Västgötalagen or the Westrogothic law is the oldest Swedish text written in Latin script and the oldest of all Swedish provincial laws. It was compiled in the early 13th century at least at the instigation of Eskil Magnusson and is known to have been the code of law used in the province of Västergötland during the latter half of that century; the earliest complete text is dated 1281. Small fragments of an older text have been dated 1250; this legal code exists in Äldre Västgötalagen and Yngre Västgötalagen. A first printing in modern times was published by Hans Samuel Collin and Carl Johan Schylter in 1827, a new edition by Gösta Holm in 1976. A contemporarily current list of Christian Swedish kings, added as an appendix to the oldest manuscript of Äldre Västgötalagen, was written by a priest called Laurentius in Vedum around 1325, his source being unknown, it ends with Johan Sverkersson. Geats Götalagarna Stones of Mora The Old Västergötland Law from the World Digital Library Äldre Västgötalagen from the Swedish Literature Bank Old Swedish and old Icelandic manuscripts from the National Library of Sweden Collin, H. S. and C. J. Schlyter, Corpus iuris Sueo-Gotorum antiqui: Samling af Sweriges gamla lagar, på Kongl.
Maj:ts. nådigste befallning, 13 vols, vol. 1 at
Sweyn was a Swedish king c. 1080, who replaced his Christian brother-in-law Inge as King of Sweden, when Inge had refused to administer the blóts at the Temple at Uppsala. There is no mention of Sweyn in the regnal list of the Westrogothic law, which suggests that his rule did not reach Västergötland. According to Swedish historian Adolf Schück he was the same person as Håkan the Red and was called the Blót Swain as an epithet rather than a personal name; the earliest source that deals with Blot-Sweyn's coming to power is the Icelandic legendary saga Hervarar saga: However, Inge did not permit the people to follow the old ways, unlike his father Stenkil. The Swedes reacted and asked Inge to either comply with the old traditions or abdicate; when Inge proclaimed that he would not abandon Christianity, the people pelted him with stones and chased him away. This was the opportunity for Sweyn to assume power, the account provided by Hervarar saga concerning his inauguration contains a rare description of the ancient Indo-European ritual of horse sacrifice: The Legend of Saint Eskil tells that Inge was chased away from the kingdom.
They elected an idolator for king by the name Sweyn, an unworthy man and with reason called Blood-Sweyn. He had this name because he made the people drink blood from bulls, sacrificed to the gods, he ate the sacrificial meat; the people assembled around their king in Strängnäs, where they butchered oxen and sheep, gave offerings to their gods. They had a great banquet in honour of their gods; the English bishop Eskil appeared and tried to convert the pagans to Christianity. They would not listen, however. Eskil prayed, God sent thunder, hail and rain destroying the sacrificial altar and beasts of sacrifice. Not a single drop fell on the bishop; the pagans were not impressed and furiously, they attacked Eskil. A diviner named Spåbodde hit him on the head with a stone, while another man crushed his head with an axe; some chieftains dragged the dying martyr to the king saying that Eskil had used magic arts to control the weather. As soon as the unrightful king had sentenced Eskil to death, he was taken to the valley where the monastery was founded, he was stoned to deathThis legend is, only known from the late 13th century.
An account by Aelnoth of Canterbury relates that an Eskillinus was killed by pagan Swedes and Geats at an unspecified time. Since he is not mentioned by the clerical historian Adam of Bremen, he may have flourished in the late 11th century. According to another opinion, Eskil's death is more dated in c. 1016, several generations before Blot-Sweyn. According to Hervarar saga, the rule of Sweyn was not to last. Before long, the Christian Inge decided to kill the pagan Sweyn: A similar account appears in the Orkneyinga saga, but in this text, Sweyn remains inside and is burnt to death: It is possible that Inge was not accepted by the stubbornly pagan Swedes of Uppland; the 13th-century historian Snorri Sturlusson wrote in the Heimskringla that Blót-Sweyn had a pagan successor who continued the sacrifices: This "Eirik Arsale" is mentioned in other sources as being the son of Blot-Sweyn, but today is not considered a historical person by most historians
Linköping is a city in southern Sweden, with 158,841 inhabitants as of 2018. It is the 7th largest city in Sweden, it is the capital of Östergötland County. Linköping is the episcopal see of the Diocese of Linköping and is well known for its cathedral. Linköping is the center of an old cultural region and celebrated its 700th anniversary in 1987. Dominating the city's skyline from afar is the steeple of the cathedral, Domkyrka. Nowadays Linköping is known for its high-technology industry. Linköping wants to create a sustainable development of the city and therefore plans to become a carbon neutral community by 2025. Located on the Östergötland Plain, Linköping is linked to Norrköping 40 kilometres to the east near the sea; the city is named after the Lionga ting assembly which according to Medieval Scandinavian laws was the most important thing in Östergötland. Exact location of the Lionga ting is not known; the term" - köping" means. Linköping is famed for being an early diocese, second in Sweden only to Skara.
The diocese is first mentioned in 1104 in the so-called "List of Florence". The monastery of Vreta Kloster near Roxen north of Linköping was established in 1128, the oldest parts of the cathedral are from the 12th century. On several occasions attempts to achieve a separate Swedish archdiocese were based in Linköping, when they were successful in 1164, Uppsala was chosen instead. Religious centers tend to become educational centers, Linköping was no exception. A cathedral school can be traced from 1266. In 1627 the current Linköping cathedral school was established, making it the third oldest gymnasium in Sweden. Linköping was the site for the final settlement of the dispute between king Sigismund III Vasa and his uncle Duke Charles, the latter prevailing in the battle of Stångebro on 25 September 1598; this led to the rise to the throne of Charles and the end of the short-lived Swedish-Polish personal union, as well as the execution of five of Charles's political opponents on the main square of Linköping on 20 March 1600.
Linköping was a small town until 1937, when the Saab aircraft industry was formed, starting a period of rapid expansion. Linköping University was established in the 1960s. Today the city is a center of software industry. Linköping has a humid continental climate, though with maritime influences, retaining the large differences between seasons but being comparatively mild when measured against other areas of the world on similar latitudes. Linköping tends to be cooler in summer than nearby areas in the Mälar valley, but still is the weather station in Sweden among the listed for monthly statistics, that has come the closest to a subtropical month, with July 1914 having a mean temperature of 21.8 °C, with the subtropical border being at 22 °C for the warmest month. Summer highs average in the low 20' and winter temperatures hover just above the freezing point during the day falls below it at night. Top 5 largest immigrant communities: 1. Iraq – 3800 2. Somalia 2345 3. Eritrea 1129 4. Iran 988 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 667 Linköping offers a wealth of leisure activities to people of all ages.
Residents and visitors are able to enjoy art, history, markets and sporting events. Special sights of interests are: the locks of Berg on the Göta Canal, the locks of the Kinda Canal, Gamla Linköping, Valla skogen and Valla fritidsområde, Flygvapen museum, Linköping's domkyrka, Slotts- och domkyrkomuseet and Östergötlands Länsmuseum. Konsthallen Passagen is an art gallery located in the main square. Tornby, to the north of the city centre, is a vast shopping area with huge retail outlets and immense parking lots; the city and its environs offer all sorts of green landscapes to experience. Two examples are a park named after the group responsible for it, Trädgårdsföreningen, the Tinnerö area with its oak woodland. Local bodies of water include the lakes Roxen, Rängen and Järnlunden, the River Stångån/Kinda Canal and the Göta Canal with the Berg locks; these areas can be accessed by bicycle, or boat. Linköping is the home of the Linköping Symphony Orchestra; the city is one of the sites of the Östergötland Music Days each summer, the host of the Student Orchestra Festival in May every other year.
One of the most notable choirs in Linköping is the Linköping University Male Voice Choir. Linköping is the home of theatrical heavy metal band Ghost and rock band the Pusjkins; the area around the main square was re-planned in the 1960s, many old houses were destroyed. Some, were moved to Gamla Linköping, in the city's western part, neighbouring the university's main campus, it is a popular site with both residents and tourists. NärCon, the largest anime and gaming convention in the Nordic countries, is held in Linköping. Teams from Linköping are prominent in floorball and ice hockey; the hockey team all
Heimskringla is the best known of the Old Norse kings' sagas. It was written in Old Norse in Iceland by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson c. 1230. The name Heimskringla was first used in the 17th century, derived from the first two words of one of the manuscripts. Heimskringla is a collection of sagas about Swedish and Norwegian kings, beginning with the saga of the legendary Swedish dynasty of the Ynglings, followed by accounts of historical Norwegian rulers from Harald Fairhair of the 9th century up to the death of the pretender Eystein Meyla in 1177; the exact sources of his work are disputed, but included earlier kings' sagas, such as Morkinskinna and the twelfth century Norwegian synoptic histories and oral traditions, notably many skaldic poems. Snorri had himself visited Norway and Sweden. For events of the mid-12th century, Snorri explicitly names the now-lost work Hryggjarstykki as his source; the composition of the sagas is Snorri's. The name Heimskringla comes from the fact that the first words of the first saga in the compilation are Kringla heimsins, "the orb of the Earth".
The earliest parchment copy of the work is referred to as Kringla, now catalogued as Reykjavík, National Library, Lbs fragm 82. This is now a single vellum leaf from c. 1260. Heimskringla consists of several sagas thought of as falling into three groups, giving the overall work the character of a triptych; the saga narrates the contests of the kings, the establishment of the kingdom of Norway, Viking expeditions to various European countries, ranging as far afield as Palestine in the saga of Sigurd the Crusader. The stories are told with a freshness, giving a picture of human life in all its reality; the saga is a prose epic, relevant to the history not only of Scandinavia but the regions included in the wider medieval Scandinavian diaspora. The first part of the Heimskringla is rooted in Norse mythology; the first section tells of the mythological prehistory of the Norwegian royal dynasty, tracing Odin, described here as a mortal man, his followers from the East, from Asaland and Asgard, its chief city, to their settlement in Scandinavia.
The subsequent sagas are devoted starting with Halfdan the Black. A version of Óláfs saga helga, about the saint Olaf II of Norway, is the main and central part of the collection: Olaf's 15-year-long reign takes up about one third of the entire work. Thereafter, the saga of Harald Hardrada narrates Harald's expedition to the East, his brilliant exploits in Constantinople and Sicily, his skaldic accomplishments, his battles in England against Harold Godwinson, the son of Godwin, Earl of Wessex, where he fell at the battle Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066 only a few days before Harold fell at the Battle of Hastings. After presenting a series of other kinds, the saga ends with Magnus V of Norway. Heimskringla contains the following sagas: Ynglinga saga Saga of Halfdanr svarti Saga of Haraldr hárfagi Saga of Hákon góði Saga of King Haraldr gráfeldr Saga of King Óláfr Tryggvason Saga of King Óláfr Haraldsson, excerpt from conversion of Dale-Gudbrand Saga of Magnús góði Saga of Haraldr harðráði Saga of Óláfr Haraldsson kyrri Saga of Magnús berfœttr Saga of Sigurðr Jórsalafari and his brothers Saga of Magnús blindi and of Haraldr Gilli Saga of Sigurðr, Eysteinn and Ingi, the sons of Haraldr Saga of Hákon herðibreiðs Saga of Magnús Erlingsson Snorri explicitly mentions a few prose sources, now lost in the form that he knew them: Hryggjarstykki by Eiríkr Oddsson, Skjǫldunga saga, an unidentified saga about Knútr inn gamli, a text called Jarlasǫgurnar.
Snorri may have had access to a wide range of the early Scandinavian historical texts known today as the'synoptic histories', but made most use of: Ágrip af Nóregs konunga sǫgum. Morkinskinna. Fagrskinna, itself based on Morkinskinna, but the much shorter, his own Separate saga of St Óláfr, which he incorporated bodily into Heimskringla. This text was based on a saga of Olaf from about 1220 by Styrmir Kárason, now lost. Oddr Snorrason's Life of Óláfr Tryggvason, a Latin life of the same figure by Gunnlaugr Leifsson. Snorri made extensive use of skaldic verse which he believed to have been composed at the time of the events portrayed and transmitted orally from that time onwards, made us of other oral accounts, though it is uncertain to what extent. Up until the mid-19th century, historians put great trust in the factual truth of Snorri's narrative, as well as other old Norse sagas. In the early 20th century, this trust was abandoned with the advent of saga criticism, pioneered by Curt and Lauritz Weibull.
These historians pointed out that Snorri's work had been written sev
Blót is the term for "sacrifice" in Norse paganism. A blót could be dedicated to any of the Norse gods, the spirits of the land, to ancestors; the sacrifice involved aspects of a sacramental feast. The cognate term blōt or geblōt in Old English would have referred to comparable traditions in Anglo-Saxon paganism, comparanda can be reconstructed for the wider Germanic Indo-European; the word blót is an Old Norse strong neuter noun. The corresponding Old English neuter blōt may be influenced by Old Norse; the reconstructed Proto-Germanic form of the noun is *blōtą "sacrifice, worship". Connected to this is the Proto-Germanic strong verb *blōtaną with descendants in Gothic, Old Norse blóta, Old English blōtan and Old High German bluozan, all of which mean "to sacrifice, worship"; the word appears in a compound attested in Old Norse as blót-hús "house of worship" and in Old High German as bluoz-hūz "temple". With a different nominative affix, the same stem is found in the Proto-Germanic noun *blōstrą "sacrifice" — attested in Gothic * in - "worshipper of God" and Old High German bluostar "offering, sacrifice").
This stem is thought to be connected to the Proto-Germanic verb *blōaną "to blow. Sophus Bugge was the first to suggest a connection between blót and the Latin flamen, both words can be traced back to the Proto-Indo-European stem *bhlād- "to bubble forth; the verb blóta meant "to worship with sacrifice", or "to strengthen". The sacrifice consisted of animals or war prisoners, in particular pigs and horses; the meat was boiled in large cooking pits with heated stones, either indoors or outdoors. The blood was considered to contain special powers and it was sprinkled on the statues of the gods, on the walls and on the participants themselves, it was a sacred moment when the people gathered around the steaming cauldrons to have a meal together with the gods or the Elves. The drink, passed around was blessed and sacred as well and it was passed from participant to participant; the drink was beer or mead but among the nobility it could be imported wine. The old prayer was til árs ok friðar, "for a good year and frith" They asked for fertility, good health, a good life and peace and harmony between the people and the powers.
The autumn blót was performed in the middle of October, the Winter Nights, indicating the beginning of winter. The great midwinter blót, or Yule, took place in the middle of January. Freyr was the most important god at the Midwinter and autumn blót, Christmas ham is still a main Christmas course in parts of Scandinavia; the Summer blót was undertaken in the middle of April and it was given to Odin. They drank for victory in war and this blót was the starting date for Viking expeditions and wars. For the early Anglo-Saxons, November was known as Blōtmōnaþ, as this Old English passage points out: A building where the blót took place was called a hov and there are many place names derived from this in e.g. Scania, West Götaland and East Götaland. Excavations at the medieval churches of Mære in Trøndelag and at Old Uppsala provide the few exceptions where church sites are associated with earlier churches. There were other sacred places called Hörgr, Vé, Lund and Haug. Hörgr means altar consisting of a heap of stones, Lund means "grove" and Ve "sacred place".
The Christian laws forbade worshipping at the haug or haugr meaning "mound" or "barrow". The German historian Thietmar, Count of Merseburg wrote that the Daner had their main cult centre on Zealand at Lejre, where they gathered every nine years and sacrificed 99 people but horses and hens. There are however no historical records from Scandinavian sources nor any archeological findings supporting this. Archaeological excavations have indeed revealed Lejre to be of great importance and in fact the seat of the royal family dating to at least the Iron Age. There is not conclusive evidence that Lejre was the site of a main cult centre though, but excavations around lake Tissø not far to the West, have revealed an ancient hof of great importance. Snorri Sturluson relates of a meeting between the peasants of Trøndelag and king Haakon I of Norway, a meeting which ended in a religious feud centered around the blót. Haakon was raised at the Christian English court and had returned to claim the throne of his father Harald Fairhair and intended to Christianize the country.
In spite of the fact that the peasants had elected Haakon king at the Thing they opposed his religious ideas. It was an old custom, that when there was to be sacrifice all the bóndis should come to the spot where the temple stood and bring with them all that they required while the festival of the sacrifice lasted. To this festival all the men brought ale with them. Hlaut-staves were made, like sprinkling brushes, with which the whole of the altars and the temple walls, both outside and inside, were sprinkled over, the people were sprinkled with the blood; the fire was in the middle of the floor of the temple, over it hung the kettles, the full goblets were handed across the fire.
Sverker I of Sweden
Sverker I or Sverker the Elder, murdered 25 December 1156, was King of Sweden from about 1132 till his death. Of non-royal descent, he founded the House of Sverker, the rulers of which alternated with the rival House of Eric over the next century. Sverker was a large landowner from Östergötland. According to the Westrogothic law, his father's name was Cornube, but according to the Icelandic Skáldatal, his father's name was Kol. A pedigree has the filiation Kettil - Kol - Kornike - Sverker, he rose to power after the extinction of the House of Stenkil in the 1120s. The Danish prince Magnus the Strong was acknowledged as king in Götaland for a while, although the extent of his actual power is not clear. However, Magnus's involvement in the civil strife in his homeland gave opportunities for Sverker to act. According to the partial account of Saxo Grammaticus, "the Swedes, when they heard that Magnus was busy with war in Denmark, took one of their fellow countrymen, a man of modest ancestry by the name of Sverker, as their king.
From the order of events in Saxo's chronicle, this took place in c. 1132. It appears that Sverker was only recognized by the various provinces of the kingdom. Norwegian sources speak of several separate actions taken by the elite of Västergötland in the 1130s, indicating a high degree of separatism; the jarl of Västergötland, Karl of Edsvära, settled the Norwegian-Geatish border with King Harald Gille in 1135 and is termed "king" in a source. The same goes for the provinces around Lake Mälaren. Bishop Henrik of Sigtuna was expelled from Sweden and fell at the side of Magnus in the Battle of Fotevik in 1134. Sverker was acknowledged in the Mälaren provinces by 1135, when he received the Danish pretender Oluf Haraldsen, whom he supported in his quest for power in Skåne. At least by the 1140s the authority of Sverker was acknowledged in the loosely structured kingdom; the basis of his power was the central plain of Östergötland with the church of Kaga, Alvastra Abbey and Vreta Abbey as religious supporting sites.
Sverker took care to anchor his legitimacy through his marriage policy. According to the hostile account of Saxo Grammaticus, "Niels married Ulvhild from Norway... Sverker asked for her love. Shortly afterwards, he clandestinely brought her from her husband and made her marry him"; the outrageous behaviour of Sverker may be explained by the background of Ulvhild. After the death of Ulvhild he married the widow of his old enemy Magnus the Strong, the Polish princess Richeza in an effort to bring over the last adherents of Magnus to his side; the marriage gave him control over Richeza's daughter Sophia of Minsk, engaged with the future king Valdemar the Great of Denmark in 1154, married him after Sverker's death. Sverker based much of his royal authority on his patronage of the Church; the Cistercians were called in on the initiative of Queen Ulvhild and founded a number of abbeys: Alvastra in Östergötland, Varnhem in Västergötland, Nydala in Småland. The king strove to achieve Swedish ecclesiastic autonomy.
The papal delegate Nicholas Breakspear toured Scandinavia in 1152 and was received by Sverker with great honours. During a meeting in Linköping, the installation of Peter's pence for Sweden was decided. However, the plans of installing a Swedish archbishopric were stalled, according to Saxo since "the Swedes and Geats could not agree what town and person was worthy of the dignity"; therefore Nicholas Breakspear "refused the quarreling parts this honour and did not endow these still religiously ignorant barbarians the highest clerical dignity". When he on visited Denmark, Breakspear promised the Archbishop of Lund the primacy over any future Archbishop of Sweden; this was confirmed when Breakspear became pope under the name Hadrianus IV. An archbishopric was only installed in 1164 in the reign of Sverker's son Charles VII. Swedish relations with the Russian principalities had been good for the past century or more, but in the reign of Sverker there was a turn towards enmity. According to a Russian chronicle, the newly founded Republic of Novgorod had its first confrontation with Sweden at this time, breaking a century-long peace, guaranteed by marriages between the ruling families.
The Swedish "knyaz" and bishop arrived in the Finnish Gulf with 60 boats in 1142, made an abortive attack on a fleet of traders. The further circumstances of the expedition are lacking. A more serious confrontation took place in another direction in the 1150s. Sverker received the Danish co-ruler Canute V when the latter was in trouble at home; this support was a threat to Canute's rival, Sweyn III of Denmark. Moreover, Sverker's son John abducted two noblewomen in Halland in Denmark "in order to satisfy his lust", although his father and the people forced him to return the ladies. Nicholas Breakspear tried in vain to dissuade King Sweyn from invading Sweden, since "the land was difficult for waging warfare and the people were poor, so there was no advantage to seek there." However, Sweyn believed it was the right moment to strike, since Prince John had been slain by the peasantry at a Thing and, as a result, a conflict arose between them and Sverker. Moreover, Sverker was by now an old man with little taste for war.
King Sweyn proceeded to l
Olof Skötkonung was King of Sweden, son of Eric the Victorious and, according to Icelandic sources, Sigrid the Haughty. He succeeded his father in c. 995. He stands at the threshold of recorded history, since he is the first Swedish ruler about whom there is substantial knowledge, he is regarded as the first king known to have ruled the Geats. One of many explanations to the name Skötkonung is that it is derived from the Swedish word "skatt", which can mean either "taxes" or "treasure"; the latter meaning has given the interpretation "tributary king" and one English scholar speculates about a tributary relationship to the Danish king Sweyn Forkbeard, his stepfather. That explanation, however, is not supported by evidence or historical sources. Another possible explanation of the name refers to the fact that he was the first Swedish king to stamp coins. An ancient land ownership ceremony which placed a parcel of earth in someone's lap was called scotting and may have been involved in this epithet.
The Old Norse "Óláfr sœnski" means "Olaf the Swedish", an epithet used to distinguish him from the Norwegian kings Olaf Tryggvasson and Olaf Haraldsson. Our knowledge of Olof is based on Snorri Sturluson's and Adam of Bremen's accounts, which have been subject to criticism from source-critical scholars; the eldest account by the German ecclesiastic chronicler Adam of Bremen, relates that Sweyn Forkbeard was expelled from his Danish realm by the Swedish King Eric the Victorious in the late 10th century. When Eric died, Sweyn regained his kingdom, marrying Eric's widow. Meanwhile, Olof had succeeded his father Eric, gathered an army, launched a surprise attack against Sweyn; the Danish king was once again expelled. After this, the conflict was resolved. Since Sweyn had married Olof's mother he was reinstated on the Danish throne and the two kings were thereafter allies. Snorri Sturluson and the other Icelandic saga writers say that Sweyn married Olof's mother after the death of Eric the Victorious, however without mentioning any conflict.
Snorri describes Sweyn and Olof as equal allies when they defeated the Norwegian king Olav Tryggvason in the battle of Svolder 1000, thereafter divided Norway between themselves. It is believed that Adam's account about Sweyn's defeats at the hand of Eric and Olof is partial and might have been misinterpreted. According to Snorri, Olof Skötkonung led a Viking expedition to Wendland early in his reign, he captured Edla, the daughter of a Wendish chieftain, kept her as mistress. She gave him the son Emund, the daughters Astrid and Holmfrid, he married Estrid of the Obotrites, she bore him the son Anund Jacob and the daughter Ingegerd Olofsdotter. While Adam of Bremen praises Olof as a good Christian, Icelandic authors paint an unfavourable picture of the king, haughty and prickly. Olof is said to have preferred royal sports to war, which may explain the ease with which Sweyn Forkbeard retook the Danish lands his father Eric had conquered. Olof may have lost the right to tribute which his predecessors had preserved in what is now Estonia and Latvia.
In 1000, he joined forces with Sweyn Forkbeard and with the Norwegian Jarls Eric and Sven, against the Norwegian King Olaf Tryggvason. The circumstances have been much debated in modern historical research, but a contemporary poem confirms that Eric Jarl gathered auxiliaries in Sweden: "The belligent jarl / gathered much manpower / in Svithiod, the chief went / southward to the battle." Olaf Tryggvason was attacked by the allied fleets in the Battle of Svolder, the location of, uncertain. It may have been either in Pomerania. Olaf Tryggvason disappeared in the battle and Norway was appropriated by the allied lords; the bulk of the conquests went to Sweyn Forkbeark while Olof gained a part of Trøndelag as well as modern Bohuslän. These lands were placed under son-in-law of the king; when the Norwegian kingdom was reestablished by Olaf II of Norway in 1015, a new war erupted between Norway and Sweden. There is a circumstantial account of this in Snorri Sturluson's work; as he writes, many men in both Sweden and Norway tried to reconcile the kings.
In 1018, Olof's cousin, the earl of Västergötland, Ragnvald Ulfsson and the Norwegian king's emissaries Björn Stallare and Hjalti Skeggiason had arrived at the thing of Uppsala in an attempt to sway the Swedish king to accept peace and as a warrant marry his daughter Ingegerd Olofsdotter to the king of Norway. The Swedish king was angered and threatened to banish Ragnvald from his kingdom, but Ragnvald was supported by his foster-father Thorgny Lawspeaker. Thorgny delivered a powerful speech in which he reminded the king of the great Viking expeditions in the East that predecessors such as Erik Anundsson and Björn had undertaken, without having the hubris not to listen to their men's advice. Thorgny, had taken part in many successful pillaging expeditions with Olof's father Eric the Victorious and Eric had listened to his men; the present king wanted nothing but Norway. This displeased the Swedish people, who were eager to follow the king on new ventures in the East to win back the kingdoms that paid tribute to his ancestors, but it was the wish of the people that the king make peace with the king of Norway and give him his daughter Ingegerd as queen.
Thorgny finished his speech by saying: "if you do not desire to do so, we shall assault you and kill you and n