Alps in the south, passes the Sachsenburg narrows and the site of the ancient city of Teurnia, before it reaches the town of Spittal an der Drau.
Downstream of Villach, it runs along the northern slopes of the Karawanks to Lavamünd. The Drava passes into Slovenia at Gorče near Dravograd, from where it runs for 142 kilometres via Vuzenica, Muta, Ruše, Maribor to Ptuj and the border with Croatia at Ormož; the river passes Varaždin, Belišće and Osijek in Croatia, Barcs in Hungary. It is navigable for about 90 kilometres from Čađavica in Croatia to its mouth; the hydrological parameters of Drava are monitored in Croatia at Botovo, Terezino Polje, Donji Miholjac and Osijek. There are 22 hydroelectric power plants on the Drava; the power plants are listed beginning at the headwaters: The Drava River is one of the most exploited rivers in the world in terms of hydropower, with 100% of its water potential energy being exploited. As the region of the river is a place of exceptional biodiversity, this raises several ecological concerns, together with other forms of exploitation such as use of river deposits
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Saxon Wars called the Saxon War or Saxon Uprising, were the campaigns and insurrections of the thirty-three years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed. In all, eighteen campaigns were fought in what is now northern Germany, they resulted in the incorporation of Saxony into the Frankish realm and their forcible conversion from Germanic paganism to Catholicism. The Saxons were divided into four subgroups in four regions. Nearest to the ancient Frankish kingdom of Austrasia was Westphalia, farthest away was Eastphalia. In between these two kingdoms was that of Engria and north of these three, at the base of the Jutland peninsula, was Nordalbingia. Despite repeated setbacks, the Saxons resisted steadfastly, returning to raid Charlemagne's domains as soon as he turned his attention elsewhere, their main leader, was a resilient and resourceful opponent and accepted a peace offering from Charlemagne in a perilous situation, not losing face and preventing Charlemagne from continuing a bothersome war.
This agreement saved the Saxons' leaders' exceptional rights in their homeland. Widukind was buried in the only Germanic church without a spire. In mid-January 772, the sacking and burning of the church of Deventer by a Saxon expedition was the casus belli for the first war waged by Charlemagne to the Saxons, it began with a Frankish invasion of Saxon territory and the subjugation of the Engrians and destruction of their sacred symbol Irminsul near Paderborn in 772 or 773 at Eresburg. Irminsul may have been a hollow tree trunk representing the pillar supporting the skies—similar to the Nordic tree Yggdrasil and a common belief among the Germanic peoples. Charlemagne's campaign led all the way to the Weser River and destroyed several major Saxon strongholds. After negotiating with some Saxon nobles and obtaining hostages, Charlemagne turned his attention to his war against the Lombards in northern Italy. Armed confrontations continued unabated for years. Charlemagne's second campaign came in the year 775.
He marched through Westphalia, conquering the fort of Sigiburg, crossed Engria, where he defeated the Saxons again. In Eastphalia, he defeated them, their leader Hessi converted to Christianity, he returned through Westphalia, leaving encampments at Eresburg. All of Saxony, except for Nordalbingia was under his control, but the recalcitrant Saxons would not submit for long. After warring in Italy, he returned rapidly to Saxony for the third time in 776, when a rebellion destroyed his fortress at Eresburg; the Saxons were once again brought to heel. Charlemagne built a new camp at Karlstadt. In 777, he called a national diet at Paderborn to integrate Saxony into the Frankish kingdom. Many Saxons were baptised; the chief purpose of the diet was to bring Saxony closer to Christianity. Missionaries Anglo-Saxons from England, were recruited to carry out this task. Charlemagne issued a number of decrees designed to break Saxon resistance and to inflict capital punishment on anyone observing heathen practices or disrespecting the king's peace.
His severe and uncompromising position, which earned him the title "butcher of Saxons", caused his close adviser Alcuin of York abbot of Marmoutier Abbey, Tours at Tours, to urge leniency, as God's word should be spread not by the sword but by persuasion. In summer 779, Charlemagne again went into Saxony and conquered Eastphalia and Westphalia. At a diet near Lippspringe, he divided the land into Frankish countships, he himself assisted in several mass baptisms. He returned to Italy, there was no Saxon revolt. From 780 to 782, the land had peace. Charlemagne returned in 782 to Saxony and instituted a code of law and appointed counts, both Saxon and Frank; the laws were severe on religious issues, namely the native paganism of the Saxons. This stirred a renewal of the old conflict; that year, in autumn, Widukind returned and led a revolt that resulted in many assaults on the church. The Saxons invaded the area of the Chatti, a Germanic tribe converted by Saint Boniface and in Charlemagne's empire.
Widukind annihilated a Frankish army at the Battle of Süntel while Charles was campaigning against the Sorbs. It was in response to this setback that Charlemagne, at the Blood court of Verden, ordered the beheading of 4,500 Saxons who had rebelled. Upon this Blutgericht, some historians have stated the massacre did not happen, or that it was a battle, but according to Alessandro Barbero, none of these claims are credible; the action led to two straight years of constant warfare, with Charlemagne wintering in central Saxony, at Minden. The Franks gained the upper hand; the turning point swore fealty to Charlemagne. It was with the conclusion of this war that Charlemagne could have claimed to have conquered Saxony, the land had peace for the next seven years, though revolts continued sporadically until 804. In 792, the Westphalians rose up against their masters in response to forcible recruitment for wars against the Avars; the Eastphalians and Nordalbingians joined them in 793, but the insurrection did not catch on as previous ones and was put down by 794.
An Engrian rebellion followed in 796, but Charlemagne's personal presence and the presence of loyal Christian Saxons and Sla