Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Bat*21 is a 1988 American war film directed by Peter Markle, adapted from the book by William C. Anderson and retired United States Air Force colonel. Set during the Vietnam War, the film is a dramatization based upon the rescue of a U. S. signals intelligence expert shot down behind enemy lines in Vietnam. The film stars Gene Hackman and Danny Glover with Jerry Reed, David Marshall Grant, Clayton Rohner, Erich Anderson and Joe Dorsey in supporting roles. During the last days of the Vietnam War, USAF Lieutenant colonel Iceal E. "Gene" Hambleton call sign BAT-21 Bravo, is flying on board a EB-66C electronic warfare aircraft, engaged in electronic countermeasures preparatory to a major bombing strike. Without warning, a number of SA-2 Guideline Surface-to-air missiles are launched from North Vietnam, targeting their aircraft. A massive SAM explosion tears off the tail and Hambleton, in the navigator's position, ejects as the sole survivor of the six-man crew. While still coming down by parachute, Hambleton makes radio contact with Captain Bartholomew "Birddog" Clark, the pilot of a Cessna O-2 Skymaster, flying a forward air control mission near where the EB-66 was destroyed.
Birddog becomes Hambleton's link to rescue. Hambleton, an expert on electronic weapons systems and who holds valuable information, is known to the North Vietnamese, who begin an all-out search, attempting to capture him. An effort to steal supplies from Vietnamese villagers is not successful, as Hambleton is discovered and kills an aggressive peasant farmer, apologizing to his grieving family as he escapes. Knowing that his current location is too dangerous for rescue aircraft, Hambleton devises a plan to reach safer territory, he plots a course to the river, the boundary of the target area communicates his intended path to Clark in a code composed of various golf courses he knows well. This will allow the rescuers to keep track of his progress, making it easier for them to pick him up. Several attempts are made to recover Hambleton. Two helicopters are lost and members of its crews are killed or captured. Clark flies a "Huey" helicopter rescue mission, but as he retrieves Hambleton, the pair are shot down by ground fire, with Clark being wounded.
A F-100 bombing raid both assists and hinders their progress through the jungle, as North Vietnamese irregulars are trailing them. In the end and Clark are rescued by a US river boat patrolling nearby on the Cam Lo River. Portions of Bat*21 were dramatized, including the climactic battle; some characters were composites of real people. However, some other details were accurate, including the fact that rescuer Captain Larry Potts was of African American descent; the actual rescue took over 11 days, during which a major attack was delayed, resulting in numerous South Vietnamese soldiers being killed and wounded. A Forward Air Observer aircraft was shot down and USAF 1Lt Bruce Walker and USMC 1Lt Larry Potts parachuted to the ground safely, eluding capture. In an ensuing attack, six more Americans lost their lives attempting to rescue him; the North Vietnamese, alerted by the intense efforts to find the flyer, increased their efforts to find Hambleton. Walker was killed by the Vietnamese forces. During a nighttime, covert operation from more than 2 miles behind enemy lines, Hambleton was rescued in a land operation by U.
S. Navy SEAL Lt. j.g VNN Petty Officer Third Class Nguyen Van Kiet. Bat*21 was filmed on location in Sabah, with the assistance of the Malaysian government. Resources and other assistance were supplied by the Malaysian Army and the Royal Malaysian Air Force, which supplied aircraft and pilots, including the services of Captain V. Thiagarajah, who flew both on- and off-camera; the film premiered in the Philippines on September 8, 1988, a month before it premiered in the United States on October 21. Film historian Alun Evans in Brassey's Guide to War Films, considered the production an unusual look at "... the perspective of a service non-combatant." In a contemporary review, Roger Ebert noted: "'BAT*21' is the kind of lean, no-nonsense war film Hollywood used to make back before the subject became burdened with metaphysical insights." Listed in the "best" category of "The Best War Movies of All Time", Popular Mechanics, characterized Bat*21 as the "Best Vietnam War Movie." Bat*21 on IMDb Bat*21 at the TCM Movie Database Bat*21 at Box Office Mojo Bat*21 at Rotten Tomatoes
Murder, She Wrote
Murder, She Wrote is an American crime drama television series starring Angela Lansbury as mystery writer and amateur detective Jessica Fletcher. The series aired for 12 seasons with 264 episodes from 1984 to 1996 on the CBS network, it was followed by four TV films. Among the most successful and longest-running television shows in history, it averaged more than 30 million viewers per week in its prime, was a staple of the CBS Sunday night lineup for a decade. In syndication, the series is still successful throughout the world. Lansbury was nominated for ten Golden Globes and 12 Emmy Awards for her work on Murder, She Wrote, she holds the record for the most Golden Globe nominations and wins for Best Actress in a television drama series and the most Emmy nominations for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series for Murder, She Wrote, with those nominations netting her four Golden Globe awards. The series received three nominations in the Outstanding Drama Series category at the Emmys, it was won twice.
After the series finished in 1996, four TV movies were released between 1997 and 2003. In 2009, a point-and-click video game was released for the PC platform, followed in 2012 by a sequel. A spin-off book series continues publication at present. Series producers Peter S. Fischer, Richard Levinson and William Link thought Lansbury would be perfect for the part of Jessica Fletcher but did not think that she would be interested in a television series. Earlier, she had acted in two film adaptations of Agatha Christie's mystery novels: as Salome Otterbourne in Death on the Nile and as Miss Marple in The Mirror Crack'd; when the latter film did poorly—despite an all star cast including Rock Hudson, Elizabeth Taylor, Kim Novak, Tony Curtis—the offer for Lansbury to reprise Miss Marple in three more films never materialized. When she made it known she would be available if the right project came along, the trio of creators sent her the script and immediately, Lansbury felt she could do something with the role of Jessica Fletcher.
With Murder, She Wrote debuting on Sunday, September 30, 1984, the producers were able to parlay their "mystery writer/amateur detective" premise into a 12-year hit for CBS. It made Lansbury, known for her motion picture and Broadway stage work, a household name for millions of television viewers; the title comes from Murder, She Said, the title of a 1961 film adaptation of Agatha Christie's Miss Marple novel 4:50 from Paddington. The show revolves around the day-to-day life of Jessica Fletcher, a childless, retired English teacher who becomes a successful mystery writer. Despite fame and fortune, Jessica remains a resident of Cabot Cove, a small coastal community in Maine, maintains her links with all of her old friends, never letting her success go to her head. Exterior shots of Cabot Cove were filmed in California; the fictional "Cabot Cove" name for the series' coastal town was derived from the name of an actual bay harbor inlet in Kennebunkport, located near the town's center, on the road where motels and lobster shack dives are located.
The show starts with a preview of the episode's events, with Jessica stating: "Tonight on Murder, She Wrote..." Jessica invariably proves more perceptive than the official investigators of a case, who are always willing to arrest the most suspect. By piecing the clues together and asking astute questions, she always manages to trap the real murderer. Murder occurred with such regularity in her vicinity that the term "Cabot Cove syndrome" was coined to describe the constant appearance of dead bodies in remote locations. Indeed, if Cabot Cove existed in real life, it would top the FBI's national crime statistics in numerous categories, with some analysis suggesting that the homicide rate in Cabot Cove exceeds that of the real-life murder capital of the world. Jessica's relationship with law enforcement officials varies from place to place. Both sheriffs of Cabot Cove resign themselves to having her meddle in their cases. However, most detectives and police officers do not want her anywhere near their crime scenes, until her accurate deductions convince them to listen to her.
Some are happy to have her assistance from the start because they are fans of her books. With time, she makes friends in many police departments across the U. S. as well as with a British police officer attached to Scotland Yard. At the start of season eight, more of the stories were set in New York City with Jessica moving into an apartment there part-time in order to teach criminology. In August 1988, Lansbury expressed weariness of her commitment to the series as she was not sure, at 63, that she could continue at the pace now required of her. Thus, She Wrote went into its fifth season that fall with the distinct possibility that it would cease production at the end of it and the series finale would air in May 1989. A solution was worked on, which enabled Lansbury to continue but give her time to rest; this enabled some secondary characters to get significant stories. For the next two seasons, Lansbury reduced her appearances in several episodes, only appearing at the beginning and the end, to introduce stories starring several friends of Jessica, like PI Harry McGraw, reformed thief Dennis Stanton or MI5 agent Michael Hagarty.
The "experiment" ended in 1991. The next year, Lansbury took on a more extensive role in production as she became one of the series' executive producers. By the end of the 1994–95 season, She Wrote's 11th season, Lansbury again was considering retirement due to her advancing age.
Brent Jay Spiner is an American actor and singer best known for his portrayal of the android Lieutenant Commander Data in the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation and four subsequent films. In 1997, he won the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of Data in Star Trek: First Contact, was nominated in the same category for portraying Dr. Brackish Okun in Independence Day, a role he reprised in Independence Day: Resurgence, he has enjoyed a career in the theatre and as a musician. Brent Jay Spiner was born on February 2, 1949, in Houston, Texas, to Sylvia and Jack Spiner, a Jewish family who owned a furniture store. After his father's death, Spiner was adopted by Sylvia's second husband, Sol Mintz, whose surname he used between 1955 and 1975, he attended Bellaire High School in Bellaire, Texas Spiner became active on the Bellaire speech team, winning the national championship in dramatic interpretation. He attended the University of Houston. Spiner moved to New York City in the early'70s, where he became a stage actor, performing in several Broadway and off-Broadway plays, including The Three Musketeers and Stephen Sondheim's Sunday in the Park with George.
He had a brief nonspeaking role in the film Stardust Memories, credited as "Fan in Lobby", the one with a Polaroid. Spiner appeared as a media technician in "The Advocates", a second-season episode of the Showtime cable series The Paper Chase. In 1984, he moved to Los Angeles, where he appeared in made-for-TV movies, he played a recurring character on Bob Wheeler, patriarch of a rural family. In 1986, he played a condemned soul in "Dead Run", an episode of the short-lived revival of Rod Serling's series The Twilight Zone on CBS, he made two appearances in season three of the situation comedy Mama's Family, playing two different characters. Spiner's first and only starring film role was in Rent Control. In the Cheers episode "Never Love a Goalie, Part II", he played. Spiner appeared in the Tales from the Darkside episode, "A Case of the Stubborns", as a preacher, he portrayed Jim Stevens in the made-for-TV movie Manhunt for Claude Dallas. In 1987, Spiner started his 15-year run portraying Lieutenant Commander Data on Star Trek: The Next Generation, which spanned seven seasons and four feature films.
As a main character, he appeared in all but one of the series' 178 episodes. He reprised his role in the spin-off films Star Trek Generations, Star Trek: First Contact, Star Trek: Insurrection, Star Trek: Nemesis. Although billed as the final Trek movie for the TNG cast, the ambiguous ending of Star Trek: Nemesis suggested a possible avenue for the return of Data. However, Spiner opined that he was too old to continue playing the part, as Data does not age, whereas Spiner had aged during the years in which he played the role. In addition to the series and films, he voiced his character in several Star Trek video games, such as Star Trek: Generations, Star Trek: The Next Generation - A Final Unity, Star Trek: Hidden Evil, Star Trek: Bridge Commander. After appearing in several episodes as Arik Soong, the ancestor of Data's creator, Dr. Noonien Soong, Spiner recorded dialogue as Data, heard in the final episode of Star Trek: Enterprise, "These Are the Voyages...", which aired in 2005, bringing the Star Trek TV franchise Spiner had helped establish 18 years earlier to a close.
In 1991, Spiner recorded an album of 1940s pop standards entitled Ol' Yellow Eyes Is Back, the title of, a play on the yellow contact lenses Spiner wore as Data, the title of a Frank Sinatra record, Ol' Blue Eyes Is Back. In 1997, he returned to Broadway, playing John Adams in the Roundabout Theatre Company revival of the musical 1776; the production was nominated for a Tony Award. A cast recording was released of the revival production. Spiner has appeared in the television series Deadly Games, The Blacklist, Dream On, Friends, Law & Order: Criminal Intent, Mad About You and The Outer Limits. In the series The Big Bang Theory and Joey, he appeared as himself, he has acted in the movies The Aviator, Where's My Car?, I Am Sam, Independence Day, Independence Day: Resurgence, The Master of Disguise, Out to Sea, The Ponder Heart and South Park: Bigger and Uncut. His television-movie appearances during this period include the 2000 musical Geppetto and the role of Dorothy Dandridge's manager and confidant, Earl Mills, in the HBO production Introducing Dorothy Dandridge.
In 2004, Spiner returned to Star Trek when he appeared as Dr. Arik Soong, an ancestor of Data's creator Dr. Noonien Soong, whom he played, in a three-episode story arc of Star Trek: Enterprise: "Borderland", "Cold Station 12", "The Augments", he briefly reprised the role of Data for the series, providing a voice-only cameo in the Enterprise finale "These Are the Voyages...". Spiner guest-starred in Friends as a man who interviews Rachel for Gucci, cameoed as himself in the Friends spin-off Joey. In 2005, Spiner appeared in a short-lived science-fiction television series Threshold, canceled in November of that year after 13 episodes. In 2006, he appeared in Material Girls, with Hilary and Haylie Duff. During the 10th season of the situation comedy Frasier, in the episode "Lilith Needs a Favor", Spiner made two brief cameos as a fellow airline passenger with Frasier Crane's ex-wife, Lilith Sternin. In March 2008, Spiner performed alongside Maude Maggart in a radio show/musical, released as a CD album.
In 2008, Spiner played Dr. Strom in the feature film parody Superhero Movie
Boomtown (2002 TV series)
Boomtown is an American television action drama series produced by NBC. Created by Graham Yost, the show's title is a nickname for its setting: California; the show portrayed a criminal investigation each week, seen from various points of view: the police officers and detectives, the lawyers, reporters, victims and criminals. Despite the show's innovative style – similar to that of Akira Kurosawa's film Rashomon, except all the perspectives agree – and glowing critical reviews, the show never drew a significant audience; the series premiered on September 29, 2002. The first season order was for 18 episodes instead of the usual 22. After airing 12 episodes with disappointing ratings, NBC CTV moved Boomtown from Sundays to Fridays, putting the show on a two-month hiatus before it returned in March 2003, its first season ended before May sweeps, an important period in determining ratings and thus ad revenue values. Boomtown was renewed for a second season, but to satisfy the network's concerns with low ratings, the producers made some changes.
Most they abandoned the show's unique style. In Season One each story was told in a non-linear fashion, with each character's view adding a new detail. In Season Two, they still would put up people's names as if it followed them but there was not much new information on the mystery, aside from a few flashbacks, the episode's events would run in order. There were changes within the cast as well. Nina Garbiras was let go, as the producers wished to focus more on Law & Order type characters. There was never any mention of her reporter character again. Lana Parrilla's character joined the police academy; the character had been seen as never wanting to be anything but a paramedic after her mother's death. Vanessa L. Williams was billed as a guest star, she played Detective Katherine Pierce, a high-ranking officer who transfers into Bobby and Joel's division. Jason Gedrick and Neal McDonough were absent from one episode each, McDonough was absent from all but the last 20 seconds of the season premiere.
Lana Parrilla was not in three of the six episodes. After airing only two episodes, the series was put on hiatus. NBC broadcast reruns of Order in its place before deciding to cancel the series. Three of the remaining unaired episodes were broadcast on December 27, 2003, the final episode aired on December 28, 2003. In restrospect, the show's creator, Graham Yost said: "Boomtown was in retrospect, better suited for HBO or FX, but at that time, HBO had The Wire, FX had The Shield. So NBC was the only place for it, they embraced the Rashomon structure and were excited by that, but when the ratings weren’t spectacular, what happens is everyone questions everything. “Maybe that’s the problem. Maybe it’s the music. Maybe it’s this. Maybe it’s that, and the doubt becomes corrosive. So when we were lobbying for a second season, we were told straightforwardly that… there was one particular episode toward the end of the first season where Fearless, played by Mykelti Williamson, has to deal with the past of having been molested as a child, we were told, “You can’t do any more episodes like that.”
To this day, I don’t know if, the right decision. I do feel like, one of the best episodes we did. I’m extraordinarily proud of that, but you want to keep going, you want to work with those writers, that crew. You want to take a shot, you’re hoping you will succeed, but we didn’t. So there’s a part of me that regrets the abbreviated second season, but there’s a part of me that’s like, “Eh. We gave it a shot.” Boomtown received several awards and nominations, including Emmy Awards, Golden Satellite Awards, Television Critics Association Awards. Donnie Wahlberg as Los Angeles Police Department Detective II Joel Stevens Neal McDonough as Los Angeles County Assistant District Attorney David McNorris Mykelti Williamson as Los Angeles Police Department Detective II Bobby'Fearless' Smith Gary Basaraba as Los Angeles Police Department Police Officer III Ray Hechler Nina Garbiras as Andrea Little, a reporter Lana Parrilla as Teresa Ortiz, a paramedic in season one, a rookie police officer in season two Jason Gedrick as Los Angeles Police Department Police Officer II Tom Turcotte Megan Ward as Kelly Stevens David Proval as Los Angeles Police Department Detective II Paul Turcotte Dorian Harewood as Los Angeles Police Department Captain Ron Hicks Kelly Rowan as Marian McNorris Erich Anderson as Ben Fisher Kim Murphy as Susan Matt Craven as Dr. Michael Hirsch Rick Gomez as Detective Daniel Ramos Kelly Hu as Rachel Durrel Vanessa L. Williams as Los Angeles Police Department Detective III Katherine Pierce Lionsgate Home Entertainment release Season 1 of Boomtown on DVD in Region 1 on July 20, 2004.
Season 1 was subsequently released in Region 2 as well. Despite strong sales of season one and popular demand on TV-DVD websites, season 2 was never released in the USA or UK; the season two episodes were made available, however, on the French DVD box set Boomtown Complet, which includes a short interview with French film critic Alain Carraze, who offers comments about the show. The DVD's released in the United States contain an optional commentary soundtrack by individuals who were involved in making the show but this is absent from the French and British DVD releases; the Region 1 release is now out of print. Boomtown on IMDb Boomtown at TV.com
Star Trek: The Next Generation
Star Trek: The Next Generation is an American science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. It aired from September 28, 1987 to May 23, 1994 on syndication, spanning 178 episodes over the course of seven seasons; the third series in the Star Trek franchise, it is the second sequel to Star Trek: The Original Series. Set in the 24th century, when Earth is part of a United Federation of Planets, it follows the adventures of a Starfleet starship, the USS Enterprise-D, in its exploration of the Milky Way galaxy. After the cancellation of The Original Series in 1969, the Star Trek franchise had continued with Star Trek: The Animated Series and a series of films, all featuring the original cast. In the 1980s, franchise creator Roddenberry decided to create a new series, featuring a new crew embarking on their mission a century after that of The Original Series; the Next Generation featured a new crew that starred Patrick Stewart as Captain Jean-Luc Picard, Jonathan Frakes as Commander William Riker, Brent Spiner as Lt. Commander Data, Michael Dorn as Lieutenant Worf, LeVar Burton as Lt. Commander Geordi La Forge, Marina Sirtis as counselor Deanna Troi, Gates McFadden as Dr. Beverly Crusher, a new Enterprise.
An introductory statement featured at the beginning of each episode's title sequence stated the ship's purpose in language similar to the opening statement of the original Star Trek series, but was updated to reflect an ongoing mission and to be gender-neutral: Space: the final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise, its continuing mission: to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no one has gone before. Roddenberry, Maurice Hurley, Rick Berman, Michael Piller, Jeri Taylor served as executive producers at various times throughout its production; the show was popular, reaching 12 million viewers in its 5th season, with the series finale in 1994 being watched by over 30 million viewers. TNG premiered the week of September 28, 1987, drawing 27 million viewers, with the two-hour pilot "Encounter at Farpoint". In total, 176 episodes were made, ending with the two-hour finale "All Good Things..." the week of May 23, 1994. The series was broadcast in first-run syndication with dates and times varying among individual television stations.
Several Star Trek series followed The Next Generation: Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager, Star Trek: Enterprise, Star Trek: Discovery. The series formed the basis for the seventh through the tenth of the Star Trek films, is the setting of numerous novels, comic books, video games. In its seventh season, Star Trek: The Next Generation became the first and only syndicated television series to be nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series; the series received a number of accolades, including 19 Emmy Awards, two Hugo Awards, five Saturn Awards, "The Big Goodbye" won a Peabody Award. Some of the highest rated episodes were the pilot, the finale, the two-part "Unification", "Aquiel", "A Matter of Time", "Relics". Four episodes featured actors DeForest Kelley, Mark Lenard, Leonard Nimoy, James Doohan from the original Star Trek reprising their original roles; the Star Trek franchise originated in the late 1960s, with the Star Trek television show which ran from 1966-1969.
Star Trek: The Next Generation would mark the return of Star Trek to live-action broadcast television. As early as 1972, Paramount Pictures started to consider making a Star Trek film because of the show's popularity in syndication. However, with 1977's release of Star Wars, Paramount decided not to compete in the science fiction movie category and shifted their efforts to a new Star Trek television series; the Original Series actors were approached to reprise their roles. By 1986, 20 years after the original Star Trek's debut on NBC, the franchise's longevity amazed Paramount Pictures executives. Chairman Frank Mancuso Sr. and others described it as the studio's "crown jewel", a "priceless asset" that "must not be squandered". The series was the most popular syndicated television program 17 years after cancellation, the Harve Bennett-produced, Original Series-era Star Trek films did well at the box office. William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy's salary demands for the film Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home caused the studio to plan for a new Star Trek television series.
Paramount executives worried that a new series could hurt the demand for the films, but decided that it would increase their appeal on videocassette and cable, that a series with unknown actors would be more profitable than paying the films' actors' large salaries. Roddenberry declined to be involved, but came on board as creator after being unhappy with early conceptual work. Star Trek: The Next Generation was announced on October 10, 1986, its cast in May 1987. Paramount executive Rick Berman was assigned to the series at Roddenberry's request. Roddenberry hired a number of Star Trek veterans, including Bob Justman, D. C. Fontana, Eddie Milkis and David Gerrold. Early proposals for the series included one in which some of the original series cast might appear as "elder statesmen", Roddenberry speculated as late as October 1986 that the new series might not use a spaceship, as "people might travel by some means" 100 years after the USS Enterpris
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden, fifth-largest in the Nordic countries, capital of the Västra Götaland County. It is situated by Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, has a population of 570,000 in the city center and about 1 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Gothenburg was founded as a fortified Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. In addition to the generous privileges given to his Dutch allies from the then-ongoing Thirty Years' War, the king attracted significant numbers of his German and Scottish allies to populate his only town on the western coast. At a key strategic location at the mouth of the Göta älv, where Scandinavia's largest drainage basin enters the sea, the Port of Gothenburg is now the largest port in the Nordic countries. Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927; the original parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city.
Other key companies are Astra Zeneca. Gothenburg is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport 30 km southeast of the city center; the smaller Göteborg City Airport, 15 km from the city center, was closed to regular airline traffic in 2015. The city hosts the Gothia Cup, the world's largest youth football tournament, alongside some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia; the Gothenburg Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film festival with over 155,000 visitors each year. In summer, a wide variety of music festivals are held in the city, including the popular Way Out West Festival; the city was named Göteborg in the city's charter in 1621 and given the German and English name Gothenburg. The Swedish name was given after the Göta älv, called Göta River in English, other cities ending in -borg. Both the Swedish and German/English names were in use before 1621 and had been used for the previous city founded in 1604 and burned down in 1611. Gothenburg is one of few Swedish cities to still have an official and used exonym.
Another example is the province of Scania in southern Sweden. The city council of 1641 consisted of four Swedish, three Dutch, three German, two Scottish members. In Dutch, Scots and German, all languages with a long history in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg is or was used for the city. Variations of the official German/English name Gothenburg in the city's 1621 charter existed or exist in many languages; the French form of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, the Swedish name Göteborg is more frequent. "Gothenburg" can be seen in some older English texts. In Spanish and Portuguese the city is called Gotemburgo; these traditional forms are sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by The Göteborg Opera and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet designated as the Göteborg University in English, changed its name to the University of Gothenburg in 2008; the Gothenburg municipality has reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts.
In 2009, the city council launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name "Göteborg" contains the Swedish letter "ö" the idea was to make the name more international and up to date by "turning" the "ö" sideways; as of 2015, the name is spelled "Go:teborg" on a large number of signs in the city. In the early modern period, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg strategically critical as the only Swedish gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic, situated on the west coast in a narrow strip of Swedish territory between Danish Halland in the south and Norwegian Bohuslän in the north. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus; the site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Danish invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the Älvsborg Bridge in the Färjenäs Park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611; the city was influenced by the Dutch and Scots, Dutch planners and engineers were contracted to construct the city as they had the skills needed to drain and build in the marshy areas chosen for the city.
The town was designed like Dutch cities such as Amsterdam and New Amsterdam. The planning of the streets and canals of Gothenburg resembled that of Jakarta, built by the Dutch around the same time; the Dutchmen won political power, it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg. During the Dutch period, the town followed Dutch town laws and Dutch was proposed as the official language in the town. Robust city walls were built during the 17th century. In 1807, a decision was made to tear down most of the city's wall; the work started in 1810, was carried out by 150 soldiers from the Bohus regiment. Along with the Dutch, the town was influenced by Scots who settled down in Gothenburg. Many became people of high-profile. William Chalmers, the son of a Scottish immigrant, donated his fortunes to set up what became the Chalmers University of Technology. In 1841, the Scotsman Alexander Keiller founded the Götaverken shipbuilding company, in business until 1989.
His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906. The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield w