Democracy is a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting. In a direct democracy, the citizens as a whole form a governing body and vote directly on each issue. In a representative democracy the citizens elect representatives from among themselves; these representatives meet to form a governing body, such as a legislature. In a constitutional democracy the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech, or freedom of association. "Rule of the majority" is sometimes referred to as democracy. Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes; the uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy, which makes all forces struggle for the realization of their interests, being the devolution of power from a group of people to a set of rules.
Western democracy, as distinct from that which existed in pre-modern societies, is considered to have originated in city-states such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic, where various schemes and degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity. The English word dates back to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents. According to American political scientist Larry Diamond, democracy consists of four key elements: a political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections. Todd Landman draws our attention to the fact that democracy and human rights are two different concepts and that "there must be greater specificity in the conceptualisation and operationalization of democracy and human rights"; the term appeared in the 5th century BC to denote the political systems existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens, to mean "rule of the people", in contrast to aristocracy, meaning "rule of an elite".
While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically. The political system of Classical Athens, for example, granted democratic citizenship to free men and excluded slaves and women from political participation. In all democratic governments throughout ancient and modern history, democratic citizenship consisted of an elite class, until full enfranchisement was won for all adult citizens in most modern democracies through the suffrage movements of the 19th and 20th centuries. Democracy contrasts with forms of government where power is either held by an individual, as in an absolute monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals, as in an oligarchy; these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic and monarchic elements. Karl Popper defined democracy in contrast to dictatorship or tyranny, thus focusing on opportunities for the people to control their leaders and to oust them without the need for a revolution.
No consensus exists on how to define democracy, but legal equality, political freedom and rule of law have been identified as important characteristics. These principles are reflected in all eligible citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to legislative processes. For example, in a representative democracy, every vote has equal weight, no unreasonable restrictions can apply to anyone seeking to become a representative, the freedom of its eligible citizens is secured by legitimised rights and liberties which are protected by a constitution. Other uses of "democracy" include that of direct democracy. One theory holds that democracy requires three fundamental principles: upward control, political equality, social norms by which individuals and institutions only consider acceptable acts that reflect the first two principles of upward control and political equality; the term "democracy" is sometimes used as shorthand for liberal democracy, a variant of representative democracy that may include elements such as political pluralism.
Roger Scruton argues that democracy alone cannot provide personal and political freedom unless the institutions of civil society are present. In some countries, notably in the United Kingdom which originated the Westminster system, the dominant principle is that of parliamentary sovereignty, while maintaining judicial independence. In the United States, separation of powers is cited as a central attribute. In India, parliamentary sovereignty is subject to the Constitution of India which includes judicial review. Though the term "democracy" is used in the context of a political state, the principles are applicable to private organisations. Majority rule is listed as a characteristic of democracy. Hence, democracy allows for political minorities to be oppressed by the "tyranny of the majority" in the absence of legal protections of individual or group rights. An essential part of an "ideal" representative democracy is competitive elections that are substantively and procedurally "fair," i.e. just and equitable
Central African Republic–United States relations
Central African Republic–United States relations are the international relations between Central African Republic and the United States of America. The relations have been positive, although concerns over the pace of political and economic liberalization and human rights have affected the degree of support provided by the United States to the Central African Republic; the United States and the Central African Republic established diplomatic relations on August 13th, 1960. The U. S. Embassy in Bangui was closed as a result of the 1996-97 mutinies, it reopened in 1998 with limited staff, but U. S. Agency for International Development and Peace Corps missions operating in Bangui did not return; the American Embassy in Bangui again temporarily suspended operations on November 2, 2002 in response to security concerns raised by the October 2002 launch of François Bozizé's 2003 military coup. The Embassy reopened in January 2005. S. diplomatic/consular representation in the C. A. R; as a result, the ability of the Embassy to provide services to American citizens remains limited.
The Department of State approved. S. assistance to the Central African Republic had been prohibited except in the areas of humanitarian aid and support for democratization. On December 27, 2012 the US closed its embassy in the Central African Republic and removed its diplomats due to rising violence from the rebellion in the country. Ambassador, U. S. Embassy Bangui Ambassador, Central African Republic Embassy Washington, D. C.--Emmanuel Touaboy The U. S. Embassy is located in Bangui; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Central African Republic - U. S. relations
Republic of the Congo–United States relations
Republic of the Congo–United States relations are the international relations between the Republic of the Congo and the United States of America. The Republic of the Congo was recognized by the United States on the day of its independence, 15 August 1960. Diplomatic relations between the United States and Congo were broken during the most radical Congolese-Marxist period, 1965-77; the U. S. Embassy reopened in 1977 with the restoration of relations, which remained distant until the end of the socialist era; the late 1980s were marked by a progressive warming of Congolese relations with Western countries, including the United States. Congolese President Denis Sassou-Nguesso made a state visit to Washington in 1990, where he was received by President George H. W. Bush. Emmanuel Damongo-Dadet served as the first Congolese Ambassador to the United States during the early 1960s. With the advent of democracy in 1991, Congo's relations with the United States improved and were cooperative; the United States has supported Congolese democratization efforts, contributing aid to the country's electoral process.
The Congolese Government demonstrated an active interest in deepening and broadening its relations with the United States. Transition Prime Minister Andre Milongo made an official visit to Washington in 1992, where President Bush received him at the White House. Then-presidential candidate Pascal Lissouba travelled to Washington in 1992, meeting with officials, including Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Herman J. Cohen. After his election in August 1992, President Lissouba expressed interest in expanding U. S.-Congo links, seeking increased U. S. development aid, university exchanges, greater U. S. investment in Congo. With the outbreak of the 1996 war, the U. S. Embassy was evacuated; the Embassy was closed, its personnel became resident in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 2001, Embassy-suspended operations were lifted, Embassy personnel were allowed to travel to Brazzaville for periods of extended temporary duty from the U. S. Embassy in Kinshasa; as a result, U. S.-Congo bilateral relations were reinvigorated.
In 2003 and 2004, this practice continued, a site for construction of a new Embassy was acquired in July 2004. Diplomatic activities and programs were carried out in a temporary bank location until January 2009, when a new functioning Embassy was opened. Relations between the United States and the government of President Denis Sassou-Nguesso are positive and cooperative; the U. S. Embassy accredited to Congo is in Republic of the Congo; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Republic of the Congo - U. S. relations
Kagnew Station was a United States Army installation in Asmara, Eritrea on the Horn of Africa. The installation was established in 1943 as a U. S. Army radio station, taking over and refurbishing a pre-existing Italian naval radio station, Radio Marina, after Italian forces based in Asmara surrendered to the Allies in 1941. Kagnew Station operated until April 1977, when the last Americans left; the station was home to the United States Army's 4th Detachment of the Second Signal Service Battalion. The Cold War listening station, Kagnew Station, was located close to the equator and at an altitude of 7,300 feet above sea level, its altitude and close proximity to the equator made Kagnew Station an ideal site for the Cold War listening station's dishes and the 2,500-acre antenna farm. In all Kagnew sprawled over 3,400 acres containing eight walled tracts. Kagnew Station became home for over 5,000 American citizens at a time during its peak years of operation during the 1960s. Fighting between the Ethiopian military and Eritrean resistance fighters forced the closing of military's Keren R & R Center, located in the city of Keren in 1971.
The Massawa R&R Center, located on the Red Sea, was closed shortly after the Keren R Center. The U. S. Army's 12 million dollar cost for maintaining their soldiers at Kagnew Station faced a budget axe in 1972 and the U. S. Army withdrew from Kagnew Station in 1973 but the Navy personnel remained. Fighting between the Eritrean resistance and the Ethiopian government forces began affecting operations at Kagnew Station in the 1970s. In March 1971, 3,500 Americans remained at 1,900 personnel and 1,600 dependents. By July 18, 1972, U. S. personnel at Kagnew Station were reduced to 900 personnel. In March 1974, only 100 civilian technicians remained to operate the residual communications facility, along with their families, eight to ten U. S. military personnel. On the night of January 31, 1975, heavy fighting broke out in Eritrea and incoming rocket-propelled grenades landed inside the Tract E compound; this began a season of frequent nighttime firefights between the Eritrean resistance and the Soviet-backed Ethiopian forces.
On 14 July 1975, gunmen abducted two Americans and four Ethiopians from Kagnew Communications Station. The Americans, Steve Campbell and Jim Harrel, worked for Collins International Service Company, a government contractor. On Friday 12 September 1975, the Eritrean Liberation Front, ELF, raided the US facility at Asmara, kidnapping a further eight people, including two Americans. On February 12, 1976 a meeting at the White House Situation Room took place discussing Kagnew Station. Lt. General Smith stated, "Right now fleet operations are dependent on Kagnew; the Navy has a strong interest in keeping it. They have reaffirmed to me that if they don't have Kagnew they would need a similar site elsewhere". At one point in the discussion, Mr. Noyes said, "Yes. If we didn't have Kagnew there would be communications delays 25% of the time. By December 1976 the only critical function appeared to be Mystic Star. In the same memorandum, the United States Department of Defense stated, "It recommends closing Kagnew by September 1977 if Mystic Star can be relocated".
U. S. Department of State Department "Background Notes: State of Eritrea, March 1998," stated, "In the 1970s, technological advances in the satellite and communications fields were making the communications station at Kagnew obsolete. Early in 1977, the United States informed the Ethiopian Government that it intended to close Kagnew Station by September 30, 1977. In the meantime, U. S. relations with the Mengistu regime were worsening. In April 1977, Mengistu abrogated the 1953 mutual defense treaty and ordered a reduction of U. S. personnel in Ethiopia, including the closure of Kagnew Communications Center and the consulate in Asmara". Not included in the report are the circumstances of the closing of Kagnew Station. In April, 1977, The Ethiopian Government closed the United States military installations and gave Military Assistance Advisory Group personnel a week's notice to leave the country. A large store of equipment remained behind in the rapid American departure. Ethiopia abrogated the 1953 United States-Ethiopian Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement and terminated the lease on Kagnew station.
On April 29, 1977, the last Americans left Kagnew Station. In March 1941 Roosevelt administration declared Ethiopia eligible for the military aid program known as the Lend-Lease program; this was done to support the British troops in Libya and Egypt which were fighting Germany's Afrika Korps. The focus of the lend-lease program was in Eritrea, a former Italian colony which strategically bordered the Red Sea. British forces had established a communications base at the former Italian radio communications base named called Radio Marina, located in Asmara, Eritrea; the British used the former Italian name for Radio Marina. The United States received access to the base from the British beginning in 1942; the United States would call the former Radio Marina the "Asmara Barracks," but the name "Radio Marina" would become the more enduring name for the base until the base was named "Kagnew Station". In 1943 a seven-man detachment refurbished the former British facilities and began testing the new equipment they installed.
Eritrea's geographical location. Early testing proved so promising that the War Department moved to expand operations before Asmara Barracks opened. On June 1, 1943, two officers, one warrant officer and 44 enlisted men began intensive training at Vint Hill Farms to man Radio Marina. In
Asmara or Asmera is the capital and most populous city of Eritrea, in the country's Central Region. It sits at an elevation of 2,325 metres, making it the sixth highest capital in the world by altitude; the city is located at the tip of an escarpment, both the northwestern edge of the Eritrean highlands and the Great Rift Valley in neighbouring Ethiopia. In 2017, the city was declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its well-preserved modernist architecture. Asmara was first settled in 800 BC with a population ranging from 100 to 1000; the city was founded in the 12th century CE after four separate villages unified to live together peacefully after long periods of conflict. According to Eritrean Tigrinya oral traditional history, there were four clans living in the Asmara area on the Kebessa Plateau: the Gheza Gurtom, the Gheza Shelele, the Gheza Serenser and Gheza Asmae; these towns were attacked by clans from the low land and from the rulers of "seger mereb melash", until the women of each clan decided that to defeat their common enemy and preserve peace the four clans must unite.
The men accepted, hence the name "Arbate Asmera". Arbate Asmara means, in the Tigrinya language, "the four made them unite". Arbate was dropped and it has been called Asmara which means "they made them unite". There is still a district called Arbaete Asmara in the Administrations of Asmara, it is now called the Italianized version of the word Asmara. The westernized version of the name is used by a majority of non-Eritreans, while the multilingual inhabitants of Eritrea and neighboring peoples remain loyal to the original pronunciation, Asmera; the missionary Remedius Prutky passed through Asmara in 1751, described in his memoirs that a church built there by Jesuit priests 130 years before was still intact. Asmara, a small village in the nineteenth century, started to grow when it was occupied by Italy in 1889. Governor Ferdinando Martini made it the capital city of Italian Eritrea in 1897, in preference to the Red Sea port of Massawa, since the city experienced a continuous growth. In the early 20th century, the Eritrean Railway was built to the coast, passing through the town of Ghinda, under the direction of Carlo Cavanna.
In both 1913 and 1915 the city suffered only slight damage in large earthquakes. A large Italian community developed. According to the 1939 census, Asmara had a population of 98,000. Only 75,000 Italians lived in all of Eritrea; the capital acquired an Italian architectural look. Europeans used Asmara "to experiment with radical new designs". By the late 1930s, Asmara was called Piccola Roma. Nowadays more than 400 buildings are of Italian origin, many shops still have Italian names; the Kingdom of Italy invested in the industrial development of Asmara, but the beginning of World War II stopped this. The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organisation made Asmara a World Heritage Site in July 2017, saying “It is an exceptional example of early modernist urbanism at the beginning of the 20th century and its application in an African context”. In 1952, the United Nations resolved to federate the former colony under Ethiopian rule. During the Federation, Asmara was no longer the capital city; the capital was now Addis Ababa, over 1,000 kilometres to the south.
The national language of the city was therefore replaced from Tigrinya language to the Ethiopian Amharic language. In 1961, Emperor Haile Selassie I ended the "federal" arrangement and declared the territory to be the 14th province of the Ethiopian Empire. Ethiopia's biggest ally was the United States; the city was home to the US Army's Kagnew Station installation from 1943 until 1977. The Eritrean War of Independence began in 1961 and ended in 1991, resulting in the independence of Eritrea. Asmara was left undamaged throughout the war, as were the majority of highland regions. After independence, Asmara again became the capital of Eritrea. Four big landmarks of the city are the Church of Our Lady of the Rosary and the Kidane Mehret Cathedral of the Catholic faith, the Enda Mariam Cathedral of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Al Khulafa Al Rashiudin Mosque of the Islamic faith. Christians and Muslims have lived peacefully together in Asmara for centuries; the religious majority in Asmara are Orthodox Christians.
The population in the Central Region is 5 percent Muslim. The city lies at an elevation of 2,325 metres above sea level, it lies on north-south trending highlands known as the Eritrean Highlands, an extension of the Ethiopian Highlands. The temperate central portion, where Asmara lies, is situated on a rocky highland plateau, which separates the western lowlands from the eastern coastal plains; the lands that surround Asmara are fertile those to the south towards the Debub Region of Eritrea. The highlands that Asmara is located in fall away to reveal the eastern lowlands, characterized by the searing heat and humidity of the Eritrean salt pans, lapped by the Red Sea. To the west of the plateau stretches a vast semi-arid hilly terrain continuing all the way towards the border with Sudan through the Gash-Barka Region. Asmara features a somewhat rare version of a steppe climate, with warm, but not hot summ
Ethiopia–United States relations
Ethiopia–United States relations are bilateral relations between Ethiopia and the United States. Ethiopia is a strategic partner of the United States in the Global War on Terrorism; the United States is the largest donor to Ethiopia: in 2008 U. S. foreign aid to Ethiopia totaled US$969 million, in 2009 US$916, with 2010 estimated at US$513 and US$586 requested for 2011. U. S. development assistance to Ethiopia is focused on reducing famine vulnerability and poverty and emphasizes economic and social sector policy reforms. Some military training funds, including training in such issues as the laws of war and observance of human rights are provided; the Ethiopian government has been criticized for severe human rights violations. According to Human Rights Watch, the aid given by the United States is being abused to erode democracy in Ethiopia; the current Ambassador of Ethiopia to the United States is Girma Birru. Principal U. S. Officials include Ambassador Michael A. Deputy Chief of Mission Troy Fitrell.
The U. S. Embassy in Ethiopia is located in Addis Ababa. According to the 2016 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 29% of Ethiopians approve of U. S. leadership, with 4% disapproving and 67% uncertain. U. S.-Ethiopian relations were established in 1903, after nine days of meetings in Ethiopia between Emperor Menelik II and Robert P. Skinner, an emissary of President Theodore Roosevelt; this first step was augmented with treaties of arbitration and conciliation signed at Addis Ababa 26 January 1929. These formal relations included a grant of Most Favored Nation status, were good up to the Italian occupation in 1935. Warqenah Eshate, while visiting the United States in 1927, visited Harlem, where he delivered Ras Tafari's greetings to the African-American community and Tafari's invitation to skilled African Americans to settle in Ethiopia. A number of African-Americans did travel to Ethiopia, such as John Robinson who became the commander of the Ethiopian Air force, where they played a number of roles in the modernization of the country before the Italian conquest in 1935.
In his autobiography, Emperor Haile Selassie notes that the United States was one of only five countries which refused to recognize the Italian conquest of his country. Following the return of Emperor Haile Selassie to Ethiopia, the United States certified Ethiopia for participation in Lend-Lease; this was followed on 16 May 1944 by the arrival of what was called the Fellows Mission, led by James M. Landis. Another significant event transpired in January 1944, when President Franklin Roosevelt met with Emperor Haile Selassie aboard the USS Quincy in the Great Bitter Lake of Egypt. Although no matters of substance were resolved, the meeting both strengthened the Emperor's strong predilection towards the United States, as well as discomforted the British, at odds with the Ethiopian government over the disposition of Eritrea and the Ogaden; these ties were strengthened with the signing of the September 1951 treaty of amity and economic relations. In 1953, a further two agreements were signed: a mutual defense assistance agreement, under which the United States agreed to furnish military equipment and training, an accord regularizing the operations of a U.
S. communication facility at Kagnew Station. In 1957 U. S. Vice President Richard Nixon visited Ethiopia and called it "one of the United States' most stalwart and consistent allies". In addition, during the 1960s the U. S. Army provided mapping for much of the country of Ethiopia in an operation known as the Ethiopia-United States Mapping Mission. Through fiscal year 1978, the United States provided Ethiopia with $282 million in military assistance and $366 million in economic assistance in agriculture, public health, transportation. Ethiopia was one of the first countries to take part in the American Peace Corps program, which emphasized agriculture, basic education, health, economic development and teaching English as a foreign language; the Peace Corps reports that since 1962, when its first volunteers arrived in Ethiopia, a total of 2,934 volunteers have served in that country. U. S. Information Service educational and cultural exchanges were an important part of their relations. After the Ethiopian Revolution, the bilateral relationship began to cool due to the Derg's linking with international communism and U.
S. revulsion at the junta's human rights abuses. The United States rebuffed Ethiopia's request for increased military assistance to intensify its fight against the Eritrean secessionist movement and to repel the Somali invasion; the International Security and Development Act of 1985 prohibited all U. S. economic assistance to Ethiopia with the exception of humanitarian disaster and emergency relief. In July 1980, the U. S. Ambassador to Ethiopia was recalled at the request of the Ethiopian Government, the U. S. Embassy in Ethiopia and the Ethiopian Embassy in the United States were headed subsequently by Charges d'Affaires. With the downfall of Mengistu Haile Mariam, U. S.-Ethiopian relations improved as legislative restrictions on non-humanitarian assistance to Ethiopia were lifted. Diplomatic relations were upgraded to the ambassadorial level in 1992. Total U. S. government assistance, including food aid, between 1991 and 2003 was $2.3 billion. During the severe drought year of 2003, the U. S. provided a record $553.1 million in assistance.
The U. S. Congress, attempted to set conditions, over the objections of the Bush Administration. In October, 2007, the House of Representatives passed the Ethiopia Democracy and Accountability Act of 2007, banning military aid, for other th
Malawi–United States relations
The transition from a one-party state to a multi-party democracy strengthened the cordial U. S. relationship with Malawi. Significant numbers of Malawians study in the United States; the United States has an active Peace Corps program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Servicess, an Agency for International Development mission in Malawi. U. S. and Malawian views on the necessity of economic and political stability in southern Africa coincide. Through a pragmatic assessment of its own national interests and foreign policy objectives, Malawi advocates peaceful solutions to the region's problems through negotiation. Malawi works to achieve these objectives in the United Nations, COMESA, SADC. Malawi is the first southern African country to receive peacekeeping training under the U. S.-sponsored African Crisis Response Force Initiative and has joined the successor program, African Contingency Operations Training Assistance. It has an active slate of peacetime engagement military-to-military programs.
The two countries maintain a continuing dialogue through diplomatic representatives and periodic visits by senior officials. In July 2011, the United States suspended direct aid funding; the US government agency responsible, the Millennium Challenge Corporation, suspended aid because it was'deeply upset' by the deaths of the 19 people during the July protests. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 60% of Malawians approve of U. S. leadership, with 25% disapproving and 15% uncertain. The United States has a substantial foreign assistance program in Malawi, with the U. S. Government providing $70 million annually in development assistance to Malawi under USAID's Country Strategic Plan; the primary goal of USAID assistance is poverty reduction and increased food security through broad-based, market-led economic growth, focusing on four areas: sustainable increases in rural incomes, increased civic involvement in the rule of law, improved access to and quality of health services, improved access to quality basic education.
The USAID program is implemented in partnership with the Government of Malawi, nongovernmental organizations, other U. S. Government agencies, U. S. private voluntary organizations and other partners, including the private sector through public-private partnerships. USAID's program to increase rural incomes includes training and technical assistance to increase smallholder productivity. USAID is encouraging smallholders to diversify into dairy production, a lucrative business in Malawi and well-suited to Malawi's limited land area. USAID grantee Land O' Lakes, partnering with World Wide Sires, continues to promote the growth of the dairy industry in Malawi through 55 dairy associations with over 6,376 members. USAID, through the Presidential Initiative to End Hunger in Africa, improved output markets for a total of 177,468 rural households. USAID-supported microfinance institutions provided financial services to 189,782 clients and disbursed 351,319 loans valued at $35,876,401. U. S. Government funding totaling $700,000 was leveraged to provide up to $13 million in agricultural financing through Malawi's first Development Credit Authority.
The Democracy and Governance portfolio continued to evolve in 2007, which proved to be an important transition year for the MCC Threshold Country Program. Activities under the TCP reaped positive results in fighting corruption, improving fiscal responsibility, establishing a more transparent and effective judiciary; as a result of successes gained under the TCP, the Government of Malawi was the only country in the world selected by MCC in December 2007 for Compact eligibility. Several other Democracy and Governance activities continued to fight corruption in the private sector, educate at-risk youth of their civic responsibilities, nurture Christian/Muslim dialogue and relationships; the Democracy and Governance office initiated a public-private partnership with the Financial Services Volunteer Corps to assist the Reserve Bank of Malawi and private banks to further develop risk-based banking supervision capacity. Chancellor College and a U. S.-based Historically Black College/University entered into a partnership to strengthen the government's legal aid programs.
As was the case in previous years, USAID continued to support the Sector Wide Approach to Health in 2007 through discrete initiatives aimed at "increased use of improved health behaviors and services" for maternal and reproductive health, including HIV/AIDS, malaria. These sustained efforts over the last 7 years have had substantial impact on health indicators in the country. In the area of HIV prevention, for example, the number of USAID-assisted counseling and testing centers increased from 3 in 2000 to 276 in 2007, while the number of clients assisted at these sites per year increased from about 22,000 in 2000 to more than 192,000 in 2007. In addition, according to a national Demographic and Health Survey completed in 2005 with support from USAID, USAID's Presidential Emergency Plan for HIV/AIDS Relief activities reached 1,351,404 people through ABC messages (abstinence from sexual activity, being faithful to a single partn