The Tripartite class is a class of mine warfare vessel used by the navies of Belgium and the Netherlands, as well as Pakistan, Indonesia and Bulgaria. A joint venture of the navies of France and the Netherlands, the Tripartite class of minehunters were conceived in the 1970s and built in the 1980s. France built the mine-hunting equipment, Belgium provided the electronics, the Netherlands constructed the propulsion train. France and the Netherlands bought 15, with Belgium buying 10. All three countries' Tripartite ships contribute at times to NATO's Standing Maritime MCM capability groups. A total of 45 ships have been produced in the tripartite-class, below is a breakdown of how many ships each country has acquired. M641 Éridan M642 Cassiopée M643 Andromède M644 Pégase M645 Orion M646 Croix du Sud M647 L'Aigle M648 Lyre M649 Persée M650 Sagittaire: Sold to Pakistan in 1992, where she serves as Munsif. Another Éridan-class minehunter, built in 1993 and launched in 1995, is now commissioned in the French Navy as Sagittaire with hull number M650.
M651 Verseau M652 Céphée M653 Capricorne M650 Sagittaire Replacement for the Sagittaire of 1989 sold to Pakistan. 10 ships were built for the Belgian navy. All remaining Belgian vessels have undergone an extensive upgrade during 2004–2008 involving replacement of the anti-mine warfare equipment. Called "CMT" for Chasseur de Mines Tripartite, all are named after flowers and are thus sometimes called the "Flower" class in international literature. In service: Aster Bellis Crocus Lobelia Narcis Primula Formerly: M920 Iris, M919 Fuchsia and M918 Dianthus were sold to France and M922 Myosotis was sold to Bulgaria Tsibar (former Belgian Navy Myosotis 711 Pulau Rengat 712 Pulau Rupat M-04 Imanta M-05 Viesturs M-06 Talivaldis M-07 Visvaldis M-08 Rusins M850 Alkmaar M851 Delfzijl M852 Dordrecht M853 Haarlem M854 Harlingen M855 Scheveningen M856 Maasluis M857 Makkum M858 Middelburg M859 Hellevoetsluis M860 Schiedam M861 Urk M862 Zierikzee M863 Vlaardingen M864 Willemstad M166 Munsif M163 Muhafiz M164 Mujahid The Netherlands and Belgium are doing a joint procurement for the replacements of the Tripartite-class/Alkmaar-class minehunters.
Both countries want to procure six new mine countermeasure vessels, which makes for a total of 12 MCM ships. The New MCM ships will include a range of unmanned systems including unmanned surface and underwater vehicles alongside towed sonars and mine identification and neutralization ROVs. Belgium gave the green-light to start the procurement on 26 January 2018 and approved a budget of 1.1 billion euros for the six Belgian MCM ships. The ships will replace besides the Tripartite-class minehunters the Belgian logistical support ship Godetia; the Franco-Belgium consortium made up of French shipbuilders STX France and Socarenam together with Belgium's EDR are bidding for the 12 new MCM vessels. Their plan includes the construction of MCM vessels named Sea Naval Solutions and a multi-role frigate named Deviceseas, which will serve as mothership to the MCM vessels. All ships will have a strong focus on autonomous systems operations. France's Naval Group and ECA Group established Belgian subsidiary Naval & Robotics and bid for the program.
Imtech Belgium and Damen Group bid for the program. On 15 March 2019, the team led by Naval Group was selected to produce the 12 new vessels. Minehunter classes in service Photos of Tripartites from NATO exercise Belgian navy page with technical specifications Dutch navy page about mine hunters including a page on Alkmaar class World Navies – list of ships in each navy
The Po is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy. The Po flows either 682 km -- considering the length of the Maira, a right bank tributary; the headwaters of the Po are a spring seeping from a stony hillside at Pian del Re, a flat place at the head of the Val Po under the northwest face of Monviso. The Po ends at a delta projecting into the Adriatic Sea near Venice, it has a drainage area of 74,000 km² in all, 70,000 in Italy, of which 41,000 is in montane environments and 29,000 on the plain. The Po is the longest river in Italy; the Po extends along the 45th parallel north. The river flows through many important Italian cities, including Turin and Ferrara, it is connected to Milan through a net of channels called navigli, which Leonardo da Vinci helped design. Near the end of its course, it creates a wide delta at the southern part of, Comacchio, an area famous for eels; the Po valley was the territory of the Roman Cisalpine Gaul, divided into Cispadane Gaul and Transpadane Gaul. The Po begins in the Alps, is in Italy, flows eastward.
The river is subject to heavy flooding. Over half its length is controlled with argini, or dikes; the slope of the valley decreases from 0.35 % in the west to 0.14 % in a low gradient. There are 450 standing lakes, it is characterized by its large discharge. The vast valley around the Po is called the Po Po Valley. In 2002, more than 16 million people lived there, at the time nearly ⅓ of the population of Italy; the two main economic uses of the valley are for agriculture, both major uses. The industrial centres, such as Turin and Milan, are located on higher terrain, away from the river, they rely for power on the numerous hydroelectric stations in or on the flanks of the Alps, on the coal/oil power stations which use the water of the Po basin as coolant. Drainage from the north is mediated through several scenic lakes; the streams are now controlled by so many dams as to slow the river's sedimentation rate, causing geologic problems. The expansive and fertile flood plain is reserved for agriculture and is subject to flash floods though the overall quantity of water is lower than in the past and lower than demand.
The main products of the farms around the river are cereals including – unusually for Europe – rice, which requires heavy irrigation. The latter method is the chief consumer of surface water, while industrial and human consumption use underground water; the Po Delta wetlands have been protected by the institution of two regional parks in the regions in which it is situated: Veneto and Emilia-Romagna. The Po Delta Regional Park in Emilia-Romagna, the largest, consists of four parcels of land on the right bank of the Po and to the south. Created by law in 1988, it is managed by a consortium, the Consorzio per la gestione de Parco, to which Ferrara and Ravenna provinces belong as well as nine comuni: Comacchio, Ostellato, Mesola, Ravenna and Cervia. Executive authority resides in an assembly of the presidents of the provinces, the mayors of the comuni and the board of directors, they employ a Park Council to carry out directives. In 1999 the park was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO and was added to "Ferrara, City of the Renaissance, its Po Delta."
The 53,653 ha of the park contain wetlands, forest and salt pans. It has a high biodiversity, with 1000–1100 plant species and 374 vertebrate species, of which 300 are birds; the most recent part of the delta, which projects into the Adriatic between Chioggia and Comacchio, contains channels that connect to the Adriatic and on that account is called the active delta by the park authorities, as opposed to the fossil delta, which contains channels that no longer connect the Po to the Adriatic. The active delta was created in 1604 when the city of Venice diverted the main stream, the Po grande or Po di Venezia, from its channel north of Porto Viro to the south of Porto Viro in a channel called the Taglio di Porto Viro, "Porto Viro cut-off", their intent was to stop the gradual migration of the Po toward the lagoon of Venice, which would have filled up with sediment had contact been made. The subsequent town of Taglio di Po grew around the diversionary works; the lock of Volta Grimana blocked the old channel, now the Po di Levante, which flows to the Adriatic through Porto Levante.
Below Taglio di Po the Parco Regionale Veneto, one of the tracts under the authority of the Parco Delta del Po, contains the latest branches of the Po. The Po di Gnocca branches to the south followed by the Po di Maestra to the north at Porto Tolle. At Tolle downstream the Po di Venezia divides into the Po delle Tolle to the south and the Po della Pila to the north; the former exits at Bonelli. The latter divides again at Pila into the Busa di Tramontana to the north and the Busa di Scirocco to the south, while the mainstream, the Busa Dritta, enters Punta Maistra and exits past Pila lighthouse. Despite the park administration's definition of the active delta as beginning at Porto Viro, there is another active channel upstream from it at Santa Maria in Punta, where the Fiume Po d
Eridanos was the small stream that flowed from a source in the foothills of the Lykabettos, through the Agora of ancient Athens in Greece to the archaeological site of the Kerameikos, where its bed is still visible. In this area lives a population of Greek Tortoise, its course has been for the most part covered since ancient times, was only visible outside the ancient walls in the district of Kerameikos. The river was rediscovered during the excavations for the Athens Metro subway in the late 1990s, its waters caused considerable technical problems at times; because of the Metro works, its seasonal flow through the Kerameikos cemetery was disrupted, as the waters were and inadvertently redirected to some new underground path. As of April 2007, the stream of the river, as it flows through Monastiraki Square, has been excavated, it had been covered with a brickwork tunnel since classical times, the brickwork had been repaired at least twice, in the imperial Roman and early Byzantine eras. The brick tunnel now forms part of a small open-air museum at Monastiraki Square, next to the Metro station, the waters of the Eridanos are from inside the tunnel.
Eridanos, the river of ancient Athens: Archaeological guide. ISBN 960-214-293-6.37.9782°N 23.7182°E / 37.9782.
Eridanus is a constellation in the southern hemisphere. It is represented as a river, it was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, it remains one of the 88 modern constellations. It is the sixth largest of the modern constellations; the same name was taken as a Latin name for the real Po River and for the name of a minor river in Athens. At its southern end is the magnitude 0.5 star Achernar, designated Alpha Eridani. 144 light-years from Earth, it is a blue-white hued main sequence star whose traditional name means "the river's end". Achernar is a peculiar star because it is one of the flattest stars known. Observations indicate; this distortion occurs because the star is spinning rapidly. There are several other noteworthy stars including some double stars. Beta Eridani, traditionally called Cursa, is a blue-white star of magnitude 2.8, 89 light-years from Earth. Its place to the south of Orion's foot gives it its name, which means "the footstool". Theta Eridani, called Acamar, is a binary star with blue-white components, distinguishable in small amateur telescopes and 161 light-years from Earth.
The primary is of magnitude 3.2 and the secondary is of magnitude 4.3. 32 Eridani is a binary star 290 light-years from Earth. The primary is a yellow-hued star of magnitude 4.8 and the secondary is a blue-green star of magnitude 6.1. 32 Eridani is divisible in small amateur telescopes. 39 Eridani is a binary star divisible in small amateur telescopes, 206 light-years from Earth. The primary is an orange-hued giant star of magnitude 4.9 and the secondary is of magnitude 8. 40 Eridani is a triple star system consisting of an orange main-sequence star, a white dwarf, a red dwarf. The orange main-sequence star is the primary of magnitude 4.4, the white secondary of magnitude 9.5 is the most visible white dwarf. The red dwarf, of magnitude 11, orbits the white dwarf every 250 years; the 40 Eridani system is 16 light-years from Earth. P Eridani is a binary star with 27 light-years from Earth; the magnitude 5.8 primary and 5.9 secondary have an orbital period of 500 years. Epsilon Eridani is a star with one extrasolar planet similar to Jupiter.
It is an orange-hued main-sequence star of 10.5 light-years from Earth. Its one planet, with an approximate mass of one Jupiter mass, has a period of 7 years; the Eridanus Supervoid is a large supervoid discovered as of 2007. At a diameter of about one billion light years it is the second largest known void, superseded only by the Giant Void in Canes Venatici, it was discovered by linking a "cold spot" in the cosmic microwave background to an absence of radio galaxies in data of the United States National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array Sky Survey. There is some speculation that the void may be due to quantum entanglement between our universe and another. NGC 1535 is a small blue-gray planetary nebula visible in small amateur telescopes, with a disk visible in large amateur instruments. 2000 light-years away, it is of the 9th magnitude. IC 2118 is a faint reflection nebula believed to be an ancient supernova remnant or gas cloud illuminated by nearby supergiant star Rigel in Orion.
Eridanus contains the galaxies NGC 1232, NGC 1234, NGC 1291 and NGC 1300, a grand design barred spiral galaxy. NGC 1300 is a face-on barred spiral galaxy located 61 million light-years away; the center of the bar shows an unusual structure: within the overall spiral structure, a grand design spiral, 3,300 light-years in diameter exists. Its spiral arms are wound; the Nu Eridanids, a discovered meteor shower, radiate from the constellation between August 30 and September 12 every year. Another meteor shower in Eridanus is the Omicron Eridanids, which peak between November 1 and 10. Eridanus is depicted in ancient sky charts as a flowing river, starting from Orion and flowing in a meandering fashion past Cetus and Fornax and into the southern hemispheric stars. Johann Bayer's Uranometria depicts the river constellation as a flowing river. According to one theory, the Greek constellation takes its name from the Babylonian constellation known as the Star of Eridu. Eridu was an ancient city in the extreme south of Babylonia.
Eridanus is connected to the myth of Phaethon, who took over the reins of his father Helios' sky chariot, but didn't have the strength to control it and so veered wildly in different directions, scorching both Earth and heaven. Zeus intervened by casting him to Earth; the constellation was supposed to be the path. Since Eridanos was a Greek name for the Po, in which the burning body of Phaethon is said by Ovid to have extinguished, the mythic geography of the celestial and earthly Eridanus is complex. Another association with Eridanus is a series of rivers all around the world. First conflated with the Nile River in Egypt, the constellation was identified with the Po River in Italy; the stars of the modern constellation Fornax were a part of Eridanus. The stars that correspond to Eridanus are depicted as a river in Indian astronomy starting close to the head of Orion just below Auriga. Eridanus is called Srotaswini in Sanskrit, srótas meaning the course of a stream, it is depicted as
USS Eridanus (AK-92)
USS Eridanus was an Crater-class cargo ship commissioned by the US Navy for service in World War II and manned by a US Coast Guard crew. She was named after the constellation Eridanus, she was responsible for delivering goods and equipment to locations in the war zone. Eridanus was launched 9 April 1943, as Luther Burbank, MCE hull 1099, by Permanente Metals Corporation, Yard No. 2, California, under a Maritime Commission contract. Eridanus carried cargo and passengers between US West Coast ports and bases in the southwest Pacific, the Hawaiians, New Zealand, the Philippines, the Palaus from 26 June 1943 to 3 February 1946 making lengthy tows in addition to her cargo operations. At sea, she played her part in the Navy's gigantic task of carrying supplies for its ships and shore bases, as well as for the US Marines and US Army, half way round the world at the same time as it carried on combat operations. In February 1944 she made a direct contribution to the troops seizing islands in the northern Solomons, bringing cargo and passengers to Bougainville.
Her last service was a long and difficult towing job, in which she took section of a floating dry dock from Eniwetok, sailing 4 February 1946, to Hampton Roads, arriving 16 April. She was decommissioned at Baltimore, Maryland, 8 May 1946, returned to the War Shipping Administration, 15 May 1946, her name reverted to Luther Burbank, she was laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet, James River Group, Lee Hall, the same day. On 14 February 1947, she was sold for commercial service to John P. G. Livanos, Greece, for $544,546, she was re-flagged for renamed Panagiotis. On 15 November 1955, she ran aground at Kunsan, Korea while carrying a load of coal from Baltimore, Maryland, to Inchon, she broke in two, 21 November 1955, was declared a total loss. Far Eastern Marine Transport Co Ltd, bought her 18 September 1956. Both parts were refloated, towed to Pusan to Shimonoseki, Japan; the aft section arrived 18 September 1956, with the name Silla. The forepart arrived three days 21 September 1956. Both parts were towed to Tokyo where they were rejoined by I.
H. I. and lengthened to 449 ft, which increased her to 11,000 long tons deadweight. She resumed service as Silla, flagged South Korean, she was laid up 31 January 1972, at South Korea. She was sold to local breakers, where she resumed trading for short period before being being scrapped at Masan, September 1972. Eridanus received one battle star for World War II service, her crew was eligible for the following medals: American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal Photo gallery of Eridanus at NavSource Naval History