A humorist is an intellectual who uses humor in writing or public speaking. Humorists are distinct from comedians, who are show business entertainers whose business is to make an audience laugh, though some persons have occupied both roles in the course of their careers. Mark Twain was called the "greatest humorist this country has produced" in his New York Times obituary, William Faulkner called him "the father of American literature"; the United States national cultural center, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, has chosen to award a Mark Twain Prize for American Humor annually since 1998 to individuals who have "had an impact on American society in ways similar to the distinguished 19th century novelist and essayist best known as Mark Twain". Humor is the quality which makes experiences provoke laughter or amusement, while comedy is a performing art; the nineteenth century German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer lamented the misuse of humor to mean any type of comedy. A humorist is adept at seeing the humor in a situation or aspect of life and relating it through a story.
The humorist is a writer of books, newspaper or magazine articles or columns, stage or screen plays, may appear before an audience to deliver a lecture or read a piece of his or her work. The comedian always performs his or her work for an audience, either in live performance, audio recording, television, or film. According to Study.com, a humorist job requires a bachelor's degree, according to US Bureau of Labor statistics, earns a 2016 median salary of US$29.44. This is compared to the comedian, which requires a high school diploma and earns a median salary of $17.34. Phil Austin, of the comedy group the Firesign Theatre, expressed his thoughts about the difference in 1993 liner notes to the Fighting Clowns allbum: Clowns was the key word because clowning was what I thought had become our collective fate. I had once entertained higher ambitions for us, needless to say, although clowning is a wonderful thing, unless you are a clown in which case it's a job. To me, there is a great difference between a humorist and a clown, I had hoped that life for the Firesign Theatre would have led more toward the world of Mark Twain than the world of Beepo.
The humorist is a happy soul. He has time to think. Beepo, on the other hand, takes his chances directly facing—or mooning—the audience. Despite the name, conference of the Kennedy Center's Mark Twain Prize does not make the awardee a humorist; as of 2018, the center has chosen to confer the prize on one playwright. Renowned polymath Benjamin Franklin, as a newspaper editor and printer, became one of America's first humorists, most famously for Poor Richard's Almanack published under the pen name "Richard Saunders". Ring Lardner was a sports columnist and short story writer best known for his satirical writings about sports and the theatre. Robert Benchley, best known for his work as a newspaper columnist and film actor, began writing humorously for The Harvard Lampoon while attending Harvard University, for many years wrote essays and articles for Vanity Fair and The New Yorker. H. L. Menken was a journalist, cultural critic and scholar of American English. Known as the "Sage of Baltimore", he is regarded as one of the most influential American writers and prose stylists of the first half of the 20th century.
He commented on the social scene, music, prominent politicians and contemporary movements. He is known for dubbing the Scopes trial "the Monkey Trial". James Thurber was a cartoonist, journalist and celebrated wit, best known for his cartoons and short stories published in The New Yorker. Bennett Cerf was one of the founders of the publishing firm Random House, known for his own compilations of jokes and puns, for regular personal appearances lecturing across the United States, for his television appearances on the panel game show What's My Line? Art Buchwald wrote a political satire op-ed column for The Washington Post, nationally syndicated in many newspapers. Garrison Keilor is an author, voice actor, radio personality, best known as the creator and host of the Minnesota Public Radio show A Prairie Home Companion from 1974 to 2016, he created the setting of many of his books. He voiced the hardboiled detective parody character Guy Noir on his radio show. Oscar Wilde was an Irish playwright known for his biting wit.
Jerome K. Jerome was an English writer and humorist, best known for the comic travelogue Three Men in a Boat. P. G. Wodehouse was one of the most read humorists of the 20th century. Tom Sharpe was a satirical novelist, best known for his Wilt series, as well as Porterhouse Blue and Blott on the Landscape. Alan Coren could be considered the English equivalent of Bennett Cerf: a writer and satirist, well known as a regular panelist on the BBC radio quiz The News Quiz and a team captain on BBC television
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper. Based on 2015 statistics, it is Canada's highest-circulation newspaper on overall weekly circulation; the Toronto Star is owned by Toronto Star Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary of Torstar Corporation and part of Torstar's Daily News Brands division. The Star was created in 1892 by striking Toronto News printers and writers, led by future Mayor of Toronto and social reformer Horatio Clarence Hocken, who became the newspaper's founder, along with another future mayor, Jimmy Simpson; the Star was first printed on Toronto World presses, at its formation, The World owned a 51% interest in it as a silent partner. That arrangement only lasted for two months, during which time it was rumoured that William Findlay "Billy" Maclean, the World's proprietor, was considering selling the Star to the Riordon family. After an extensive fundraising campaign among the Star staff, Maclean agreed to sell his interest to Hocken; the paper did poorly in its first few years.
Hocken sold out within the year, several owners followed in succession until railway entrepreneur Sir William Mackenzie bought it in 1896. Its new editors, Edmund E. Sheppard and Frederic Thomas Nicholls, moved the entire Star operation into the same building used by the magazine Saturday Night; this would continue until Joseph E. "Holy Joe" Atkinson, backed by funds raised by supporters of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, bought the paper. The supporters included William Mulock, Peter Charles Larkin and Timothy Eaton. Atkinson was the Star's editor from 1899 until his death in 1948; the newspaper's early opposition and criticism of the Nazi regime saw it become one of the first North American papers to be banned in Germany. Atkinson had a social conscience, he championed many causes that would come to be associated with the modern welfare state: old age pensions, unemployment insurance, health care. The Government of Canada Digital Collections website describes Atkinson asa "radical" in the best sense of that term....
The Star was unique among North American newspapers in its consistent, ongoing advocacy of the interests of ordinary people. The friendship of Atkinson, the publisher, with Mackenzie King, the prime minister, was a major influence on the development of Canadian social policy. Atkinson became the controlling shareholder of the Star; the Star was criticized for practising the yellow journalism of its era. For decades, the paper included heavy doses of crime and sensationalism, along with advocating social change. From 1910 to 1973, the Star published the Star Weekly. Shortly before his death in 1948, Joseph E. Atkinson transferred ownership of the paper to a charitable organization given the mandate of continuing the paper's liberal tradition. In 1949, the Province of Ontario passed the Charitable Gifts Act, barring charitable organizations from owning large parts of profit-making businesses, that required the Star to be sold. Atkinson's will had directed that profits from the paper's operations were "for the promotion and maintenance of social and economic reforms which are charitable in nature, for the benefit of the people of the province of Ontario" and it stipulated that the paper could be sold only to people who shared his social views.
The five trustees of the charitable organization circumvented the Act by buying the paper themselves and swearing before the Supreme Court of Ontario to continue what became known as the "Atkinson Principles": A strong and independent Canada Social justice Individual and civil liberties Community and civic engagement The rights of working people The necessary role of governmentDescendants of the original owners, known as "the five families", still control the voting shares of Torstar, the Atkinson Principles continue to guide the paper to this day. In February 2006, Star media columnist Antonia Zerbisias wrote on her blog: Besides, we are the Star which means we all have the Atkinson Principles—and its multi-culti values—tattooed on our butts. Fine with me. At least we are upfront about our values, they always work in favour of building a better Canada. From 1922 to 1933, the Star was a radio broadcaster on its station CFCA, broadcasting on a wavelength of 400 metres, whose coverage was complementary to the paper's reporting.
The station was closed following the establishment of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission and the introduction of a government policy that, in essence, restricted private stations to an effective radiated power of 100 watts. The Star would continue to supply sponsored content to the CRBC's CRCT station, an arrangement that lasted until 1946. In 1971, the newspaper was renamed The Toronto Star and moved to a modern office tower at One Yonge Street by Queens Quay; the original Star Building at 80 King Street West was demolished to make room for First Canadian Place. The new building housed the paper's presses. In 1992, the printing plant was moved to the Toronto Star Press Centre at the Highway 407 & 400 interchange in Vaughan. In September 2002, the logo was changed, "The" was dropped from the papers. During the 2003 Northeast blackout, the Star printed the paper at a press in Ontario; until the mid-2000s, the front page of the Toronto Star had no advertising aside from lottery jackpot estimates from the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation.
On May 28, 2007, the Star unveiled a redesigned paper that features larger type, narrower pages and shorter articles, renamed
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution; as a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Mississauga; the university is ranked as the best Canadian university, according to various major publications. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School; the university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of deep learning, multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, the development of the theory of NP-completeness.
By a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University in Montreal, Canada; the Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey. The earliest recorded college football game was played in the University of Toronto's University College in the 1860s; the university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre serving cultural and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex. The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court; as of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.
The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States; the Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York, the colonial capital. On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature... to continue for to be called King's College." The granting of the charter was the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college's first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen's Park.
Under Strachan's stewardship, King's College was a religious institution aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of Upper Canada voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War, the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps, which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866; the Corps was part of the Reserve Militia lead by Professor Henry Croft.
Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to confer medical degrees; the university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884. A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library, but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904; the university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968.
The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada's first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry, founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean, was Canada's first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toro
CBC Radio is the English-language radio operations of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. The CBC operates a number of radio networks serving different audiences and programming niches, all of which are outlined below. CBC Radio operates three English language networks. CBC Radio One - Primarily news and information, Radio One broadcasts to most communities across Canada; until 1997, it was known as "CBC Radio". CBC Music - Broadcasts an adult music format with a variety of genres, with the classical genre restricted to midday hours. From 2007 to 2018, it was known as "CBC Radio 2". CBC Radio 3 - Broadcasts a youth-oriented indie rock format on Internet radio and Sirius XM Radio; some content from Radio 3 was broadcast as weekend programming on Radio Two until March 2007. The inconsistency of branding between the word "One" and the numerals "2" and "3" was a deliberate design choice on CBC's part and is not an error, though from 1997 to 2007, CBC Music was known as "CBC Radio Two". From 1944 to 1962 CBC's English service operated two radio networks, the main Trans-Canada Network and the Dominion Network.
In 1962 the Dominion Network was disbanded and the Trans-Canada Network became known as CBC Radio and in 1997, CBC Radio One. In some cases CBC announcers will still say "CBC Radio" in reference to programs that air only on Radio One; the CBC English service launched the CBC Radio app for iPhone on August 13, 2009. The free app provides 19 live streams for Radio One, 2 and 3, 60 on-demand services, including TV Audio and streams from CBC Music; the app runs on iPhone and iPod Touch devices 2.2.1 and higher, includes additional features such as a schedule, sleep timer, a favourites list. The app includes additional functionality; the CBC operates two French language radio networks, each of which has a similar programming focus to one of the corporation's English-language radio networks. A third service was discontinued in 2013. Structurally, the French-language radio operations are managed as part of the CBC's overall French-language services division, therefore have limited ties to the English-language radio networks, which are structured similarly.
Ici Radio-Canada Première - News and information. Ici Musique - Music and culture. Bande à part - Youth-oriented programming on Internet and Sirius, although some content continues to air as weekend programming on Espace musique, the predecessor of Ici Musique. Discontinued in 2013. In the Northwest Territories, Yukon and northern Quebec, CBC North airs a modified Radio One schedule to accommodate programming in Native languages and Radio Nord Quebec, which airs a combined Radio One / Première schedule via shortwave mixed in with programming in native languages. CBC Radio has 14 original podcasts. Two of the podcasts, Someone Knows Something and Missing & Murdered, are ranked among the top shows on the iTunes and Stitcher charts. "Someone Knows Something," hosted by filmmaker David Ridgen, first aired in 2016. The show, which investigates cold cases in Canada and the United States, finished its fourth season in March 2018. In season three, Ridgen worked with a Mississippi man, Thomas Moore, to solve the 1964 kidnapping and murder of Moore's brother and his friend, Henry Dee.
As a result of information uncovered by the podcast, James Ford Seale, a former member of the KKK, was convicted of the killings in 2007 and received three life sentences for his crimes against Moore and Dee. Season four returned to Canada as Ridgen sought answers in the 1996 unsolved murder case of Wayne Greavette, an Ontario man killed by a bomb, disguised as a Christmas gift and sent to his home. Season four had the fewest episodes of the series. Investigative journalist Connie Walker hosts "Missing & Murdered," a podcast which looks into deaths and disappearances of indigenous women in Canada; the show's first season, "Missing & Murdered: Who Killed Alberta Williams," covered the unsolved homicide of Alberta Williams who went missing from Prince Rupert, British Columbia, after a night out with friends. Her body was discovered days along Highway 16, which has since become known as "the Highway of Tears." Following the show, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police announced. The second season, released in March 2018, helped a family find out what happened to their teenage sister, Cleo Semaganis Nicotine, after she was sent to the United States from Saskatchewan during the "Sixties Scoop."
The stories featured on this podcast are part of a broader effort by Walker, Cree, CBC News to raise awareness about the more than 250 unsolved disappearances and homicides of indigenous women and girls across Canada. In 2017, the RCMP announced an initiative to stop violence against indigenous women and girls, citing studies done in 2014 that found they are among the most populations to be victims of violent crime; the CBC operates an online service. RCI ended its shortwave radio broadcast in June 2012. In some remote Canadian tourist areas, such as national or provincial parks, the CBC operates a series of transmitters which broadcast weather alerts from Environment Canada's Weatheradio Canada service; the CBC operated Galaxie, a digital television radio service which provides 45 channels of music programming to digital cable subscribers in both English and French. This service is now operated by Stingray Digital, who since relaunched the service as Stingray Music. CBC celebrates the generation of leaders and change-m