German National Library
The German National Library is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany. Its task is to collect, permanently archive, comprehensively document and record bibliographically all German and German-language publications since 1913, foreign publications about Germany, translations of German works, the works of German-speaking emigrants published abroad between 1933 and 1945, to make them available to the public; the German National Library maintains co-operative external relations on a national and international level. For example, it is the leading partner in developing and maintaining bibliographic rules and standards in Germany and plays a significant role in the development of international library standards; the cooperation with publishers has been regulated by law since 1935 for the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and since 1969 for the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt. Duties are shared between the facilities in Leipzig and Frankfurt, with each center focusing its work in specific specialty areas.
A third facility has been the Deutsches Musikarchiv Berlin, which deals with all music-related archiving. Since 2010 the Deutsches Musikarchiv is located in Leipzig as an integral part of the facility there. During the German revolutions of 1848 various booksellers and publishers offered their works to the Frankfurt Parliament for a parliamentary library; the library, led by Johann Heinrich Plath, was termed the Reichsbibliothek. After the failure of the revolution the library was abandoned and the stock of books in existence was stored at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. In 1912, the town of Leipzig, seat of the annual Leipzig Book Fair, the Kingdom of Saxony and the Börsenverein der Deutschen Buchhändler agreed to found a German National Library in Leipzig. Starting January 1, 1913, all publications in German were systematically collected. In the same year, Dr. Gustav Wahl was elected as the first director. In 1946 Dr. Georg Kurt Schauer, Heinrich Cobet, Vittorio Klostermann and Professor Hanns Wilhelm Eppelsheimer, director of the Frankfurt University Library, initiated the re-establishment of a German archive library based in Frankfurt.
The Federal state representatives of the book trade in the American zone agreed to the proposal. The city of Frankfurt agreed to support the planned archive library with personnel and financial resources; the US military government gave its approval. The Library began its work in the tobacco room of the former Rothschild library, which served the bombed university library as accommodation; as a result, there were two libraries in Germany, which assumed the duties and function of a national library for the GDR and the Federal Republic of Germany, respectively. Two national bibliographic catalogues identical in content were published annually. With the reunification of Germany on 3 October 1990, the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main were merged into a new institution, The German Library; the "Law regarding the German National Library" came into force on 29 June 2006. The expansion of the collection brief to include online publications set the course for collecting and storing such publications as part of Germany's cultural heritage.
The Library's highest management body, the Administrative Council, was expanded to include two MPs from the Bundestag. The law changed the name of the library and its buildings in Leipzig, Frankfurt am Main and Berlin to "Deutsche Nationalbibliothek". In July 2000, the DMA assumed the role as repository for GEMA, Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte, a German music copyright organization. Since music publishers only have to submit copies to DMA, which covers both national archiving and copyright registration; the 210,000 works of printed music held by GEMA were transferred to DMA. One of the special activities of the German National Library involves the collection and processing of printed and non-printed documents of German-speaking emigrants and exiles during the period from 1933 to 1945; the German National Library maintains two exile collections: the Collection of Exile Literature 1933–1945 of the German National Library in Leipzig and the German Exile Archive 1933–1945 of the German National Library in Frankfurt am Main.
Both collections contain printed works written or published abroad by German-speaking emigrants as well as leaflets and other materials produced or in part by German-speaking exiles. In 1998 the German National Library and the German Research Foundation began a publicly funded project to digitise the “Jewish Periodicals in Nazi Germany” collection of 30,000 pages, which were published between 1933 and 1943. Additionally included in the project were 30 German-language emigrant publications "German-language exile journals 1933–1945", consisting of around 100,000 pages; these collections were put online in 2004 and were some of the most visited sites of the German National Library. In June 2012 the German National Library discontinued access to both collections on its website for legal reasons; the digitised versions are since available for use in the reading rooms of the German National Library in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main only, which caused harsh criticism. The German National Library cited concerns over copyright as the reason, claiming that although the Library and the German Research Foundation had permission from the owners of the publication to put them online, the owners
Führer is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide". As a political title it is associated with the Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler. Nazi Germany cultivated the Führerprinzip, Hitler was known as just der Führer; the word Führer in the sense of "guide" remains common in German, it is used in numerous compound words such as Oppositionsführer. However, because of its strong association with Hitler, the isolated word has negative connotations when used with the meaning of "leader" in political contexts; the word Führer has cognates in the Scandinavian languages, spelled fører in Danish and Norwegian which have the same meaning and use as the German word, but without having political connotations. Führer was the title demanded by Adolf Hitler to denote his function as the head of the Nazi Party. Drexler and the party's Executive Committee acquiesced to Hitler's demand to be made the chairman of the party with "dictatorial powers" as the condition for his return, it was common at the time to refer to leaders of all sorts, including those of political parties, as Führer.
Hitler's adoption of the title was inspired by its earlier use by the Austrian Georg von Schönerer, a major exponent of pan-Germanism and German nationalism in Austria, whose followers referred to him as the Führer, who used the Roman salute – where the right arm and hand are held rigidly outstretched – which they called the "German greeting". According to historian Richard J. Evans, this use of "Führer" by Schönerer's Pan-German Association introduced the term to the German far right, but its specific adoption by the Nazis may have been influenced by the use in Italy of "Duce" meaning "leader", as an informal title for Benito Mussolini, the Fascist Prime Minister, dictator, of that country. After Hitler's appointment as Reichskanzler the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act which allowed Hitler's cabinet to promulgate laws by decree. One day before the death of Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg and his cabinet decreed a law that merged the office of the president with that of Chancellor, so that Hitler became Führer and Reichskanzler – although Reichskanzler was dropped.
Hitler therefore assumed the President's powers without assuming the office itself – ostensibly out of respect for Hindenburg's achievements as a heroic figure in World War I. Though this law was in breach of the Enabling Act, which precluded any laws concerning the Presidential office, it was approved by a referendum on 19 August. Hitler saw himself as the sole source of power in Germany, similar to the Roman emperors and German medieval leaders, he used the title Führer und Reichskanzler, highlighting the positions he held in party and government, though in popular reception, the element Führer was understood not just in reference to the Nazi Party, but in reference to the German people and the German state. Soldiers had to swear allegiance to Hitler as "Führer des deutschen Reiches und Volkes"; the title was changed on 28 July 1942 to "Führer des Großdeutschen Reiches". In his political testament, Hitler referred to himself as Führer der Nation. One of the Nazis' most-repeated political slogans was Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer – "One People, One Empire, One Leader".
Bendersky says the slogan "left an indelible mark on the minds of most Germans who lived through the Nazi years. It appeared in publications; the slogan emphasized the absolute control of the party over every sector of German society and culture – with the churches being the most notable exception. Hitler's word was absolute, but he had a narrow range of interest – involving diplomacy and the military – and so his subordinates interpreted his will to fit their own interests. According to the Constitution of Weimar, the President was Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. Unlike "President", Hitler did take this title for himself; when conscription was reintroduced in 1935, Hitler created the title of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, a post held by the Minister for War. He retained the title of Supreme Commander for himself. Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg the Minister of War and one of those who created the Hitler oath, or the personal oath of loyalty of the military to Hitler, became the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces while Hitler remained Supreme Commander.
Following the Blomberg–Fritsch Affair in 1938, Hitler assumed the commander-in-chief's post as well and took personal command of the armed forces. However, he continued using the older formally higher title of Supreme Commander, thus filled with a somewhat new meaning. Combining it with "Führer", he used the style Führer und Oberster Befehlshaber der Wehrmacht, yet a simple "Führer" since May 1942. An additional title was adopted by Hitler on 23 June 1941 when he declared himself the "Germanic Führer", in addition to his duties as Führer of the German state and people; this was done to emphasize Hitler's professed leadership of what the Nazis described as the "Nordic-Germanic master race", considered to include peoples such as the Norwegians, Swedes and others i
Sachsenhausen concentration camp
Sachsenhausen or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, used for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945. After World War II, when Oranienburg was in the Soviet Occupation Zone, the structure was used as an NKVD special camp until 1950; the camp ground with the remaining buildings is now open to the public as a museum. The camp was established in 1936, it was located 35 kilometres north of Berlin, which gave it a primary position among the German concentration camps: the administrative centre of all concentration camps was located in Oranienburg, Sachsenhausen became a training centre for Schutzstaffel officers. Executions took place at Sachsenhausen of Soviet prisoners of war. During the earlier stages of the camp's existence the executions were done in a trench, either by shooting or by hanging. A large task force of prisoners was used from the camp to work in nearby brickworks to meet Albert Speer's vision of rebuilding Berlin.
Sachsenhausen was not intended as an extermination camp—instead, the systematic murder was conducted in camps to the east. In 1942 large numbers of Jewish inmates were relocated to Auschwitz; however the construction of a gas chamber and ovens by camp-commandant Anton Kaindl in March 1943 in the so-called Industriehof facilitated the means to kill larger numbers of prisoners. Another option was the genickschussbaracke or neck-shooting barrack where unsuspecting victims being measured for their height and weight were shot in the back of the neck through a sliding door located behind the neck; the Main gate or Guard Tower "A", with its 8mm Maxim machine gun, the type used by the Germans in the trenches of World War I, housed the offices of the camp administration. On the front entrance gates to Sachsenhausen is the infamous slogan Arbeit Macht Frei. About 200,000 people passed through Sachsenhausen between 1936 and 1945. Anchoring the base of the triangular shaped thousand-acre site was the large Appellplatz, where tens of thousands of prisoners would line up for morning and evening roll call.
Creating a semi circular configuration, were the barracks of custody zone I which fanned out from the base of the Appellplatz. Sachsenhausen was intended to set a standard for other concentration camps, both in its design and the treatment of prisoners; the camp perimeter is an equilateral triangle with a semi circular roll call area centered on the main entrance gate in the boundary running northeast to southwest. Barrack huts lie beyond the roll call area; the layout was intended to allow the machine gun post in the entrance gate to dominate the camp but in practice it was necessary to add additional watchtowers to the perimeter. The standard barrack layout was to have a central washing area and a separate room with toilet bowls and a right and left wing for overcrowded sleeping rooms. There was an infirmary inside the southern angle of the perimeter and a camp prison within the eastern angle. There was a camp kitchen and a camp laundry; the camp's capacity became inadequate and the camp was extended in 1938 by a new rectangular area northeast of the entrance gate and the perimeter wall was altered to enclose it.
There was an additional area outside the main camp perimeter to the north. Template:KL by Nikolaus Wachsmann ISBN 978-1-4087-0774-6 The camp was secure and there were few successful escapes; the perimeter consisted of a 3-metre-high stone wall on the outside. Within that there was a space, patrolled by guards and dogs. Any prisoner venturing onto the "death strip" would be shot by the guards without warning. Officers would force prisoners to cross this strip at gun point and threaten to kill the prisoner if they did not cross, in the end the prisoner would cross the death strip and get killed anyway. Rewards such as extra leave were offered to guards who shot and killed any prisoner who entered onto the death zone. Sachsenhausen was the site of Operation Bernhard, one of the largest currency counterfeiting operations recorded; the Germans forced inmate artisans to produce forged American and British currency, as part of a plan to undermine the British and American economies, courtesy of Sicherheitsdienst chief Reinhard Heydrich.
Over one billion pounds in counterfeit banknotes were recovered. The Germans introduced fake British £5, £10, £20 and £50 notes into circulation in 1943: the Bank of England never found them. Plans had been made to drop British pounds over London by plane. Today, these notes are considered valuable by collectors. An industrial area, outside the western camp perimeter, contained SS workshops in which prisoners were forced to work. Heinkel, the aircraft manufacturer, was a major user of Sachsenhausen labour, using between 6,000 and 8,000 prisoners on their He 177 bomber. Although official German reports claimed the prisoners were "working without fault", some of these aircraft crashed unexpectedly around Stalingrad and it is suspected that prisoners had sabotaged them. Other firms included Siemens. Prisoners worked in a brick factory, which some say was supposed to supply the building blocks for Hitler's dream city, Welthauptstadt Germania, to be the capital of the world once the Nazis took over
The Geheime Staatspolizei, abbreviated Gestapo, was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe. The force was created by Hermann Göring in 1933 by combining the various security police agencies of Prussia into one organisation. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it passed to the administration of Schutzstaffel national leader Heinrich Himmler, who in 1936 was appointed Chief of German Police by Hitler; the Gestapo at this time became a national rather than a Prussian state agency as a suboffice of the Sicherheitspolizei. From 27 September 1939 forward, it was administered by the Reichssicherheitshauptamt, it became known as Amt 4 of the RSHA and was considered a sister organisation to the Sicherheitsdienst. During World War II, the Gestapo played a key role in the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews of Europe; as part of the agreement in which Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, Hermann Göring—future commander of the Luftwaffe and the number two man in the Nazi Party—was named Interior Minister of Prussia.
This gave Göring command of the largest police force in Germany. Soon afterward, Göring detached the political and intelligence sections from the police and filled their ranks with Nazis. On 26 April 1933, Göring merged the two units as the Geheime Staatspolizei, abbreviated by a post office clerk for a franking stamp and became known as the "Gestapo", he wanted to name it the Secret Police Office, but the German initials, "GPA", were too similar to those of the Soviet Gosudarstvennoye Politicheskoye Upravlenie or "State Political Directorate", known as the GPU. The first commander of the Gestapo was a protégé of Göring. Diels was appointed with the title of chief of Abteilung Ia of the Political Police of the Prussian Interior Ministry. Diels was best known as the primary interrogator of Marinus van der Lubbe after the Reichstag fire. In late 1933, the Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick wanted to integrate all the police forces of the German states under his control. Göring outflanked him by removing the Prussian political and intelligence departments from the state interior ministry.
Göring took over the Gestapo in 1934 and urged Hitler to extend the agency's authority throughout Germany. This represented a radical departure from German tradition, which held that law enforcement was a Land and local matter. In this, he ran into conflict with Heinrich Himmler, police chief of the second most powerful German state, Bavaria. Frick did not have the political power to take on Göring by himself. With Frick's support, Himmler took over the political police of state after state. Soon only Prussia was left. Concerned that Diels was not ruthless enough to counteract the power of the Sturmabteilung, Göring handed over control of the Gestapo to Himmler on 20 April 1934. On that date, Hitler appointed Himmler chief of all German police outside Prussia. Heydrich, named chief of the Gestapo by Himmler on 22 April 1934 continued as head of the SS Security Service. Himmler and Heydrich both began installing their own personnel in select positions, several of whom were directly from the Bavarian Political Police, such as Heinrich Müller, Franz Josef Huber and Josef Meisinger.
Many of the Gestapo employees in the newly established offices were young and educated in a wide-variety of academic fields and moreover, represented a new generation of National Socialist adherents, who were hard-working and prepared to carry the Nazi state forward through the persecution of their political opponents. By the spring of 1934 Himmler's SS controlled the SD and the Gestapo, but for him, there was still a problem, as technically the SS was subordinated to the SA, under the command of Ernst Röhm. Himmler wanted to free himself from Röhm, whom he viewed as an obstacle. Röhm's position was menacing as more than 4.5 million men fell under his command once the militias and veterans organisations were absorbed by the SA, a fact which fuelled Röhm's aspirations. Several Nazi chieftains, among them Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Rudolf Hess, Himmler, began a concerted campaign to convince Hitler to take action against Röhm. Both the SD and Gestapo released information concerning an imminent putsch by the SA.
Once persuaded, Hitler acted by setting Himmler's SS into action, who proceeded to murder over 100 of Hitler's identified antagonists. The Gestapo supplied the information which implicated the SA and enabled Himmler and Heydrich to emancipate themselves from the organisation. For the Gestapo, the next two years following the Night of the Long Knives, a term describing the putsch against Röhm and the SA, were characterised by "behind-the-scenes political wrangling over policing". On 17 June 1936, Hitler decreed the unification of all police forces in Germany and named Himmler as Chief of German Police; this action merged the police into the SS and removed it from Frick's control. Himmler was nominally subordinate to Frick as police chief, but as Reichsführer-SS, he answered only to Hitler; this move gave Himmler operational control over Germany's entire detective force. The Gestapo became a national state agency. Himmler gained authority over all of Germany's uniformed law enforcement agencies, which were amalgama
Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet. The libretto was written by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based on a novella of the same title by Prosper Mérimée; the opera was first performed by the Opéra-Comique in Paris on 3 March 1875, where its breaking of conventions shocked and scandalized its first audiences. Bizet died after the 33rd performance, unaware that the work would achieve international acclaim within the following ten years. Carmen has since become one of the most popular and performed operas in the classical canon; the opera is written in the genre of opéra comique with musical numbers separated by dialogue. It is set in southern Spain and tells the story of the downfall of Don José, a naïve soldier, seduced by the wiles of the fiery gypsy Carmen. José abandons his childhood sweetheart and deserts from his military duties, yet loses Carmen's love to the glamorous torero Escamillo, after which José kills her in a jealous rage; the depictions of proletarian life and lawlessness, the tragic death of the main character on stage, broke new ground in French opera and were controversial.
After the premiere, most reviews were critical, the French public was indifferent. Carmen gained its reputation through a series of productions outside France, was not revived in Paris until 1883. Thereafter, it acquired popularity at home and abroad. Commentators have asserted that Carmen forms the bridge between the tradition of opéra comique and the realism or verismo that characterised late 19th-century Italian opera; the music of Carmen has since been acclaimed for brilliance of melody, harmony and orchestration, for the skill with which Bizet musically represented the emotions and suffering of his characters. After the composer's death, the score was subject to significant amendment, including the introduction of recitative in place of the original dialogue; the opera has been recorded many times since the first acoustical recording in 1908, the story has been the subject of many screen and stage adaptations. In the Paris of the 1860s, despite being a Prix de Rome laureate, Bizet struggled to get his stage works performed.
The capital's two main state-funded opera houses—the Opéra and the Opéra-Comique—followed conservative repertoires that restricted opportunities for young native talent. Bizet's professional relationship with Léon Carvalho, manager of the independent Théâtre Lyrique company, enabled him to bring to the stage two full-scale operas, Les pêcheurs de perles and La jolie fille de Perth, but neither enjoyed much public success; when artistic life in Paris resumed after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, Bizet found wider opportunities for the performance of his works. Although this failed and was withdrawn after 11 performances, it led to a further commission from the theatre, this time for a full-length opera for which Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy would provide the libretto. Halévy, who had written the text for Bizet's student opera Le docteur Miracle, was a cousin of Bizet's wife, Geneviève. Bizet was delighted with the Opéra-Comique commission, expressed to his friend Edmund Galabert his satisfaction in "the absolute certainty of having found my path".
The subject of the projected work was a matter of discussion between composer and the Opéra-Comique management. It was Bizet. Mérimée's story is a blend of travelogue and adventure yarn inspired by the writer's lengthy travels in Spain in 1830, had been published in 1845 in the journal Revue des deux Mondes, it may have been influenced in part by Alexander Pushkin's 1824 poem "The Gypsies", a work Mérimée had translated into French. Bizet may first have encountered the story during his Rome sojourn of 1858–60, since his journals record Mérimée as one of the writers whose works he absorbed in those years. Cast details are as provided by Mina Curtiss from vocal score; the stage designs are credited to Charles Ponchard. Place: Seville and surrounding hills Time: Around 1820 A square, in Seville. On the right, a door to the tobacco factory. At the back, a bridge. On the left, a guardhouse. A group of soldiers relaxes in the square, waiting for the changing of the guard and commenting on the passers-by.
Micaëla appears, seeking José. Moralès tells her that "José invites her to wait with them, she declines. José arrives with the new guard, greeted and imitated by a crowd of urchins; as the factory bell rings, the cigarette girls emerge and exchange banter with young men in the crowd. Carmen sings her provocative habanera on the untameable nature of love; the men plead with her to choose a lover, after some teasing she throws a flower to Don José, who thus far has been ignoring her but is now annoyed by her insolence. As the women go back to t
Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939, he was involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust. Hitler was raised near Linz, he moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party, the precursor of the NSDAP, was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he was imprisoned. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf. After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda, he denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.
By July 1932 the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France, his first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.
Hitler sought Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe, his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and, on 1 September 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In December 1941, shortly after Japan attacked Pearl Harbour, Hitler declared war on the United States, bringing it directly into the conflict. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun. Less than two days on 30 April 1945, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army. Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims who he and his followers deemed Untermenschen or undesirable.
Hitler and the Nazi regime were responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 28.7 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during World War II was unprecedented in warfare, the casualties constitute the deadliest conflict in history. Hitler's father Alois; the baptismal register did not show the name of his father, Alois bore his mother's surname Schicklgruber. In 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Alois's mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. In 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Alois's father. Alois assumed the surname "Hitler" spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, or Huettler; the name is based on "one who lives in a hut". Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz, that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois.
No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a town in Austria-Hungary, close to the border with the German Empire, he was christened as "Adolphus Hitler". He was the fourth of six children born to his third wife, Klara Pölzl. Three of Hitler's siblings—Gustav and Otto—died in infancy. Living in the household were Alois's children from his second marriage: Alois Jr. and Angela. When Hitler was three, the family moved to Germany. There he acquired the distinctive lower Bavarian dialect, rather than Austrian German, which marked his speech throughout his life; the family returned to Austria and settled in Leonding in 1894, in June 1895 Alois retired to Hafeld, near Lambach, where he farmed and kept bees. Hitler attended Volksschule (a state-owned primary schoo
Roland Freisler was a jurist and judge of Nazi Germany. He was State Secretary of the Reich Ministry of Justice, President of the People's Court, he was an attendee at the Wannsee Conference in 1942, which set in motion the Holocaust. Roland Freisler was born in Celle, Lower Saxony, on 30 October 1893, he was the son of Julius Freisler, an engineer and teacher, Charlotte Auguste Florentine Schwerdtfeger. He was baptised as a Protestant on 13 December 1893, he had Oswald. In 1914 he was at law school. Freisler saw active service during World War I, he enlisted as an officer cadet in 1914 with the Ober-Elsässisches Infanterie-Regiment Nr.167 in Kassel, by 1915 he was a lieutenant. Whilst in the front-line with the German Imperial Army's 22nd Division he was awarded the Iron Cross both 2nd and 1st Class for heroism in action. In October 1915 he was wounded in action on the Eastern Front and taken prisoner of war by Russian forces. Whilst a prisoner Freisler learned to speak Russian, developed an interest in Marxism after the Russian Revolution had commenced.
The Bolshevik provisional authority which took over responsibility for Freisler's prisoner of war camp made use of him as a'Commissar' administratively organising the camp's food supplies in 1917-1918. It is possible that after the Russian prisoner of war camps were emptying in 1918, with their internees being repatriated to Germany after the Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers had been signed, Freisler for a brief period became attached in some way to the Red Guards, though this is not supported by any known documentary evidence. Another possibility is that after the Russian Revolution the description "Commissar" was an administrative title given by the Bolshevik authority for anyone employed in an administrative post in the prison camps without the political connotations that the title acquired. However, in the early days of his National Socialist German Workers' Party career in the 1920s, Freisler was a part of the movement's left wing, in the late 1930s he attended the Soviet Moscow Trials to watch the proceedings.
Freisler rejected any insinuation that he had co-operated with the Nazi regime's ideological enemy, but his subsequent career as a political official in Germany was overshadowed by rumours about his time as a "Commissar" with the "Reds". Freisler returned to Germany in 1919 to complete his law studies at the University of Jena, qualified as a Doctor of Law in 1922. From 1924 he worked as a solicitor in Kassel, he was elected a city councillor as a member of the Völkisch-Sozialer Block, an extreme nationalist splinter party. Freisler joined the National Socialist German Workers' Party in July 1925 as Member #9679, gained authority within the organisation by using his legal training to defend members of it who were facing prosecutions for acts of political violence; as the Party transitioned from a fringe political beer-hall and street fighting movement into a political one, Freisler was elected for it to the Prussian Landtag, he became a Member of the Reichstag. In 1927 Karl Weinrich, a Nazi member of the Prussian Landtag along with Freisler, characterised his reputation in the expanding Nazi movement in the late 1920s: "Rhetorically Freisler is equal to our best speakers, if not superior.
Party Comrade Freisler is only usable as a speaker though and is unsuitable for any position of authority because of his unreliablity and moodiness." In February 1933, after Adolf Hitler had seized power over the German state, Freisler was appointed Director of the Prussian Ministry of Justice. He was Secretary of State in the Prussian Ministry of Justice in 1933–1934, in the Reich Ministry of Justice from 1934 to 1942. Freisler's mastery of legal texts, mental agility, dramatic courtroom verbal dexterity and verbal force, in combination with his zealous conversion to National Socialist ideology, made him the most feared judge in Germany during the Third Reich, the personification of Nazism in domestic law. However, despite his talents and loyalty, Adolf Hitler never appointed him to any post beyond the legal system; that might have been because he was a lone figure, lacking support within the senior echelons of the Nazi hierarchy, but he had been politically compromised by his brother, Oswald Freisler a lawyer.
Oswald had acted as a defence counsel against the regime's authority several times during the politically-driven trials by which the Nazis sought to enforce their tyrannical control of German society, he had the habit of wearing his Nazi Party membership badge in court whilst doing so. Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels reproached Oswald Freisler and reported his actions to Adolf Hitler who, in response, ordered Freisler's expulsion from the Party. In 1941 in a discussion at the "Führer Headquarters" about whom to appoint to replace Franz Gürtner, the Reich Justice Minister, who had died, Goebbels suggested Roland Freisler as an option. No!" Freisler was a committed National Socialist ideologist, used his legal skills to adapt its theories into practical law-making and judicature. He published a paper entitled "Die rassebiologische Aufgabe bei der Neugestaltung des Jugendstrafrechts ("The racial-biological task involved