Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa
Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa is the United States military operation to combat militant Islamism and piracy in the Horn of Africa. It is one component of Operation Enduring Freedom, which includes eight African states stretching from the far northeast of the continent to the oil-rich Gulf of Guinea in the west; the other OEF mission in Africa is known as Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara, until the creation of the new United States Africa Command, was run from the United States European Command. The Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa is the primary military component assigned to accomplish the objectives of the mission; the naval component is the multinational Combined Task Force 150 which operates under the direction of the United States Fifth Fleet. Both of these organizations have been part of United States Central Command. In February 2007, United States President George W. Bush announced the establishment of the United States Africa Command which took over all of the area of operations of CJTF-HOA in October 2008.
CJTF-HOA consists of about 2,000 servicemen and women from the United States military and allied countries. The official area of responsibility comprises Sudan, Djibouti, Eritrea and Kenya. Outside this Combined Joint Operating Area, the CJTF-HOA has operations in Mauritius, Liberia, Rwanda and Tanzania; the American contribution to the operation, aside from advisers and other forms of non-combat support, consists of drone strikes targeted at Al-Shabaab. These are estimated to have killed 400 militants as well as 3 to 10 civilians. Other American combat operations include manned airstrikes, cruise missile strikes, special forces raids. On 9 December 2002 the Spanish frigate Navarra intercepted the unflagged freighter So San several hundred miles southeast of Yemen at the request of the United States government; the frigate fired across So San's bow after the freighter ignored hails and attempted to evade the frigate. The freighter's crew was North Korean. Yemen claimed ownership of the shipment and protested the interception and U.
S. officials released the vessel after receiving assurances that the missiles would not be transferred to a third party. Pirates present a hazard to all shipping there; this is done by the Combined Task Force 150 and in parallel to other independent anti-piracy operations conducted off the coast of Somalia by other countries such as China and Russia. The United States Coast Guard cutter USCGC Munro, working with the British aircraft carrier HMS Invincible and destroyer HMS Nottingham in the Gulf of Aden, intercepted a hijacked vessel at around noon on 17 March; the interception was ordered after Commander, U. S. Naval Forces Central Command received telephone reports from the International Maritime Bureau's Piracy Reporting Center in Kuala Lumpur, concerning the hijacking of the Thai-flagged fishing boat Sirichai Nava 12 by three Somalis on the evening of 16 March, as well as a fax indicating that the hijackers demanded U. S. $800,000 in ransom for the vessel's crew. Commander, Combined Task Force 150 tasked Invincible and Munro to investigate the situation.
A Visit, Board and Seizure team from Munro boarded Sirichai Nava, while a boarding team from Nottingham went on to a second fishing vessel, Ekhwat Patana, with the Thai vessel. Munro's boarding team detained the Somalis without incident. One of the crew members of the Thai vessel had a minor flesh wound, treated by the Munro boarding team; the Coast Guardsmen discovered four automatic weapons in the pilothouse, expended ammunition shells on the deck of the vessel, as well as ammunition on the detained suspects. The three suspects were transferred to Munro. On 21 January 2006, USS Winston S. Churchill, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, captured a vessel operating off the Somali coast whose crew were suspected of piracy. On 18 March 2006, USS Cape St. George, a Ticonderoga-class cruiser and USS Gonzalez, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, engaged pirate vessels after receiving fire from them. On 3 June 2007, USS Carter Hall, a landing ship dock, engaged pirates attacking a freighter, but failed to repel them.
On 28 October 2007, the destroyer USS Porter, opened fire on pirates who had captured a freighter and with other vessels blockaded a port the pirates attempted to take refuge in. On 20 January, a 14 Royal Malaysian Navy PASKAL assault teams engaging seven Somali pirates on board the Japanese-Malaysian chemical freighter MT Bunga Laurel, about 300 nautical miles east of Oman, near Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea, resulting in 3 pirates wounded, 4 remaining pirates captured, the freeing of 23 Filipino hostages after gunfighting aboard the vessel. In the early morning of 22 January, 15 ROKN UDT/SEAL members boarded the 11,000-ton chemical freighter Samho Jewelry, taken by 13 pirates six days prior. All 21 hostages were secured, with one hostage suffering a non-fatal gunshot wound to the abdomen. On 12 April, HDMS Esbern Snare intercepted a pirate vessel, capturing 34 pirates and freeing 34 hostages; that day, HNLMS Tromp opened fire on another pirate vessel, killing 2 pirates. A hijacked dhow was hailed by USS Bainbridge on 10 May, after which 7 pirates on
Ethiopian Civil War
The Ethiopian Civil War was a civil conflict fought between Ethiopia's communist governments and anti-government rebels from September 1974 to June 1991. The Derg overthrew the Ethiopian Empire and Emperor Haile Selassie in a coup d'état on 12 September 1974, establishing Ethiopia as a Marxist-Leninist communist state with itself as a military junta and provisional government. Various left-wing and anti-communist opposition groups supported by the United States began armed resistance to the Soviet-backed Derg, in addition to the Eritrean separatists fighting in the Eritrean War of Independence; the Derg used the Qey Shibir to repress the rebels. By the mid-1980s, various issues such as the 1983–1985 famine, economic decline and other after-effects of Derg policies ravaged Ethiopia, increasing popular support for the rebels; the Derg dissolved itself in 1987, establishing the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia under the Workers' Party of Ethiopia in an attempt to maintain its rule. The Soviet Union ended its support for the PDRE in the late-1980s and the government was overwhelmed by the victorious rebel groups.
In May 1991, the PDRE was defeated in Eritrea and President Mengistu Haile Mariam fled the country. The Ethiopian Civil War ended on 4 June 1991 when the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, a coalition of left-wing ethnic rebel groups, entered the capital Addis Ababa and overthrew the WEP; the PDRE was dissolved and replaced with the Tigray People's Liberation Front-led Transitional Government of Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Civil War left at least 1.4 million people dead, with 1 million of the deaths being related to famine and the remainder from combat and other violence. The Ethiopian Empire became politically unstable during the 1950s under the rule of Emperor Haile Selassie, whose administration was becoming unpopular among non-noble Ethiopians at all levels of society, discontented with Ethiopia's perceived backwardness, stagnating quality of life and development, human rights abuses. Although Haile Selassie was a popular cultural figure, his attempts at modernizing reforms were ineffective, his rule was viewed as maintaining Ethiopia's feudal political system that favored the Ethiopian nobility who had rejected his reforms.
The 1960 Ethiopian coup attempt in December 1960 saw an attempted overthrow of Haile Selassie by a group of high-ranking politicians and military officers to institute a progressive government under his son, Crown Prince Asfaw Wossen, to solve Ethiopia's economic and political problems. However, the coup was rushed and defeated by loyalists, leading to a return of the status quo. On 12 September 1974, Haile Selassie and his government were overthrown by the Derg, a non-ideological committee of low-ranking officers and enlisted men in the Ethiopian Army who became as the ruling military junta. On 21 March 1975, the Derg abolished the monarchy and adopted Marxist-Leninist communism as their official ideology, establishing themselves as a provisional government for the process of building a socialist state in Ethiopia; the Crown Prince went into exile in London, where several other members of the House of Solomon lived, while other members who were in Ethiopia at the time of the revolution were imprisoned.
Haile Selassie, his daughter by his first marriage Princess Ijigayehu, his sister Princess Tenagnework, many of his nephews, close relatives, in-laws were among those detained. On 27 August 1975, Haile Selassie died under mysterious circumstances in detention at the Jubilee Palace in Addis Ababa; that year, private urban real-estate holdings were nationalized by the Derg. The Derg did not establish their control over the country, the subsequent power vacuum led to open challenges from numerous civilian opposition groups; the Ethiopian government had been fighting Eritrean separatists in the Eritrean War of Independence since 1961, now faced other rebel groups ranging from the conservative and pro-monarchy Ethiopian Democratic Union, to the rival Marxist-Leninist Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party, the ethnic Tigrayan People's Liberation Front. In 1976, the Derg instigated the Qey Shibir, a campaign of violent political repression targeting the EPRP and the All-Ethiopia Socialist Movement, in an attempt to consolidate their power.
The Qey Shibir was escalated on 3 February 1977 following the appointment of Mengistu Haile Mariam as Chairman of the Derg, who took a hardline stance against opponents. The urban guerrilla warfare saw brutal tactics used on all sides, including executions, assassinations and imprisonment without trial. By August 1977, the EPRP and MEISON were devastated, with their leadership either dead or fleeing to the countryside to continue their activities in stronghold areas, but despite this the Derg did not consolidate their power as much as hoped; the majority of the Qey Shibir's estimated 30,000 to 750,000 victims are believed to be innocents, with the violence and collateral damage shocking many Ethiopians into supporting rebel groups. On 13 July 1977, the Ogaden War was triggered when the Somali Democratic Republic invaded Ethiopia to annex the Ogaden, a predominantly Somali populated border region. A month earlier, Mengistu accused Somalia of infiltrating Somali National Army soldiers into the Ogaden to fight alongside the Western Somali Liberation Front, despite considerable evidence to the contrary, Somalia's leader Siad Barre denied this by stating SNA "volunteers" were being allowed to help the WSLF.
Although both countries were Soviet-backed communist states, Barre sought to exploit Ethiopia's
Meles Zenawi Asres was an Ethiopian politician, the 13th Prime Minister of Ethiopia from 1995 to his death in 2012. From 1989, he was the chairman of the Tigray People's Liberation Front, the head of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front since its formation in 1991. Before becoming Prime Minister in 1995, he served as President of the Transitional Government of Ethiopia from 1991 to 1995. In 1975, he left Haile Selassie I University to fight Derg. After the overthrow of the Derg's military government, he was elected as President of the transitional government and as Prime Minister, he lifted his country from the ruins of civil war and transformed it into one of Africa's fastest-growing economies. Meles was born in Adwa, Tigray, in northern Ethiopia, to an Ethiopian father Zenawi Asres from Adwa and Alemash Guebreluel from Adi Quala, Eritrea, he was the third of six children. His first name at birth was "Legesse". However, he became better known by his nom de guerre Meles, which he adopted in honor of University student and fellow Tigrayan Meles Tekle, executed by Mengistu Haile Mariam's Derg government in 1975.
He received primary education at Queen of Sheba Junior School located in Adwa. It took him 5 years to complete the regular 8 years program as he was able to skip grades and join the next level, he joined the prestigious General Wingate High school in Addis Ababa on full scholarship and completed high school in 1972. Upon graduating with honors from General Wingate High school, Prime Minister Zenawi was awarded the Haile Selassie I Prize Trust, a selective award given only to the most outstanding students. At this time, he entered the University of Addis Ababa Medical school, where he spent the next few years. In 1975, Prime Minister Zenawi left the University and became a founding member of the Tigray People's Liberation Front. Meles Zenawi was an Orthodox Christian, a follower of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. After high school, Meles studied medicine at Addis Ababa University for two years before dropping out his studies in 1974 to join other students and form Tigrayan National Organization the forerunner TPLF in Dedebit, Tigray.
Aregawi Berhe, a former member of the TPLF, notes that historians John Young and Jenny Hammond "vaguely indicated" Meles as founder TPLF in their books. Aregawi insists that both Sebhat Nega joined the Front "months" after it was founded. While a member of the TPLF, Meles established the Marxist-Leninist League of Tigray. TPLF was one of armed groups struggling against Lieutenant Colonel Mengistu Hailemariam and the Derg, the junta which lead Ethiopia under iron fist from 1974-1991. Meles was elected member of the leadership committee in 1979 and chairman of the executive committee of TPLF in 1983, he was the chairperson of both the TPLF and the EPRDF after the EPRDF assumed power at the end of the Ethiopian Civil War in 1991. He was president of the transitional government of Ethiopia, during which Eritrea seceded from the country and a federal Government, based on representing the nation and nationality of the country started. Meles stated that EPRDF's victory was a triumph for the thousands of TPLF-fighters who were killed, for the millions of Ethiopians who were victims of the country's biggest famine during the Derg regime, when some estimates put up to 1.5 million deaths of Ethiopians from famine and the Red Terror.
Accordingly, he maintained that the big support it received from peasants and rural areas helped EPRDF maintain peace and stability. Foreign support was diverse. "What the implications of this will be in terms of relations between Ethiopia and the European Union, we will have to wait and see but I don't think you will be surprised if Ethiopia were to insist that it should not be patronised."The United States facilitated peace talks between different rebel groups including EPRDF and the Derg to bring an end to civil war which lasted for 17 years and reach some kind of political settlement in 1991. The talks didn't bear any fruit as EPRDF's force were moving to the capital and Mengistu fled the country; the United State agreed to support the EPRDF which would have seized power without anyone's support. Many angry demonstrators in Addis Ababa reacted to this by protesting against Herman Cohen, the U. S. State Department's chief of African affairs who attended a conference that demonstrators viewed as legitimizing the EPRDF.
In July 1991, Convention of Nationalities was held. It was the first Ethiopian multinational convention where delegates of various nations and organizations were given fair and equal representation and observed by various international organizations including the United Nations, Organization for African Unity, European Economic Community, the United States and the United Kingdom. Although Meles and his administration claimed they preferred a united but federal state that included the Eritrean state, since Meles' TPLF fought together with EPLF, Meles left the decision to the Eritrean citizens in the hope that the independence referendum would vote against secession, according to Time magazine's 1991 analysis. However, after the EPLF secured their borders when Mengistu's regime fell, after the majority of Eritreans vot
Djiboutian–Eritrean border conflict
The Djiboutian–Eritrean border conflict between the forces of Djibouti and Eritrea occurred between June 10 and June 13, 2008. It was triggered by tension which began on April 16, 2008, when Djibouti reported that Eritrean armed forces had penetrated into Djibouti and dug trenches on both sides of the border; the crisis deepened when armed clashes broke out between the two armed forces in the border area on June 10, 2008. During the conflict, France provided logistical and intelligence support to Djibouti, but did not participate in direct combat; the in force 1900 boundary agreement specifies that the international boundary starts at Cape Doumeira at the Red Sea and runs for 1.5 km along the watershed divide of the peninsula. Furthermore, the 1900 protocol specified that Ile Doumeira offshore and its adjacent smaller islets would not be assigned sovereignty and would remain demilitarized. Djibouti and Eritrea had twice clashed over the border area. In January 1935, Italy and France signed the Franco-Italian Agreement wherein parts of French Somaliland were given to Italy.
The actual border at Ras Doumeira though was never demarcated save for a broad agreement that the northern slopes of hill were Italian and the southern slopes were French and this arrangement sufficed whilst France and Italy remained in control of the area. However, the question of ratification has brought this agreement, its provision of substantial parts of Djibouti to Eritrea into question. In April 1996 the Djiboutian government accused Eritrean forces of having made a 7 km incursion into its territory following a clash at the Djiboutian border post of Ras Doumeira. Within two days these claims had grown into accusations that the Eritrean government harbours a territorial claim to part of Djibouti’s northern coastline; the allegations were made by the foreign affairs, Mohamed Moussa Chehem, to his perplexed Eritrean counterpart, Petros Solomon, on an official visit to Djibouti the following day. Mr Solomon subsequently met with the Djiboutian president, who raised the alleged incursion.
In a series of contradictory accounts, the Djiboutian authorities said that they had dispatched 600 troops to the area. On April 18 Mr Solomon stated categorically in a press statement that “there has never been any clash or incident in Doumeira”, adding that the Eritrean government was “surprised and saddened” by the allegations. In January Eritrea requested to cross the border in order to get sand for a road, but instead occupied a hilltop in the region. On April 16, Eritrea is reported by Djibouti to have set up fortifications and dug trenches on both sides of the Djiboutian border near Ras Doumeira. Djibouti, in a letter to the UN calling for intervention, claimed new maps put out by Eritrea showed Ras Doumeira as Eritrean territory. Eritrea denied. Ethiopia's Prime Minister Meles Zenawi said on May 15 that the row was a "threat to the peace and security of the whole Horn of Africa" and said Ethiopia would secure their trade corridor through Djibouti in the event of a conflict. Ethiopia has relied on Djibouti for access to the Red Sea since Eritrea's independence.
Eritrea's President Isaias Afwerki denied sending troops into the area and added they do not have any problem with Djibouti. On June 10, according to Djibouti, several Eritrean troops deserted their positions, fleeing to the Djiboutian side. Djiboutian forces came under fire from Eritrean forces demanding the return of the deserters. Djibouti called up police who had retired since 2004 in response to the fighting. Eritrea dismissed accounts from Djibouti as "anti-Eritrean". A statement from Eritrea's Foreign Ministry said it would not "get involved in an invitation of squabbles and acts of hostility" and claimed Djibouti was trying to drag Eritrea into its "concocted animosity". According to French Colonel Ducret, French soldiers in Djibouti provided logistical and medical assistance to the Djibouti army as well as providing them with intelligence. Clashes between the two forces continued for several days before Djibouti's military announced on June 13 that fighting had subsided, but on the same day, President Guelleh, was quoted by the BBC as saying that his country was at war with Eritrea.44 Djiboutian soldiers were killed and 55 wounded during the fighting.
According to Djiboutian estimates, 100 Eritrean soldiers were killed, 100 captured, 21 defected. Djiboutian President Guelleh declared: "We've always had good relations, but they aggressively occupied part of our country. This is an aggression we are resisting". By 2008 the U. S. Defense Intelligence Agency estimated. Arab League:The League of Arab States held an emergency session in response to the fighting and called for Eritrea to withdraw from the border region. France:French Defense Minister Hervé Morin held discussions with Djibouti's Defense Minister Ougoureh Kifleh Ahmed, promising to strengthen the French military presence in the country in case there is "an escalation in the current border row." To reaffirm the "very great concern of France" over the recent border incidents, according to diplomatic sources, has "reassured his counterpart of the full support" of his government, at the same time calling for a "diplomatic" settlement of the issue. The two nations have a mutual defense agreement.
The French foreign ministry said it was concerned about the fighting. The French defense ministry announced they were increasing their military presence in Djibouti and increasing their support for Djibouti's army following the border clashes; the announcement said France was "preparing to de
History of Eritrea
"Eritrea" is an ancient name, associated in the past with its Greek form Erythraia, Ἐρυθραία, its derived Latin form Erythræa. This name relates to that of the Red Sea called the Erythræan Sea, from the Greek for "red", ἐρυθρός, erythros; the Italians created the colony of Eritrea in the 19th century around Asmara, named it with its current name. After World War II Eritrea was annexed to Ethiopia. In 1991 the Eritrean People's Liberation Front defeated the Ethiopian "derg" government. Tigray is a region of Ethiopia whose religions, food and culture are the same as that of the greater part of Eritrea. A lot of people have families on both sides of the border between Tigray. Eritrea celebrated its 1st anniversary of independence on May 24, 1991. At Buya in Eritrea, one of the oldest hominids representing a possible link between Homo erectus and an archaic Homo sapiens was found by Italian scientists. Dated to over 1 million years old, it is the oldest skeletal find of its kind and provides a link between hominids and the earliest anatomically modern humans.
It is believed that the section of the Danakil Depression in Eritrea was a major player in terms of human evolution, may contain other traces of evolution from Homo erectus hominids to anatomically modern humans. During the last interglacial period, the Red Sea coast of Eritrea was occupied by early anatomically modern humans, it is believed that the area was on the route out of Africa that some scholars suggest was used by early humans to colonize the rest of the Old World. In 1999, the Eritrean Research Project Team composed of Eritrean, American and French scientists discovered a Paleolithic site with stone and obsidian tools dated to over 125,000 years old near the Bay of Zula south of Massawa, along the Red Sea littoral; the tools are believed to have been used by early humans to harvest marine resources like clams and oysters. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic era from the family's proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley, or the Near East.
Other scholars propose that the Afroasiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there. Together with Djibouti, northern Somalia, the Red Sea coast of Sudan, Eritrea is considered the most location of the land known to the Ancient Egyptians as Punt, whose first mention dates to the 25th century BC; the ancient Puntites were a nation of people that had close relations with Pharaonic Egypt during the times of Pharaoh Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut. In 2010, a genetic study was conducted on the mummified remains of baboons that were brought back as gifts from Punt by the ancient Egyptians. Led by a research team from the Egyptian Museum and the University of California, the scientists used oxygen isotope analysis to examine hairs from two baboon mummies, preserved in the British Museum. One of the baboons had distorted isotopic data, so the other's oxygen isotope values were compared to those of present-day baboon specimens from regions of interest.
The researchers found that the mummies most matched modern baboon specimens in Eritrea and Ethiopia, which they suggested implied that Punt was a narrow region that included eastern Ethiopia and all of Eritrea. Excavations at Sembel found evidence of an ancient pre-Aksumite civilization in greater Asmara; this Ona urban culture is believed to have been among the earliest pastoral and agricultural communities in the Horn region. Artefacts at the site have been dated to between 800 BC and 400 BC, contemporaneous with other pre-Aksumite settlements in the Eritrean and Ethiopian highlands during the mid-first millennium BC. Additionally, the Ona culture may have had connections with the ancient Land of Punt. In a tomb in Thebes dated to the reign of Pharaoh Amenophis II, long-necked pots similar to those made by the Ona people are depicted as part of the cargo in a ship from Punt. Excavations in and near Agordat in central Eritrea yielded the remains of an ancient pre-Aksumite civilization known as the Gash Group.
Ceramics were discovered that were related to those of the C-Group pastoral culture, which inhabited the Nile Valley between 2500–1500 BC. Sherds akin to those of the Kerma culture, another community that flourished in the Nile Valley around the same period, were found at other local archaeological sites in the Barka valley belonging to the Gash Group. According to Peter Behrens and Marianne Bechaus-Gerst, linguistic evidence indicates that the C-Group and Kerma peoples spoke Afro-Asiatic languages of the Berber and Cushitic branches, respectively. D'mt was a kingdom that encompassed most of Eritrea and the northern fringes of Ethiopia, it existed during the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Given the presence of a massive temple complex, its capital was most Yeha. Qohaito identified as the town Koloe in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, as well as Matara were important ancient D'mt kingdom cities in southern Eritrea; the realm developed irrigation schemes, used plows, grew millet, made iron tools and weapons.
After the fall of Dʿmt in the 5th century BC, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms until the rise of one of these polities during the first century, the Kingdom of Aksum, able to reunite the area. The Kingdom of Aksum was a trading empire centered in northern Ethiopia, it existed from 100–940 AD, growing from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age period c. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD. The Aksumites established bases on the northern highlands of the Ethiopian Plateau and from there expanded southward. Th
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Oromo conflict was an armed conflict between the Oromo Liberation Front and the Government of Ethiopia. The conflict began in 1973, when Oromo nationalists established the OLF and its armed wing, the Oromo Liberation Army; the Oromo people are an ethnic group that inhabit Ethiopia, with communities in neighbouring Kenya and Somalia as well. They are the wider Horn of Africa. In 1967, the imperial regime of Haile Selassie I outlawed the Mecha and Tulama Self-Help Association, an Oromo social movement, conducted mass arrests and executions of its members; the group's leader, Colonel General Tadesse Birru, a prominent military officer, was among those arrested. The actions by the regime sparked outrage among the Oromo community leading to the formation of the Ethiopian National Liberation Front in 1967 and the Oromo Liberation Front in 1973. In 1973, the Ethiopian military seized control of the country; the new regime promptly arrested Oromo leaders. A group of armed Oromo fighters in the Chercher Mountains were adopted as the OLF's armed wing, the Oromo Liberation Army.
In 1974, the OLA increased its activities in the Chercher Mountains, prompting the Ethiopian regime to send its military to the region to quell the insurrection. In June 1974, General Tadesse Birru, an Oromo nationalist, arrested by the imperial regime in 1966 along with other high ranking military officers, escaped from house arrest and joined Oromo rebels led by Hailu Regassa in Shewa. Birru and Regassa were captured and executed by the Derg regime. In late August 1974, an OLA unit came down from their stronghold in the Chercher Mountains and made their way closer to Gelemso, hoping that nearby grown crops would be able to hide them from Ethiopian soldiers as they advanced towards other nearby towns. Three of the unit's new recruits were unaccustomed to climbing long distances, so they spent the night around the bottom of the mountains, while the rest of the soldiers camped at the top; when an OLA soldier was sent to retrieve the three recruits, it was discovered that they had been killed by Ethiopian militiamen who had followed the unit to Tiro.
A large group of Ethiopian policemen and militiamen surrounded the OLA position in the mountains, the two opposing groups began to exchange gunfire. A group of Ethiopian soldiers led by General Getachew Shibeshi arrived, began to shell the stronghold with mortar rockets, killing most of the OLA's members, including Elemo Qiltu; the event became known as the Battle of Tiro. Contingents of the OLA continued to fight the regime after the battle and gained a massive influx of recruits and volunteers after the Derg regime executed Tadesse Birru and Hailu Regassa. In 1976, the OLF began reorganizing itself. A congress was created by Oromo leaders, which revised the 1973 OLF Political Program and issued a new detailed program; the program called for the "total liberation of the Oromo nation from Ethiopian colonialism". The conference is now known as the Founding Congress, marked the beginning of modern Oromo nationalism. In the 1980s, the OLF estimated, they were poorly equipped in comparison to other rebel groups in Ethiopia at the time, such as the Eritrean People's Liberation Front and the Tigrayan People's Liberation Front.
The OLF opened an office in Sudan in the 1980s, after its office in Somalia was closed down. During the 1980s, the government of Ethiopia was accused of using scorched earth tactics, such as burning down entire villages and massacring inhabitants; the OLF lost several prominent members due to government ambushes and heavy fire. In the early 1990s, the Derg regime began to lose its control over Ethiopia; the OLF failed to maintain strong alliances with the other two big rebel groups at the time. In 1990, the TPLF created an umbrella organization for several rebel groups in Ethiopia, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front; the EPRDF's Oromo subordinate, the Oromo Peoples' Democratic Organization was seen as an attempted replacement for the OLF. In 1991, the EPRDF established a transitional government; the EPRDF and the OLF pledged to work together in the new government. In 1992, the OLF announced that it was withdrawing from the transitional government because of "harassment and assassinations of its members".
In response, the EPRDF sent soldiers to destroy OLA camps. Despite initial victories against the EPRDF, the OLF were overwhelmed by the EPRDF's superior numbers and weaponry, forcing OLA soldiers to use guerrilla warfare instead of traditional tactics. In the late 1990s, most of the OLF's leaders had escaped Ethiopia, the land administer by the OLF had been seized by the Ethiopian government, now led by the EPRDF. After the Eritrean -- Ethiopian War, the OLF moved its headquarters to Eritrea; the OLA began receiving military training and arms from the Eritrean government. On 25 July 2000, OLF and IFLO signed a peace agreement after five days of negotiations, thus ending 20 years of