Kinnickinnic River (Milwaukee River tributary)
The Kinnickinnic River is one of three primary rivers that flows into the harbor of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, at Lake Michigan, along with the Menomonee River and Milwaukee River. It is locally called the "KK River". Kinnickinnic is an Ojibwe word which means "what is mixed", referring to the mixing of indigenous plants and tobaccos. Called Milwaukee's forgotten river, it is the smallest within the Milwaukee River Basin, yet is the most urbanized and densely populated, as it winds through the Lincoln Village neighborhood, the industrialized Inner Harbor. Milwaukee was founded to utilize a natural harbor formed by the confluence of rivers before flowing into Lake Michigan, similar to Manistee and Benton Harbor, Michigan; the Kinnickinnic River is the southernmost of the three rivers, flowing in a northeastern direction towards the harbor. The Menomonee River enters from the west, the Milwaukee River enters from the north; the Kinnickinnic River flowed directly into Lake Michigan, with water from the Milwaukee and Menomonee rivers flowing south from the center of the city before exiting to the lake.
The landform that protected the harbor was a long marshy spit, called Jones Island, that extended southwards from the center of the city. To shorten the distance from the harbor entrance to the city, a "straight cut" was made across the base of the spit, at the northern end; the original harbor entrance was filled in, so that Jones Island was now a peninsula extending northwards, with its base to the south. This lengthened the river, this new stretch now formed a large portion of the harbor. Shipping traffic in Milwaukee outgrew the "inner" harbor formed by the three rivers. An "outer" harbor was constructed in the lake, with the lake-facing edge of Jones Island serving as the docking area; the inhabitants of Jones Island were forced to leave, those that were small commercial fishermen moved operations farther up the Kinnickinnic. The commercial fishing fleet now resides in the stretch of river near the 1st Street Bridge, along with small pleasure craft. Upstream, starting near I-94/43, the river is lined with concrete.
The concrete was installed on the river banks in the 1960s as a solution to minimize flooding in the surrounding neighborhoods. With the concrete in place, flooding has persisted, water in the channel is capable of high velocities; the Kinnickinnic River is 9.6 miles long, with a watershed that covers 25 square miles of drainage area. Along with the main river, many of the tributaries have been extensively modified through concrete channeling. 145,000 people live in the watershed, making it the most densely populated in the region. The entire watershed is built out, the vast majority of its land use is urban. High levels of industrial pollutants, diminished access for public use, lack of a vegetative buffer have caused much of the community to perceive the waterways as nothing more than a network of municipal sewage drainage channels; the river's estuary empties into Lake Michigan at the Milwaukee harbor, along with the Milwaukee River and Menomonee River. The lowermost portion of the Kinnickinnic River is included in the Milwaukee Estuary Area of Concern, one of the Great Lakes Areas of Concern.
In the Kinnickinnic, this is due to high levels of PAHs found in the river. For this reason, in 2007, the Kinnickinnic was listed as the 7th most endangered river in the U. S. by American Rivers. Future plans and recent activity have started to reshape the river. In the fall of 2009, dredging removed 167,000 cubic yards of sediment contaminated with PCBs and PAHs near the harbor. In addition to improved environmental conditions, the dredging created a safer and more navigable river. Plans to remove the concrete in the river channel are underway as part of a flood mitigation project under the direction of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. A new river channel alignment will accommodate excessive rainwater, slow its velocity, restore the river back towards a natural state with accessible green space and unobstructed passage for aquatic habitat. In 2009, a neighborhood plan was developed to improve conditions in the river corridor by building off the flood mitigation work. In addition to the river, areas of focus include adjacent and nearby parks, open space, businesses and education opportunities.
Milwaukee Riverkeeper Milwaukee Estuary Area of Concern Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Kinnickinnic River Project Kinnickinnic River Corridor Neighborhood Plan The State of the Kinnickinnic River, Milwaukee, WI Milwaukee River Basin Partnership Southeastern Wisconsin Watersheds Trust, Inc
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and Canada. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. To the east, its basin is conjoined with that of Lake Huron through the wide Straits of Mackinac, giving it the same surface elevation as its easterly counterpart. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois and Michigan. Ports along its shores include Chicago; the word "Michigan" referred to the lake itself, is believed to come from the Ojibwe word michi-gami meaning "great water". Some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians, their culture declined after 800 AD, for the next few hundred years, the region was the home of peoples known as the Late Woodland Indians. In the early 17th century, when western European explorers made their first forays into the region, they encountered descendants of the Late Woodland Indians: the Chippewa.
The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan in 1634 or 1638. In the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of "Michigan", named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes. Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the combined body of water is sometimes called Michigan–Huron; the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. Located on the southern side of the Straits is the town of Mackinaw City, the site of Fort Michilimackinac, a reconstructed French fort founded in 1715, on the northern side is St. Ignace, site of a French Catholic mission to the Indians, founded in 1671. In 1673, Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet and their crew of five Métis voyageurs followed Lake Michigan to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters, in their search for the Mississippi River, cf. Fox–Wisconsin Waterway.
The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in 1781. With the advent of European exploration into the area in the late 17th century, Lake Michigan became part of a line of waterways leading from the Saint Lawrence River to the Mississippi River and thence to the Gulf of Mexico. French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a major role in the development of Chicago and the Midwestern United States west of the lake. For example, 90% of the grain shipped from Chicago travelled east over Lake Michigan during the antebellum years, only falling below 50% after the Civil War and the major expansion of railroad shipping; the first person to reach the deep bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump, a scientist at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition. In 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College; this formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake. One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated; the warming of Lake Michigan was the subject of a report by Purdue University in 2018. In each decade since 1980, steady increases in average surface temperature have occurred; this is to lead to decreasing native habitat and to adversely affect native species survival. Lake Michigan is the sole Great Lake wholly within the borders of the United States, it lies in the region known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has a surface area of 22,404 sq.mi. It is the larger half of Lake Michigan–Huron, the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area, it is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long.
The lake's average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water. Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay. Grand Traverse Bay in its northeast is another large bay. Lake Michigan's deepest region, which lies in its northern-half, is called Chippewa Basin and is separated from South Chippewa Basin, by a shallower area called the Mid Lake Plateau. Twelve million people live along Lake Michigan's shores in the Chicago and Milwaukee metropolitan areas; the economy of many communities in northern Michigan and Door County, Wisconsin is supported by tourism, with large seasonal populations attracted by Lake Michigan. Seasonal residents have summer homes along the waterfront and return home for the winter; the southern
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability. It affords similar protections against discrimination to Americans with disabilities as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made discrimination based on race, sex, national origin, other characteristics illegal. In addition, unlike the Civil Rights Act, the ADA requires covered employers to provide reasonable accommodations to employees with disabilities, imposes accessibility requirements on public accommodations. In 1986, the National Council on Disability had recommended enactment of an Americans with Disabilities Act and drafted the first version of the bill, introduced in the House and Senate in 1988; the final version of the bill was signed into law on July 1990, by President George H. W. Bush, it was amended in 2008 and signed by President George W. Bush with changes effective as of January 1, 2009. ADA disabilities include both physical medical conditions. A condition does not need to be permanent to be a disability.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability or missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, cancer, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia. Other mental or physical health conditions may be disabilities, depending on what the individual's symptoms would be in the absence of "mitigating measures", during an "active episode" of the condition. Certain specific conditions that are considered anti-social, or tend to result in illegal activity, such as kleptomania, exhibitionism, etc. are excluded under the definition of "disability" in order to prevent abuse of the statute's purpose. Additionally, other specific conditions, such as gender identity disorders, are excluded under the definition of "disability".
See US labor law and 42 U. S. C. §§ 12111–12117. The ADA states that a "covered entity" shall not discriminate against "a qualified individual with a disability"; this applies to job application procedures, hiring and discharge of employees, job training, other terms and privileges of employment. "Covered entities" include employers with 15 or more employees, as well as employment agencies, labor organizations, joint labor-management committees. There are strict limitations on when a covered entity can ask job applicants or employees disability-related questions or require them to undergo medical examination, all medical information must be kept confidential. Prohibited discrimination may include, among other things, firing or refusing to hire someone based on a real or perceived disability and harassment based on a disability. Covered entities are required to provide reasonable accommodations to job applicants and employees with disabilities. A reasonable accommodation is a change in the way things are done that the person needs because of a disability, can include, among other things, special equipment that allows the person to perform the job, scheduling changes, changes to the way work assignments are chosen or communicated.
An employer is not required to provide an accommodation that would involve undue hardship, the individual who receives the accommodation must still perform the essential functions of the job and meet the normal performance requirements. An employee or applicant who engages in the illegal use of drugs is not considered qualified when a covered entity takes adverse action based on such use. There are many ways to discriminate against people based on disabilities, including psychological ones. Anyone known to have a history of mental disorders can be considered disabled. Employers with more than 15 employees must take care to treat all employees and with any accommodations needed; when an employee is doing a job exceptionally well, she or he is not no longer disabled. Part of Title I was found unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court as it pertains to states in the case of Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett as violating the sovereign immunity rights of the several states as specified by the Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The Court determined. State employees can, file complaints at the Department of Justice or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, who can sue on their behalf. Title II prohibits disability discrimination by all public entities at the local level, e.g. school district, city, or county, at state level. Public entities must comply with Title II regulations by the U. S. Department of Justice; these regulations cover access to all services offered by the entity. Access includes physical access described in the ADA Standards for Accessible Design and programmatic access that might be obstructed by discriminatory policies or procedures of the entity. Title II applies to public transportation provided by public entities through regulations by the U. S. Department of Transportation, it includes the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, along with all other commuter au
The Milwaukee River is a river in the state of Wisconsin. It is about 104 miles long. Once a locus of industry, the river is now the center of a housing boom. New condos now crowd the downtown and harbor districts of Milwaukee attracting young professionals to the area; the river is ribboned with parks as it winds through various neighborhoods. Kayaks and fishing boats share the river with party boats. An extensive Riverwalk featuring art displays, boat launches and restaurants lines its banks in downtown Milwaukee; the river begins in Fond du Lac County and flows south past Grafton to downtown Milwaukee, where it empties into Lake Michigan. Cedar Creek, the Menomonee River and the Kinnickinnic River are the three main tributaries; the Milwaukee River watershed drains 882 square miles in southeastern Wisconsin, including parts of Dodge, Fond du Lac, Ozaukee, Sheboygan and Waukesha counties. The Milwaukee River watershed is part of the Lake Michigan subbasin; the Milwaukee River area was populated by Native Americans in the time before European settlement.
Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet navigated from Lake Michigan through the Milwaukee River on their way to the Fox River and the Mississippi. In the early 19th century, three towns were formed across the banks of the Milwaukee and Kinnickinnic rivers: Juneautown by Solomon Juneau, Walker's Point by George H. Walker and Kilbourntown by Byron Kilbourn; the quarrel over the formation of a bridge across the Milwaukee River was a key point in the merging of the three towns into the city of Milwaukee in 1846. The Milwaukee River has numerous movable bridges spanning it, allowing for pedestrian and vehicular traffic; these bridges include several different types, including bascule and hydraulically-powered table bridges. There are many fixed bridges, as well as several pedestrian-only and railroad trestles; the following is a partial list of bridges that cross the river, from north to south: Brown Deer Road Bridge Range Line Road Bridge Good Hope Road Bridge Green Tree Road Bridge Bender Road Bridge Silver Spring Drive Bridge Hampton Avenue Bridge I-43 Bridge Port Washington Road Bridge Capitol Drive Bridge Locust Street Bridge North Avenue Bridge |North Avenue Bridge North-Humboldt Pedestrian Bridge Humboldt Street Bridge Holton Street Viaduct Pleasant Street Bridge Cherry Street Bridge McKinley Avenue Bridge aka Knapp Street Bridge Juneau Avenue Bridge Highland Avenue Pedestrian Bridge State Street Bridge |State Street Bridge Kilbourn Avenue Bridge Wells Street Bridge |Wells Street Bridge Wisconsin Avenue Bridge Michigan Street Bridge Clybourn Street Bridge I-794 Bridge Saint Paul Avenue Bridge Water Street Bridge Broadway Bridge aka Milwaukee Street Bridge Hoan BridgeThere are several Union Pacific railroad bridges crossing the Milwaukee River, including: north of Bender Road south of Silver Spring Drive Railroad Swing Bridge #1556 There are several parks on the banks of the Milwaukee River.
These include Gordon, Lincoln, Pere Marquette, Pleasant Valley, Riverside Parks in Milwaukee, Kletzsch Park in Glendale, as well as Hubbard Park and Estabrook Park in Shorewood. There are several dams along the river; the dam in Estabrook Park, Milwaukee County was removed in 2018. List of Wisconsin rivers Milwaukee Riverwalk Milwaukee River Advocates Milwaukee River Basin - Wisconsin DNR Milwaukee Green Map: Watersheds Milwaukee River Preservation Association Milwaukee Riverkeeper River Revitalization Foundation Milwaukee River Basin Partnership Milwaukee Estuary Area of Concern History of Port of Milwaukee Milwaukee River Greenway Coalition
The Daniel Hoan Memorial Bridge is a tied-arch bridge that connects Interstate 794 in downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to the Lake Freeway across the Milwaukee River inlet. Called the Harbor Bridge, it was renamed after Daniel Hoan, a Socialist, one of the longest serving mayors of Milwaukee, it was designed by the firm Howard, Tammen & Bergendoff and in 1975 won the American Institute of Steel Construction Long Span Bridge Award. Although construction on the bridge lasted from 1970 until 1972, it did not open to traffic until 1977 due to public backlash against the planned Milwaukee County freeway system; this halted completion of the connecting roadways and led to the Hoan Bridge being known as "The Bridge to Nowhere." Its unfinished state was used as the site of a car chase scene in the movie The Blues Brothers. The bridge connections were completed in 1998, when the Lake Parkway opened between the bridge's southernmost exit, connecting the bridge between the Bay View neighborhood and downtown Milwaukee's southeastern tip.
The Hoan Bridge was temporarily closed on December 13, 2000, after two of the three support beams of the lakefront span failed, causing the north-bound lanes to buckle and sag by several feet and leaving the span in a near collapsed state. No motorists were injured. On December 28, 2000, engineers used explosives to remove the damaged section; the southbound lanes were restricted to one lane in each direction for eight months while the damaged northbound span was reconstructed, the remainder of the bridge underwent extensive rehabilitation and retrofitting. Two lanes in each direction were reintroduced on October 10, 2001, the bridge was reopened the following month. According to the Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, at the time of its failure, the six lanes of the bridge had carried an average of only 36,590 cars per day. A total of $16 million was spent to demolish and replace the damaged section and retrofit the remainder of the bridge. Experts believe that improperly designed welds between the lower lateral bracing and floorbeams along with a period of extreme cold and snow led to the partial collapse of the Hoan Bridge.
A total rehabilitation of the bridge has been nearly completed in conjunction with related construction on I-794 and its interchange. The rehabilitation plan removed and replaced the bridge deck, other structural adjustments, the cleaning and repainting of the bridge's steel; the improvements are expected to extend the life span of the bridge by 40 to 50 years. In May 2018 a private campaign named; the project will cost between 4 or 5 million dollars The lighting will be finished in 2019 Bridges portal Wisconsin portal Wisconsin Highways Failure Analysis Hoan Bridge Forensic Investigation Failure Analysis: Final Report Milwaukee Harbor Bridge at Structurae
Milwaukee Pierhead Light
The Milwaukee Pierhead Light is an active lighthouse located in the Milwaukee harbor, just south of downtown. This aid to navigation is a'sister' of the Kenosha North Pier Light; the station was established in 1872. It is west of the Milwaukee Breakwater Light, is near the outflow of the Milwaukee River—not far east of where that river converged with the Kinnickinnic River—into the Milwaukee Harbor and Lake Michigan; this light has a round steel tower with a ten-sided lantern. In 1926, the original 4th Order Fresnel lens was transferred to the Milwaukee Breakwater Light, that lens is now displayed at the Wisconsin Maritime Museum in Manitowoc, Wisconsin; the Fifth Order Fresnel lens—installed in 1926—was removed in 2005. The tower is newly painted circa 2007; the 5th Order lens is said to be on display at the Wisconsin Maritime Museum. According to one source: "The original lantern room had helical bar windows and is believed to the one presently on the Breakwater Light." This is corroborated by the report that the Breakwater Light has a "round cast iron lantern room features helical astragal" in the lantern.
A Submarine cable runs from this light to the Milwaukee Breakwater Light, upon which a lighted danger warning is displayed. The light was painted, circa 2007. From 1872 until 1926, the light had its own keepers. Thereafter, this light, like all of the lights in the harbor, was serviced by the resident Lighthouse keepers who were stationed at the neighboring North Point Light Station until it was automated; the light was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in September 2012. The light is located in downtown Milwaukee, at the end of East Erie Street, which leads to a short pier. Parking is available; the pier may be walked. I-43 to east I-794. Take exit, proceed north to Michigan Street. Turn right onto Michigan. Turn right onto Harbor Drive and proceed under the interstate to Polk Street. Turn right on Polk, which ends at Erie Street. Turn left on Erie into the parking lot. Huelse, Klaus -- Meine Leuchtturm-Seite: Leuchttürme USA auf historischen Postkarten -- Historic postcard images of U.
S. lighthouses, Historic Post Card View — Milwaukee Pierhead Lighthouse. Satellite view of Google earth. Terry Pepper, Seeing the Light, Milwaukee Pierhead Light. Wobser, Milwaukee Pier Head Light, Boatnerd
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t