The Heliantheae are the third-largest tribe in the sunflower family. With some 190 genera and nearly 2500 recognized species, only the tribes Senecioneae and Astereae are larger; the name is derived from the genus Helianthus, Greek for sun flower. Most genera and species are found in North America and South America in Mexico. A few genera are pantropical. Most Heliantheae are herbs or shrubs. Leaves are hairy and arranged in opposite pairs; the anthers are blackened. The above statements about the size and distribution of the tribe apply to a broad definition of Heliantheae, followed throughout the 20th century; some recent authors break the tribe up into so smaller tribes. Commercially important plants in the Heliantheae include Jerusalem artichoke. Many garden flowers are in this group, such as Coreopsis, Echinacea and Zinnia; some authors place Cosmos in the Coreopsideae tribe. In addition to the benefits brought by the group, some are problematic weeds. Species of Ambrosia produce large quantities of pollen.
Each plant is reputed to be able to produce about a billion grains of pollen over a season, the plant is wind-pollinated. The traditional circumscription of the Heliantheae arises from Cassini's 19th-century classification of the Asteraceae; this broad group been divided by some authors into smaller tribes: Bahieae, Coreopsideae, Heliantheae sensu stricto, Millereae, Perityleae and Tageteae. Because the Eupatorieae originated from within the Heliantheae, to maintain monophyletic taxa it is necessary to either make Eupatorieae a subtribe within Heliantheae or to split the Heliantheae into smaller tribes; such classifications may define a supertribe Helianthodae including these smaller tribes, the Eupatorieae, a few other tribes such as Inuleae. In his 1981 revision of the Heliantheae, Harold Ernest Robinson divided the group into 35 subtribes: Bremer, Kåre.. Asteraceae: Cladistics & Classification. Portland, OR: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-275-7. Robinson, Harold Ernest.. A Revision of the Tribal and Subtribal Limits of the Heliantheae.
Smithsonian Contributions to Botany: 51. Strother, John L.. Taxonomy of Complaya, Iogeton, Wamalchitamia, Wedelia and Zyzyxia. Systematic Botany Monographs: 33. ISBN 0-912861-33-9. Media related to Heliantheae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Heliantheae at Wikispecies The dictionary definition of heliantheae at Wiktionary Cassini, Alexandre de. "unknown". Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris. 88: 196. J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts. Retrieved 2008-06-30
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Eriophyllum lanatum, with the common names common woolly sunflower and Oregon sunshine, is a common, North American plant in the sunflower family. The Lewis and Clark Expedition saw this plant growing above their camp on the Clearwater River, collected two specimens of the scientifically unnamed plant on 6 June 1806. Botanist Frederick Traugott Pursh studied the plants collected on the Lewis and Clark Expedition, after their return to the east, his first classification and naming of the species, as Actinella lanata, was published in his 1813 book A Systematic Arrangement and Description of The Plants of North America. The common name "woolly sunflower" is used to describe any member of the genus Eriophyllum. Eriophyllum lanatum is native to western North America growing in many dry, open places below 10,000 feet in elevation, it prefers full sun and well-drained soil, but it grows on rocky slopes and bluffs. It is most common across California, in chaparral, oak woodland, mixed evergreen forest, yellow pine forest and other conifer forests and sagebrush scrub habitats.
It grows north through Oregon into British Columbia and east through Idaho into Wyoming, through Nevada into Utah. Its range reaches south into Mexico in Baja California state. Eriophyllum lanatum is a perennial herb growing from 1 to 2 feet in height; the woolly sunflower grows in well-branched clumps. Both stems and leaves may be covered with a woolly gray hair; the hairs conserve water by reducing air movement across the leaf's surface. The hairs impart a dusty gray color to the plant; the leaves are linear on the upper stems. InflorescenceFlowers are yellow and composite, looking much like true sunflowers, sometimes grow to 2 inches wide. Both the ray and disk flowers are yellow, with one flower head on each flowering stalk, it blooms from May to August, Varieties include: Eriophyllum lanatum var. achillioides Jeps. — California, Oregon. Eriophyllum lanatum var. arachnoideum Jeps. — Spiderweb sunflower. Eriophyllum lanatum var. croceum Jeps. — Sierra woolly sunflower. Eriophyllum lanatum var. grandiflorum Jeps.
— Large flowered woolly sunflower. Eriophyllum lanatum var. hallii Constance — Fort Tejon woolly sunflower, Hall's woolly sunflower. Eriophyllum lanatum var. integrifolium Smiley — Oregon sunshine. Eriophyllum lanatum var. lanatum — Idaho, Oregon, Washington. Eriophyllum lanatum var. lanceolatum Jeps. — endemic to the Klamath Mountains, in NW California and SW Oregon. Eriophyllum lanatum var. leucophyllum W. R. Carter — British Columbia, Washington. Eriophyllum lanatum var. obovatum H. M. Hall — Southern Sierra woolly sunflower. Pink, A.. Gardening for the Million. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Calflora Database: Eriophyllum lanatum Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Eriophyllum lanatum USDA Plants Profile for Eriophyllum lanatum U. C. Calphotos gallery: Eriophyllum lanatum images Wildflowers of the Pacific Northwest: Eriophyllum lanatum — photos, Northwest distribution map. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, University of Texas: Eriophyllum lanatum
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona is a public polytechnic university in Pomona, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It is one of two polytechnics in the California State University system. Cal Poly Pomona began as the southern campus of the California Polytechnic School in 1938 when a equipped school and farm in the city of San Dimas were donated by Charles Voorhis and his son Jerry Voorhis; the southern campus grew further in 1949 when a horse ranch in the neighboring city of Pomona, which had belonged to Will Keith Kellogg, was acquired from the University of California. Cal Poly Pomona known as Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo continued operations under a unified administrative control until they became independent from one another in 1966. Cal Poly Pomona offers bachelor's degrees in 94 majors, 39 master's degrees, 13 teaching credentials and a doctorate across 9 distinct academic colleges; the university is one among a small group of polytechnic universities in the United States which tend to be devoted to the instruction of technical arts and applied sciences.
Its sports teams are known as the Cal Poly Pomona Broncos and play in the NCAA Division II as part of the California Collegiate Athletic Association. The Broncos have won 14 NCAA national championships. Current and former Cal Poly Pomona athletes have won 7 Olympic medals. Events leading to the foundation of present-day Cal Poly at Pomona began with the demise of the Voorhis School for Boys in San Dimas and its acquisition by the San Luis Obispo-based California Polytechnic School in 1938; the California Polytechnic School was founded as a vocational high school when California Governor Henry Gage signed the Polytechnic School Bill on March 8, 1901 after its drafting by school founder Myron Angel. Voorhis School, on the other hand, had been established in 1928 as a private vocational school which provided elementary schooling for underprivileged boys and operated under the Christian religious principle, "education coupled with the Kingdom of God", its founder Charles B. Voorhis and headmaster Jerry Voorhis maintained the school opened throughout the worst years of the Great Depression but persistent economic pressures forced them to transfer control to Cal Poly San Luis Obispo in 1938.
Hence, Voorhis School became the Cal Poly-Voorhis Unit and its educational offerings were raised to the same level as Cal Poly San Luis Obispo's a two-year college. The horticulture program was moved to the new satellite campus and the two units operated as one institution spanning two locations under the leadership of president Julian McPhee. During World War II most of the student body was called to active military duty, enrollment declined and the campus closed in 1943. Reopening after the war, Cal Poly-Voorhis Unit operated in San Dimas until 1956 when it moved to Will Keith Kellogg’s former horse ranch in the neighboring city of Pomona, California. Acknowledging its Kellogg legacy, Cal Poly-Voorhis Unit changed its name to Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis Unit and offered six programs in agriculture; the inaugural class of 1957 at the new campus consisted of 57 students graduating with bachelor’s degrees in a ceremony held at the Rose Garden in Pomona and religious services at Voorhis Chapel in San Dimas.
In 1957, Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis introduced the College of Engineering, the second academic unit after the College of Agriculture. The California Master Plan for Higher Education added the two Cal Poly campuses to the new California State College system in 1961 and Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis Unit opened its doors for the first time to 329 female students. President McPhee retired in 1966, Cal Poly split into two different and independent universities; the partnership between the two campuses remains with their involvement in the annual Cal Poly Universities Rose Float. To better reflect its new ties to the California State College system, Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis changed its name to “California State Polytechnic College, Kellogg-Voorhis” in 1966 and became the 16th campus to join the CSC system. Robert C. Kramer assumed presidency of the independent campus in 1966 and California State Polytechnic College, Kellogg-Voorhis adopted its present-day name California State Polytechnic University, Pomona on June 1, 1972.
In 1998, Cal Poly Pomona received criticism when it planned to grant an honorary degree to Robert Mugabe. Mugabe's negative humanitarian record as president of Zimbabwe lead to protests from staff and students forcing the university to rescind the award. Cal Poly Pomona underwent further growth in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, with the construction of the CLA Building, academic facilities, expansion to the Cal Poly Pomona University Library and the addition of programs such as the Lyle Center for Regenerative Studies, the I-Poly High School and the U. R. Bronco undergraduate research program. Under then-president J. Michael Ortiz, Cal Poly Pomona launched its first comprehensive capital campaign in fall of 2008 to increase its permanent endowment; the negative economic effects caused by the late-2000s recession has increased student fees, reduced enrollment availability, eliminated two athletic programs and introduced a mandatory furlough calendar for most of its 47,000 employees. The campus' office of public affairs recognizes two official names for the university: "California State Polytechnic University, Pomona" and "Cal Poly Pomona".
However, "Cal Poly" has been used to refer to Cal Poly at Pomona, as both its
Eriophyllum mohavense known as the Mojave woolly sunflower or the Barstow woolly sunflower, is a rare species of small annual flowering plant in the aster family, found only in the Mojave Desert of California. Eriophyllum mohavense grows in gravelly, or clay soils of the Mojave Desert, it grows between 3,000 feet elevation. It can be found in creosote bush scrub and saltbush scrub plant communities, it has been found in Kramer Hills, around Harper Dry Lake, Opal Mountain, Cuddleback Lake, Kramer Junction. Some populations have been found within the boundaries of Edwards Air Force Base and Joshua Tree National Park; this is a tiny annual herb forming woolly tufts only 1 to 3 centimeters tall. It is covered with long wooly hairs. There are pointed leaves at the base of the tuft, no more than a centimeter long each; the leaves are spoon-shaped. The plant produces cylindrical flower heads just a few millimeters wide, containing 3-4 bright yellow disc flowers; the phyllaries are concave. The disc florets have ray-like lobes.
The fruit is an achene about half a centimeter long including a short pappus. This plant is illustrative of problems with conducting botanical inventories of annuals in deserts. Seeds may lay in the ground for years. Aboveground plants may be absent for years, creating the false impression that plants populations are no longer present, it is threatened in its entire range, by military activities, off-road vehicles, energy development. It meets the criteria for listing to be protected, but as of 2014 has not been given legal protection. Jepson Manual Treatment United States Department of Agriculture Plants Profile Calphotos Photo gallery, University of California
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, some have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, edible in the raw state, such as apples, grapes, lemons and strawberries. On the other hand, in botanical usage, "fruit" includes many structures that are not called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels and wheat grains; the section of a fungus that produces spores is called a fruiting body. Many common terms for seeds and fruit do not correspond to the botanical classifications. In culinary terminology, a fruit is any sweet-tasting plant part a botanical fruit.
However, in botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary or carpel that contains seeds, a nut is a type of fruit and not a seed, a seed is a ripened ovule. Examples of culinary "vegetables" and nuts that are botanically fruit include corn, eggplant, sweet pepper, tomato. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chili pepper, are fruits. In contrast, rhubarb is referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole of the rhubarb plant is edible, edible gymnosperm seeds are given fruit names, e.g. ginkgo nuts and pine nuts. Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, rice, or wheat, is a kind of fruit, termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is thin and is fused to the seed coat, so all of the edible grain is a seed; the outer edible layer, is the pericarp, formed from the ovary and surrounding the seeds, although in some species other tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, the epicarp and endocarp.
Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be beaked. A fruit results from maturation of one or more flowers, the gynoecium of the flower forms all or part of the fruit. Inside the ovary/ovaries are one or more ovules where the megagametophyte contains the egg cell. After double fertilization, these ovules will become seeds; the ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming a zygote, the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process; the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, the endosperm mother cell will give rise to endosperm, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo.
As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy, or form a hard outer covering. In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules; the pericarp is differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp and endocarp. In some fruits simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower, fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off; when such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms. There are three general modes of fruit development: Apocarpous fruits develop from a single flower having one or more separate carpels, they are the simplest fruits. Syncarpous fruits develop from a single gynoecium having two or more carpels fused together.
Multiple fruits form from many different flowers. Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, composite or multiple fruits; the groupings are not evolutionarily relevant, since many diverse plant taxa may be in the same group, but reflect how the flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop. Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy, result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary in a flower with only one pistil. Dry fruits may be either dehiscent, or indehiscent. Types of dry, simple fruits, examples of each, include: achene – most seen in aggregate fruits capsule – caryopsis – cypsela – an achene-like fruit derived from the individual florets in a capitulum. Fibrous drupe – follicle – is formed from a single carpel, opens by one suture