Eris is the most massive and second-largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System. Eris was discovered in January 2005 by a Palomar Observatory-based team led by Mike Brown, its discovery was verified that year. In September 2006 it was named after the goddess of discord. Eris is the ninth-most massive object directly orbiting the Sun, the sixteenth-most massive overall, it is the largest object that has not been visited by a spacecraft. Eris has been measured at 2,326 ± 12 kilometers in diameter, its mass is 0.27% as much as the Earth's and 27% more than dwarf planet Pluto's, though Pluto is larger by volume. Eris is a trans-Neptunian object and a member of a high-eccentricity population known as the scattered disk, it has Dysnomia. As of February 2016, its distance from the Sun was 96.3 astronomical units three times that of Pluto. With the exception of some long-period comets, until 2018 VG18 was discovered on December 17, 2018, Eris and Dysnomia were the most distant known natural objects in the Solar System.
Because Eris appeared to be larger than Pluto, NASA described it as the Solar System's tenth planet. This, along with the prospect of other objects of similar size being discovered in the future, motivated the International Astronomical Union to define the term planet for the first time. Under the IAU definition approved on August 24, 2006, Eris is a "dwarf planet", along with objects such as Pluto, Ceres and Makemake, thereby reducing the number of known planets in the Solar System to eight, the same as before Pluto's discovery in 1930. Observations of a stellar occultation by Eris in 2010 showed that its diameter was 2,326 ± 12 kilometers slightly less than Pluto, measured by New Horizons as 2,376.6 ± 3.6 kilometers in July 2015. Eris was discovered by the team of Mike Brown, Chad Trujillo, David Rabinowitz on January 5, 2005, from images taken on October 21, 2003; the discovery was announced on July 29, 2005, the same day as Makemake and two days after Haumea, due in part to events that would lead to controversy about Haumea.
The search team had been systematically scanning for large outer Solar System bodies for several years, had been involved in the discovery of several other large TNOs, including 50000 Quaoar, 90482 Orcus, 90377 Sedna. Routine observations were taken by the team on October 21, 2003, using the 1.2 m Samuel Oschin Schmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory, but the image of Eris was not discovered at that point due to its slow motion across the sky: The team's automatic image-searching software excluded all objects moving at less than 1.5 arcseconds per hour to reduce the number of false positives returned. When Sedna was discovered in 2003, it was moving at 1.75 arcsec/h, in light of that the team reanalyzed their old data with a lower limit on the angular motion, sorting through the excluded images by eye. In January 2005, the re-analysis revealed Eris's slow motion against the background stars. Follow-up observations were carried out to make a preliminary determination of Eris's orbit, which allowed the object's distance to be estimated.
The team had planned to delay announcing their discoveries of the bright objects Eris and Makemake until further observations and calculations were complete, but announced them both on July 29 when the discovery of another large TNO they had been tracking, was controversially announced on July 27 by a different team in Spain. Precovery images of Eris have been identified back to September 3, 1954. More observations released in October 2005 revealed that Eris has a moon named Dysnomia. Observations of Dysnomia's orbit permitted scientists to determine the mass of Eris, which in June 2007 they calculated to be ×1022 kg, 27%±2% greater than Pluto's. Eris is named after a personification of strife and discord; the name was proposed by the Caltech Team on September 6, 2006, it was assigned on September 13, 2006, following an unusually long period in which the object was known by the provisional designation 2003 UB313, granted automatically by the IAU under their naming protocols for minor planets.
The regular adjectival form of Eris is Eridian. Due to uncertainty over whether the object would be classified as a planet or a minor planet, because different nomenclature procedures apply to these different classes of objects, the decision on what to name the object had to wait until after the August 24, 2006 IAU ruling; as a result, for a time the object became known to the wider public as Xena. "Xena" was an informal name used internally by the discovery team. It was inspired by the title character of the television series Xena: Warrior Princess; the discovery team had saved the nickname "Xena" for the first body they discovered, larger than Pluto. According to Brown, "We assumed a real name would come out quickly, the process got stalled", Mike Brown said in an interview: According to science writer Govert Schilling, Brown wanted to call the object "Lila", after a concept in Hindu mythology that described the cosmos as the outcome of a game played by Brahman; the name was similar to "Lilah", the name of Brown's newborn daughter.
Brown was mindful of not making his name public before it had been accepted. He had done so with Sedna a year and had been criticized. However, no objection was raised to the Sedna name other than the breach of protocol, no competing names were suggested for Sedna, he listed the address of his personal web page announcing the discovery as /~mbrow
Shaun Muir Racing is an international race team based in Guisborough, Cleveland in the north-east of England. The team is owned by a former international superbike racer. For 2019, they will be a BMW factory-supported team using BMW S1000RR machines, they were the 2011 British Superbike Championship winning team with rider Tommy Hill, again in 2015 with rider Josh Brookes. Shaun Muir Racing began in 2002, moving into the British Superbike Championship in 2004 under the Hydrex Honda banner, staying with Honda until 2011 when they switched to Yamaha machinery going on to win their first title. From 2013-2015, the team used the name Milwaukee Yamaha, reflecting the name of its major sponsor, Milwaukee Tools. During 2015, SMR acted as a Yamaha factory development agent, working to develop the cross-plane R1 engined machines in advance of an anticipated return to World Superbike racing in 2016. In an online interview in November 2015, rider Josh Brookes commented that Muir could not make a statement regarding the team's plans for 2016 until the contract with Yamaha had ended in December.
In early December, Shaun Muir confirmed his move to World Superbikes. For 2016, Shaun Muir Racing confirmed a new arrangement with BMW factory motorsport to participate in World Superbikes via a one-year contract with a second-year option, as a semi-factory supported team, again backed by key-sponsor Milwaukee Tools for three years. Muir further confirmed his disappointment that Yamaha had not responded as expected with an offer of machinery for 2016 World Superbikes as far back as June/July 2015, that he anticipated better interaction with the BMW factory; the 2015 BSB champion rider Josh Brookes will be retained, joined by Czech rider Karel Abraham. During 2015, SMR acted as a Yamaha factory development agent in conjunction with Yamaha Europe and their German research and development base, using the British Superbike season to progress the machines in advance of an anticipated return to World Superbike racing in 2016; the alliance provided the team with the latest engine improvements, with manager Mick Shanley making regular trips to the base of engine tuner Marcus Eschenbacher.
For 2015, the team logo was uniquely changed from the previous version, by adding the official Yamaha crossed tuning-fork logo, together with the additional legend "Official Team BSB". During the 2013 and 2014 seasons, SMR worked with major sponsor Milwaukee Tools and race-modified Yamaha R1 machines purchased over-the-counter; the team logo for 2013 and 2014 was significant, using the name Milwaukee Yamaha Racing, until changes were made for the 2015 season by adding the official Yamaha tuning-fork logo with added legend unique for 2015, changing the appearance to Milwaukee Yamaha Racing, Official Team BSB. As BMW MotorradTom SykesMarkus Reiterberger 2018Davide Giugliano Eugene Laverty Lorenzo Savadori 2017Eugene Laverty Lorenzo SavadoriJulián Simón 2016Josh BrookesKarel Abraham 2015Josh Brookes #25 Broc Parkes #2 Jakub Smrž #96 2014 Josh Brookes #3 Tommy Bridewell #46 Ian Hutchinson2013 James Ellison #77 Josh Waters #21 Kieran Clarke #74 Steve Plater #4 Gary Mason #5 Glen Richards #75 Dean Thomas #12 Stuart Easton #3 Karl Harris #5 Tommy Hill #33 Guy Martin #9 Leon Camier #2 Ian Hutchinson #2 James Ellison #7 Guy Martin #15 James Ellison #2 Stuart Easton #3 Michael Laverty #7 Tommy Hill #33/#1 Noriyuki Haga #41 Guy Martin, William Dunlop, Conor Cummins have represented the team on the roads at North West 200, Isle of Man TT, Macau Grand Prix and Isle of Man Southern 100 on the Superbike and Superstock machines.
After the departure of James Ellison in 2008 to GSE racing Airwaves Yamaha Team, Karl Harris was taken on to race alongside Stuart Easton to compete for the BSB championship in 2009. Easton finished third place in the Championship, whilst Harris was dropped due to poor performances, his place being taken for the last three rounds by Tommy Hill. Hydrex Honda at Motor Cycle News
Women's +78 kg competition in judo at the 2004 Summer Olympics was held on August 20 at the Ano Liossia Olympic Hall. This event was the heaviest of the women's judo weight classes, allowing competitors with over 78 kilograms of body mass. Like all other judo events, bouts lasted five minutes. If the bout was still tied at the end, it was extended for another sudden-death period; the tournament bracket consisted of a single-elimination contest culminating in a gold medal match. There was a repechage to determine the winners of the two bronze medals; each judoka who had lost to a semifinalist competed in the repechage. The two judokas who lost in the semifinals faced the winner of the opposite half of the bracket's repechage in bronze medal bouts. All times are Greece Standard Time Those judoka eliminated in earlier rounds by the four semifinalists of the main bracket advanced to the repechage; these matches determined the two bronze medalists for the event. Yahoo! Sports Athens 2004 Summer Olympics Judo Results