Danish Social Liberal Party
The Danish Social Liberal Party is a social-liberal political party in Denmark. The party is a member of Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe; the party was founded in 1905 as a split from the liberal Venstre Reform Party. The initial impetus was the expulsion of Venstre's antimilitarist wing from the party in January 1905; the expelled members held a founding conference for the new party in Odense, on 21 May 1905. In addition to the differences over military spending, the social liberals took a more positive view than Venstre towards measures that aimed to reduce social inequality; the party became the political leg of the cultural radical movement. The party was cautiously open to aspects of the welfare state, advocated reforms to improve the position of smallholders, an important early group of supporters; the party's social-liberal ideals are said to have been inspired by the political economists Henry George and John Stuart Mill. The literal translation "radical left" refers to its origin as the radical wing of its parent party Venstre In a modern context, this literal translation is somewhat misleading, as the party is in fact at the centre of the Danish political spectrum.
The use of the word for "left" in the name of the party is meant to refer to liberalism and not left-wing politics. Venstre was to the left of the conservative and aristocratic right-wing party Højre, which means "right"; the party president is Svend Thorhauge and it has eight members in the Folketing. The party's political leader is Morten Østergaard; the party performed well at the 2005 elections. It came out with 9.2 % of the popular vote and 17 seats in a gain of eight seats. In the 2007 elections, the party share of the popular vote fell to 5.1% and it lost 8 seats, leaving it a total of 9. In the subsequent 2011 elections, the party support rose to 9.5%, it regained 8 seats to resume a total of 17. Around 2005 the party was inspired by Richard Florida's book The Rise of the Creative Class; the party released their own book/political program called "Det kreative Danmark". Current issues high on the agenda for the party are: Strong opposition to the tight immigration policies of the former Liberal-Conservative government the 24 year rule.
Opposition to the educational policies of the former Liberal-Conservative government, which according to the party stresses centralisation, nationalised testing and old-fashioned educational ideas over creativeness, freedom in teaching methods and personal development of pupils. A major tax reform, which should simplify the tax system in such a way that income taxes will be reduced in favour of more environmental taxes, less tax deductions and higher taxes on real estate; the point of this is to make working more attractive and the hiring of service workers more attractive. This implies that the party is opposed to the Liberal-Conservative government's "tax freeze" which prohibits any tax increases, but changes of the taxation pattern. In 2007 some prominent members of the party criticised the strategy as being too left-leaning and depending too much on the Social Democrats. On 7 May 2007, MP Naser Khader and MEP Anders Samuelsen announced that they had left the party to found the economic liberal New Alliance renamed the Liberal Alliance, party along with Conservative MEP Gitte Seeberg.
During the following debate the party first distanced itself from the Social Democrats, but after being criticised internally for that too, returned to an oppositional role. On 6 January 2009 MP Simon Emil Ammitzbøll left the party and founded a new party called Borgerligt Centrum, again as a centre-right alternative. In June 2009 he joined Liberal Alliance. At a press release on 15 June 2007, it was announced that MP Margrethe Vestager would take over the leadership of the party after Marianne Jelved, that the party would rethink its strategy and will now consider forming a coalition government with either the left or right side of parliament. Vestager clarified during the run-up to the 2007 election that her party would only be supporting a government led by the Social Democrats. In the 2007 parliamentary elections, it received 5.1% of the vote, 9 out of 179 seats. In the 2011 parliamentary election, in which it ran as part of the "Red Bloc" with the Social Democrats, Socialist People's Party, Red-Green Alliance, it received 9.5% of the votes and went from 9 to 17 seats doubling its share of votes and of seats in the Folketing.
The party joined the new centre-left government led by incoming Prime Minister and Social Democrat leader Helle Thorning-Schmidt following the 2011 elections. The Danish Social Liberal Party has traditionally kept itself in the centre of the political scale. Since the early nineties, though, it has cooperated with the Social Democrats. Carl Theodor Zahle, Prime Minister 1909–1910 and 1913–1920, Erik Scavenius, Prime Minister 1942–1945, Hilmar Baunsgaard, Prime Minister 1968–1971, Trade Minister 1961–1964 Edvard Brandes, Finance Minister 1909–1910 and 1913–1920 Christopher Krabbe, Defence Minister 1909–1910 P. Munch, Minister of the Interior 1909–1910, Defence Minister 1913–1920, Foreign Minister 1929–1940 Poul Christensen, Agriculture Minister 1909–1910 Ove Rode, Minister of the Interior 1913
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Carl Theodor Zahle
Carl Theodor Zahle, Danish lawyer and politician. In 1895 he was elected member of the lower chamber of the Danish parliament, for Venstrereformpartiet. A campaigner for peace, in 1905 he co-founded Det Radikale Venstre together with other disgruntled members of Venstrereformpartiet, he continued on as a member of Folketinget for Det Radikale Venstre until 1928, when he became a member of the upper chamber of parliament Landsting. In 1929 he became Justice Minister, a post which he held until 1935. From 1936 until 1945 he was a board member of nationwide daily Politiken. Zahle was instrumental in starting negotiations for a new Danish–Icelandic Act of Union in 1917, which resulted in Iceland being recognized as a sovereign nation in a personal union with the king of Denmark the following year. C. Th. Zahle was born in Roskilde as the son of cobbler Christian Lauritz Gottlieb Zahle and his wife Karen Emilie, he was interested in politics in high school and saw himself as a convinced democrat in opposition to the Estrup government.
He took a degree in law in 1890 and worked for some time at newspapers for instance the newspaper Politiken. In 1894 he passed the bar exam to the high courts. In 1895 he was elected to the lower house of the Danish Rigsdag in the Ringsted election district, he won the seat and kept it in subsequent elections until 1928 where he was elected to the upper house of parliament. He kept his seat there until 1939, he was a co-founder of the Left Reform Party in 1895 and became a member of the parliamentary finance committee in 1901. After disagreements with party leader J. C. Christensen on the defence budget Zahle broke with his party and co-founded the Social Liberal Party in 1905 and became the first chairman of the new party. In 1909 he was able to form a minority government but had to resign as prime minister the year following an electoral defeat for his party. In 1911 he became mayor of Stege. In 1913 the Social Liberal Party and the Social Democrats got a majority in the lower house and Zahle was able to form a government backed by the Social Democrats.
This government was in office until 1920. Zahle was prime minister during World War I and the main objective for his administration during the war was to keep Denmark neutral. Zahle succeeded in this thanks to foreign minister Erik Scavenius. Although Denmark was neutral the war meant a scarcity of goods and materials and regulation of the economy became necessary. Interior minister Ove Rode was in charge of these policies. After the war the opposition had accumulated great anger towards the Zahle government; the government was accused of having been too friendly towards Germany during the war and the economic regulations limited the profits of business life. On top of that came the question in particular Flensburg. A referendum was held on the return of parts of Schleswig to Denmark from Germany and it was demanded that Germany should cede the city of Flensburg with no regards to the result of the referendum. Zahle refused to call for an election on this question and was deposed by king Christian X in 1920.
This resulted in the Easter Crisis of 1920 where social liberals, social democrats and socialists saw the king's dismissal of Zahle as unconstitutional. Zahle never became prime minister again but he became minister of justice under Thorvald Stauning from 1929 to 1935, he had worked for legal reforms. From 1936 to 1939 he was speaker of the upper house
Marxism is a theory and method of working class self-emancipation. As a theory, it relies on a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation, it originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Friedrich Engels. Marxism uses a methodology, now known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of class society and of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic and political change. According to Marxist theory, in capitalist societies, class conflict arises due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited proletariat—a class of wage labourers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie—the ruling class that owns the means of production and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the surplus product produced by the proletariat in the form of profit.
This class struggle, expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness. In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use; as the productive forces continued to advance, Marx hypothesized that socialism would be transformed into a communist society: a classless, humane society based on common ownership and the underlying principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs". Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory.
Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts, which has led to contradicting conclusions; however there is movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought. Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, media studies, political science, history, art history and theory, cultural studies, economics, criminology, literary criticism, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy; the term "Marxism" was popularized by Karl Kautsky, who considered himself an "orthodox" Marxist during the dispute between the orthodox and revisionist followers of Marx. Kautsky's revisionist rival Eduard Bernstein later adopted use of the term. Engels did not support the use of the term "Marxism" to describe either his views.
Engels claimed that the term was being abusively used as a rhetorical qualifier by those attempting to cast themselves as "real" followers of Marx while casting others in different terms, such as "Lassallians". In 1882, Engels claimed that Marx had criticized self-proclaimed "Marxist" Paul Lafargue, by saying that if Lafargue's views were considered "Marxist" "one thing is certain and, that I am not a Marxist". Marxism analyzes the material conditions and the economic activities required to fulfill human material needs to explain social phenomena within any given society, it assumes that the form of economic organization, or mode of production, influences all other social phenomena—including wider social relations, political institutions, legal systems, cultural systems and ideologies. The economic system and these social relations form a superstructure; as forces of production, i.e. technology, existing forms of organizing production become obsolete and hinder further progress. As Karl Marx observed: "At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or—this expresses the same thing in legal terms—with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto.
From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Begins an era of social revolution"; these inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in society which are, in turn, fought out at the level of the class struggle. Under the capitalist mode of production, this struggle materializes between the minority who own the means of production and the vast majority of the population who produce goods and services. Starting with the conjectural premise that social change occurs because of the struggle between different classes within society who are under contradiction against each other, a Marxist would conclude that capitalism exploits and oppresses the proletariat, therefore capitalism will lead to a proletarian revolution. Marxian economics and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for falling rates of profit by cutting employee's wages, social benefits and pursuing military aggression.
The socialist system would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' revolution. According to Marxian crisis theory, socialism is not an economic necessity. In a sociali
Nationalism is a political and economic ideology and movement characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty over its homeland. Nationalism holds that each nation should govern itself, free from outside interference, that a nation is a natural and ideal basis for a polity, that the nation is the only rightful source of political power, it further aims to build and maintain a single national identity—based on shared social characteristics such as culture, religion and belief in a shared singular history—and to promote national unity or solidarity. Nationalism, seeks to preserve and foster a nation's traditional culture, cultural revivals have been associated with nationalist movements, it encourages pride in national achievements, is linked to patriotism. Nationalism is combined with other ideologies, such as conservatism or socialism for example. Nationalism as an ideology is modern. Throughout history, people have had an attachment to their kin group and traditions, to territorial authorities and to their homeland, but nationalism did not become a widely-recognized concept until the 18th century.
There are three paradigms for understanding the origins and basis of nationalism. Primordialism proposes that there have always been nations and that nationalism is a natural phenomenon. Ethnosymbolism explains nationalism as a dynamic, evolutionary phenomenon and stresses the importance of symbols and traditions in the development of nations and nationalism. Modernism proposes that nationalism is a recent social phenomenon that needs the socio-economic structures of modern society to exist. There are various definitions of a "nation", which leads to different strands of nationalism. Ethnic nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared ethnicity and culture, while civic nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared citizenship and institutions, is linked to constitutional patriotism; the adoption of national identity in terms of historical development has been a response by influential groups unsatisfied with traditional identities due to mismatch between their defined social order and the experience of that social order by its members, resulting in an anomie that nationalists seek to resolve.
This anomie results in a society reinterpreting identity, retaining elements deemed acceptable and removing elements deemed unacceptable, to create a unified community. This development may be the result of internal structural issues or the result of resentment by an existing group or groups towards other communities foreign powers that are controlling them. National symbols and flags, national anthems, national languages, national myths and other symbols of national identity are important in nationalism. In practice, nationalism can be seen as positive or negative depending on context and individual outlook. Nationalism has been an important driver in independence movements, such as the Greek Revolution, the Irish Revolution, the Zionist movement that created modern Israel, the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Conversely, radical nationalism combined with racial hatred was a key factor in the Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany. More nationalism was an important driver of the controversial annexation of Crimea by Russia.
The terminological use of'nations','sovereignty' and associated concepts was refined with the writing by Hugo Grotius of De Jure Belli ac Pacis in the early 17th century. Living in the times of the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Netherlands and the Thirty Years' War between Catholic and Protestant European nations, it is not surprising that Grotius was concerned with matters of conflicts between nations in the context of oppositions stemming from religious differences; the word nation was usefully applied before 1800 in Europe to refer to the inhabitants of a country as well as to collective identities that could include shared history, language, political rights and traditions, in a sense more akin to the modern conception. Nationalism as derived from the noun designating'nations' is a newer word, it became important in the 19th century. The term became negative in its connotations after 1914. Glenda Sluga notes that "The twentieth century, a time of profound disillusionment with nationalism, was the great age of globalism."
Nationalism has been a recurring facet of civilizations since ancient times, though the modern sense of national political autonomy and self-determination was formalized in the late 18th century. Examples of nationalist movements can be found throughout history, from the Jewish revolts of the 1st and 2nd centuries, to the re-emergence of Persian culture during the Sasanid period of Persia, to the re-emergence of Latin culture in the Western Roman Empire during the 4th and 5th centuries, as well as many others. In modern times, examples can be seen in the emergence of German nationalism as a reaction against Napoleonic control of Germany as the Confederation of the Rhine around 1805–14. Linda Colley in Britons, Forging the Nation 1707–1837 explores how the role of nationalism emerged about 1700 and developed in Britain reaching full form in the 1830s. Historians of nationalism in Europe begin with the French Revolution, not only for its impact on French nationalism but more for its impact on Germans and Italians and on Eu
National Library of Israel
The National Library of Israel Jewish National and University Library, is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage. The library holds more than 5 million books, is located on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the National Library owns the world's largest collections of Hebraica and Judaica, is the repository of many rare and unique manuscripts and artifacts. The B'nai Brith library, founded in Jerusalem in 1892, was the first public library in Palestine to serve the Jewish community; the library was located on B'nai Brith street, between the Meah Shearim neighborhood and the Russian Compound. Ten years the Bet Midrash Abrabanel library, as it was known, moved to Ethiopia Street. In 1920, when plans were drawn up for the Hebrew University, the B'nai Brith collection became the basis for a university library; the books were moved to Mount Scopus. In 1948, when access to the university campus on Mount Scopus was blocked, most of the books were moved to the university's temporary quarters in the Terra Sancta building in Rehavia.
By that time, the university collection included over one million books. For lack of space, some of the books were placed in storerooms around the city. In 1960, they were moved to the new JNUL building in Givat Ram. In the late 1970s, when the new university complex on Mount Scopus was inaugurated and the faculties of Law and Social Science returned there, departmental libraries opened on that campus and the number of visitors to the Givat Ram library dropped. In the 1990s, the building suffered from maintenance problems such as rainwater leaks and insect infestation. In 2007 the library was recognized as The National Library of the State of Israel after the passage of the National Library Law; the law, which came into effect on 23 July 2008, changed the library's name to "National Library of Israel" and turned it temporarily to a subsidiary company of the University to become a independent community interest company, jointly owned by the Government of Israel, the Hebrew University and other organizations.
In 2011, the library launched a website granting public access to books, maps and music from its collections. In 2014, the project for a new home of the Library in Jerusalem was unveiled; the 34,000 square meters building, designed by the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, is scheduled for full completion in 2021. The library's mission is to secure copies of all material published in any language. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, other non-print media. Many manuscripts, including some of the library's unique volumes such the 13th century Worms Mahzor, have been scanned and are now available on the Internet. Among the library's special collections are the personal papers of hundreds of outstanding Jewish figures, the National Sound Archives, the Laor Map Collection and numerous other collections of Hebraica and Judaica; the library possesses some of Isaac Newton's manuscripts dealing with theological subjects.
The collection, donated by the family of the collector Abraham Yahuda, includes a large number of works by Newton about mysticism, analyses of holy books, predictions about the end of days and the appearance of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It contains maps that Newton sketched about mythical events to assist him in his end of days calculations; the library houses the personal archives of Gershom Scholem. Following the occupation of West Jerusalem by Haganah forces in May 1948, the libraries of a number Palestinians who fled the country as well as of other well-to-do Palestinians were transferred to the National Library; these collections included those of Henry Cattan, Khalil Beidas, Khalil al-Sakakini and Aref Hikmet Nashashibi. About 30,000 books were removed from homes in West Jerusalem, with another 40,000 taken from other cities in Mandatory Palestine, it is unclear whether the books were being kept and protected or if they were looted from the abandoned houses of their owners. About 6,000 of these books are in the library today indexed with the label AP – "Abandoned Property".
The books are cataloged, can be viewed from the Library's general catalog and are consulted by the public, including Arab scholars from all over the world. List of national and state libraries Union List of Israel Judaica Archival Project Official website