Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
Foreign Affair: The Farewell Tour
Foreign Affair, The Farewell Tour was the fifth concert tour of American singer, Tina Turner. The tour supported her studio album Foreign Affair. The tour was Turners first stadium tour and only reached European countries, the tour drew in nearly three million spectators—breaking the record for a European tour that was previously set by The Rolling Stones. The tour is notable as Turners only tour to not reach North America, since the tour was considered a farewell tour, Turner wanted to exclusively tour Europe to thank her fans for supporting her career after she left The Revue. The tour was advertised as a tour as Turner began to concentrate on potential acting roles. During an interview, Turner stated, Ive always thought this would be the final one, Im the first woman to fill all these stadiums and the feeling from all those fans night after night was fantastic. I dont want to close that door completely, Im going away for about a year and when Im ready to return, I just hope the fans will want whatever I have to offer Turner would return to touring in 1993 with her North American tour, Whats Love.
For concerts in Belgium and Italy, Turner performed Good Times, the concert at Woburn Abbey was filmed and part of which was used in an MTV mini documentary, promoting Turners tour. The intro to this show was used as part of an interview with Turner and it is available on YouTube and the single for the song. There are no copies of the full-length in circulation. The concert at Pallatrussadi, Milan was filmed and was used as part of the MTV film. The concert opened with The best, Turner wore a different outfit to the rest of the shows of the tour for this concert. Although the real professional, multi-camera recording is not in circulation, there is a fan-shot, international Tina Turner Fan Club – Tour – Foreign Affair 1990
Futsal, or futsala, is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors. It can be considered a version of five-a-side football, Futsal is played between two teams of five players each, one of whom is the goalkeeper. Unlike some other forms of football, the game is played on a hard court surface delimited by lines. Futsal is played with a smaller ball, the surface and rules create an emphasis on improvisation and technique as well as ball control and passing in small spaces. Futsal comes from Spanish fútbol sala or fútbol de salón and from Portuguese futebol de salão, the term is commonly translated as indoor football but a more literal translation is hall/lounge football. During the sports world championships held in Madrid in 1985. Since then, all names have been officially and internationally changed to futsal. The naming was due to a dispute between FIFUSA and FIFA over the name of fútbol, FIFUSA has registered the word fut-sal in 1985, since FIFA has started using the term futsal.
The name has been translated into Italian as calcio a 5 or football sala, Futsal started in 1930 when Juan Carlos Ceriani, a teacher in Montevideo, created a version of indoor football for recreation in YMCAs. This new sport was developed for playing on basketball courts. The YMCA spread the game immediately throughout South America and it was easily played by everyone, and in any weather condition, even in winter, without any difficulty, helping players to stay in shape all year round. These reasons convinced João Lotufo, a Brazilian, to bring this game to his country, the rules were not uniform. In 1956, the rules were modified by Habib Maphuz and Luiz Gonzaga de Oliveira Fernandes within the YMCA of São Paulo Brazil to allow seniors to compete, Luiz de Oliveira wrote the Book of Rules of Fuitsal in 1956, adopted at the international level. In 1965 the Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol de Salón was formed, consisting of Uruguay, Peru, shortly after, a unique tournament was organized. It attracted some interest in South American media, which began to follow futsal.
The sport began to spread across South America, and its popularity ensured the formation of a body in São Paulo in 1971. FIFUSA initially comprised Argentina, Brazil, Peru, the new institution counted 32 participating countries and its first President was João Havelange joined by the secretary Luiz Gonzaga de Oliveira. In 1975, the Federation’s chief passed to FIFA, and in 1980, the Federation began to work to bring the big event to Europe
Ice Hockey World Championships
The Ice Hockey World Championships are an annual international mens ice hockey tournament organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation. First officially held at the 1920 Summer Olympics, it is the sports highest profile annual international tournament, the IIHF was created in 1908 while the European Championships, the precursor to the World Championships, were first held in 1910. The tournament held at the 1920 Summer Olympics is recognized as the first Ice Hockey World Championship, between 1920 and 1968, the Olympic hockey tournament was considered the World Championship for that year. The first World Championship that was held as an event was in 1930 in which twelve nations participated. In 1931, ten teams played a series of round-robin format qualifying rounds to determine which nations participated in the medal round, medals were awarded based on the final standings of the teams in the medal round. This basic format would be used until 1992, in 1951, thirteen nations took part and were split into two groups.
The top seven teams played for the World Championship, the other six played for ranking purposes. During a congress in 1990, the IIHF introduced a playoff system, as the IIHF grew, more teams began to participate at the World Championships, so more pools were introduced. The modern format for the World Championship features 16 teams in the group,12 teams in Division I and 12 teams in Division II. If there are more than 40 teams, the rest compete in Division III, the teams in the championship play a preliminary round, the top eight teams play in the playoff medal round and the winning team is crowned World Champion. Over the years, the tournament has gone through several rule changes, in 1969 body-checking in all three zones in a rink was allowed and goaltender masks became mandatory in the early 1970s and in 1992 the IIHF began using the shootout. The current IIHF rules differ slightly from the used in the NHL. The World Championships have been open to all players, both professional and amateur, since 1977, the IIHF requires that players are citizens of the country they represent and allow players to switch national teams provided that they play in their new nation for a certain period of time.
Canada was the tournaments first dominant team, winning the tournament 12 times between 1930 and 1952, the United States, Sweden, Great Britain and Switzerland were competitive during this period. The Soviet Union first participated in 1954 and soon became rivals with Canada, from 1963 until the nations breakup in 1991, the Soviet Union was the dominant team, winning 20 championships. During that period, only three other nations won medals, Canada and Sweden, Russia first participated in 1992 and the Czech Republic and Slovakia began competing in 1993. In the 2000s, the became more open as the Big Six teams – Canada, the Czech Republic, Russia, Sweden. Thus, NHL players generally only participate once their respective team is eliminated from Stanley Cup contention, the 79th World Championship was held in Prague and Ostrava, Czech Republic, and was the most successful to date in terms of overall attendance
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process. It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99. 86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Suns mass consists of hydrogen, the rest is mostly helium, with smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, neon. The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star based on its spectral class and it formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into a disk that became the Solar System. The central mass became so hot and dense that it eventually initiated nuclear fusion in its core and it is thought that almost all stars form by this process.
The Sun is roughly middle-aged, it has not changed dramatically for more than four billion years and it is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large enough to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and probably Earth. The enormous effect of the Sun on Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times, the synodic rotation of Earth and its orbit around the Sun are the basis of the solar calendar, which is the predominant calendar in use today. The English proper name Sun developed from Old English sunne and may be related to south, all Germanic terms for the Sun stem from Proto-Germanic *sunnōn. The English weekday name Sunday stems from Old English and is ultimately a result of a Germanic interpretation of Latin dies solis, the Latin name for the Sun, Sol, is not common in general English language use, the adjectival form is the related word solar. The term sol is used by planetary astronomers to refer to the duration of a solar day on another planet. A mean Earth solar day is approximately 24 hours, whereas a mean Martian sol is 24 hours,39 minutes, and 35.244 seconds.
From at least the 4th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, the Sun was worshipped as the god Ra, portrayed as a falcon-headed divinity surmounted by the solar disk, and surrounded by a serpent. In the New Empire period, the Sun became identified with the dung beetle, in the form of the Sun disc Aten, the Sun had a brief resurgence during the Amarna Period when it again became the preeminent, if not only, divinity for the Pharaoh Akhenaton. The Sun is viewed as a goddess in Germanic paganism, Sól/Sunna, in ancient Roman culture, Sunday was the day of the Sun god. It was adopted as the Sabbath day by Christians who did not have a Jewish background, the symbol of light was a pagan device adopted by Christians, and perhaps the most important one that did not come from Jewish traditions
Guns N' Roses
Guns N Roses is an American hard rock band from Los Angeles formed in 1985. The lineup, when first signed to Geffen Records in 1986, consisted of vocalist Axl Rose, lead guitarist Slash, rhythm guitarist Izzy Stradlin, bassist Duff McKagan, and drummer Steven Adler. The current lineup consists of Rose, Slash, McKagan, keyboardists Dizzy Reed and Melissa Reese, guitarist Richard Fortus, the success of the debut was followed by the eight-song album G N R Lies which reached number two on the Billboard 200. The cover album The Spaghetti Incident. was the bands last studio album to feature Slash and it debuted at number three on the Billboard 200 but undersold industry expectations, despite mostly positive critical reception. Former members Slash and McKagan both rejoined the band in 2016, embarking on the Not in This Lifetime, Guns N Roses has been credited with reviving the mainstream popularity of rock n roll, at a time when popular music was dominated by dance music and glam metal. The bands classic lineup, along with members Reed and drummer Matt Sorum, was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2012, in 1984, Hollywood Rose member Izzy Stradlin was living with L. A.
Guns needed a new vocalist, Stradlin suggested Hollywood Rose singer Axl Rose, Guns N Roses was formed in March 1985 by Rose and rhythm guitarist Stradlin, along with lead guitarist Tracii Guns, bassist Ole Beich, and drummer Rob Gardner of L. A. Guns. The band coined its name by combining the names of both previous groups, rejected names for the band included Heads of Amazon and AIDS. After a short time, during which the band played two or three shows, Beich was fired and replaced by Duff McKagan. Tracii Guns left the band after an argument with Rose leading to his replacement by Rose and Stradlins one-time Hollywood Rose bandmate, Gardner quit soon after and was replaced by another former Hollywood Rose member, Steven Adler. Slash had played with McKagan and Adler in Road Crew. In June 1985, four days after the lineup was finalized, through the bands increasing presence on the Hollywood club scene – playing famed bars such as The Troubadour and The Roxy – Guns N Roses drew the attention of major record labels.
The group was signed by Geffen Records in March 1986, receiving a $75,000 advance. In December of that year, the released the four-song EP Live. *@ Like a Suicide. The EP contained covers of Rose Tattoos Nice Boys and Aerosmiths Mama Kin, although billed as a live recording, the four songs were taken from the bands demo tapes and overdubbed with crowd noise. Live. *@ Like a Suicide was released on the Geffen subsidiary Uzi Suicide, Guns N Roses debut album Appetite for Destruction was released July 21,1987. The band stated the artwork was a symbolic social statement. The revised cover was done by Andy Engell, based on a design by tattoo artist Bill White Jr. who had designed the artwork for a tattoo Rose had acquired the previous year, the artwork featured each of the five band members skulls layered on a cross
Metallica is an American heavy metal band based in San Rafael, California. The band was formed in 1981 in Los Angeles when vocalist/guitarist James Hetfield responded to an advertisement posted by drummer Lars Ulrich in a local newspaper, Metallicas current line-up comprises founding members Hetfield and Ulrich, longtime lead guitarist Kirk Hammett and bassist Robert Trujillo. Guitarist Dave Mustaine and bassists Ron McGovney, Cliff Burton and Jason Newsted are former members of the band, the bands fast tempos and aggressive musicianship placed them as one of the founding big four bands of thrash metal, alongside Anthrax and Slayer. The band expanded its musical direction and achieved commercial success with its eponymous fifth album Metallica. The album was their first to debut at number one on the Billboard 200, in 2000, Metallica joined with other artists who filed a lawsuit against Napster for sharing the bands copyright-protected material without consent from the band. A settlement was reached and Napster became a pay-to-use service, the band returned to its original musical style with the release of Death Magnetic, and in 2009, Metallica was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
Metallica has released ten albums, four live albums, five extended plays,26 music videos. The band has won eight Grammy Awards and six of its albums have debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. The bands eponymous 1991 album has sold over 16 million copies in the United States, Metallica ranks as one of the most commercially successful bands of all time, having sold over 110 million records worldwide. Metallica has been listed as one of the greatest artists of all time by many magazines, including Rolling Stone, in 2012, Metallica formed the independent record label Blackened Recordings and took full ownership of its albums and videos. The band is currently promoting Hardwired. to Self-Destruct, which was released on November 18,2016, guitarists James Hetfield and Hugh Tanner of Leather Charm answered the advertisement. Although he had not formed a band, Ulrich asked Metal Blade Records founder Brian Slagel if he could record a song for the upcoming compilation album Metal Massacre. Slagel accepted and Ulrich recruited Hetfield to sing and play rhythm guitar, the band was officially formed in October 1981, five months after Ulrich and Hetfield first met.
Ulrich talked to his friend Ron Quintana, who was brainstorming names for a fanzine, Quintana had proposed the names MetalMania and Metallica. A second advertisement was placed in The Recycler for a position as lead guitarist, Dave Mustaine answered and Hetfield recruited him after seeing his expensive guitar equipment. In early 1982, Metallica recorded its first original song Hit the Lights for the Metal Massacre I compilation, Hetfield played bass on the song and Lloyd Grant was credited with a guitar solo. Metal Massacre I was released on June 14,1982, early pressings listed the band incorrectly as Mettallica, the bands first taste of live success came early, they were chosen to open for British heavy metal band Saxon at one gig of their 1982 US tour. Metallica recorded its first demo, Power Metal, an inspired by Quintanas early business cards in early 1982
For properties like a multi-purpose arena, performing arts venue or an athletic field, the term ranges from three to 20 years. Longer terms are common for higher profile venues such as a professional sports facility. The distinctive characteristic for this type of naming rights is that the buyer gets a marketing property to promote products and services, there are several forms of corporate sponsored names. A presenting sponsor attaches the name of the corporation or brand at the end of a generic, usually traditional, a title sponsor replaces the original name of the property with a corporate-sponsored one, with no reference to the previous name. In a few cases, naming rights contracts have been terminated prematurely, such terminations may be the result of contractual options, sponsor bankruptcy, or scandals. Stadium naming may have shifted in recent years to promoting corporate trade names, the record for the highest amount paid for naming rights belongs to Citi Field and Barclays Center, both located in New York City, US.
Each garnered deals of $20 million per year for at least 20 years and it ultimately fell short of that benchmark, with MetLife Stadium earning $17 million annually from its naming rights deal with MetLife. Naming rights in United States may have traced back to 1912 with the opening of Fenway Park in Boston. The stadiums owner had owned a realty company called Fenway Realty, despite this, it is more widely believed to have begun in 1926 when William Wrigley, the chewing gum magnate and owner of the Chicago Cubs, named his teams stadium Wrigley Field. In 1953, Anheuser-Busch head and St. Louis Cardinals owner August Busch, Jr. proposed renaming Sportsmans Park, occupied by the Cardinals, Budweiser Stadium. When this idea was rejected by Ford Frick, the Commissioner of Baseball at that time, the name was readily approved, and Anheuser-Busch subsequently released a new product called Busch Bavarian Beer. The name would be shifted to the Busch Memorial Stadium in 1966, shortened in the 1970s to Busch Stadium, the public reaction to this practice is mixed.
Selling the naming rights to a venue has been notably less successful. The general public continued to call the facility what it had known as for over three decades–i. e. After the agreement with 3Com expired, the rights were resold to Monster Cable, the initiative proved largely ceremonial, and it was overturned by the passage of Proposition C in 2009 in response to desperate economic times. The naming rights to the park were never resold and the closed in 2014. Sports stadiums with naming rights deals are not limited to the United States, in cricket, the most famous example is The Oval, home of Surrey County Cricket Club. It has had several sponsors over the years, and is known as The Kia Oval, having originally been known as the Kennington Oval
The city is spread across 14 islands on the coast in the southeast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago and the Baltic Sea. The area has settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC. It is the capital of Stockholm County, Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the countrys GDP and it is an important global city, and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region. The city is home to some of Europes top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and it hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the citys most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited museum in Scandinavia. The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is known for its decoration of the stations. Swedens national football arena is located north of the city centre, Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city.
The city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, and hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, and the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister. The government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, and the Prime Ministers residence is adjacent at the Sager House. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BCE, there were already a number of people living in the present-day Stockholm area. Thousands of years later, as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable, at the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings. They had a positive impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholms location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne, the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade.
The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification, the second part of the name means islet, and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. Stockholms core, the present Old Town was built on the island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid 13th century onward. The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League, Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time