Birstein is a municipality on the northeastern edge of the Main-Kinzig-Kreis in Hesse, Germany with 6,600 inhabitants. It was the home of the former principality of Isenburg-Birstein; the town lies at the southern base of the Vogelsberg Mountains. For this reason, because of the natural beauty of its setting, it is known as the "Pearl of the Vogelsberg". Birstein proper has two sections; the northern part, uphill from the palace, is known as the "Oberberg", while the southern part, where most of the shops and commercial establishments are located, is called the "Unterberg". On the north, Birstein borders on Grebenhain, which lies in the Vogelsbergkreis, on the east, its neighbors are Freiensteinau and the town of Steinau an der Straße. Bad Soden-Salmünster and the municipality of Brachttal border it on the south, as do Kefenrod and the town of Gedern on the west, both in the Wetteraukreis; the municipality consists of the subdivisions of Birstein, Bösgesäß I, Bösgesäß II, Hettersroth, Kirchbracht.
Lichenroth, Oberreichenbach, Obersotzbach, Untersotzbach, Völzberg, Wüstwillenroth. The separation of Bösgesäß I and Bösgesäß II took place as a result of the Congress of Vienna; the brook which flows through this area, called the Bracht, was designated as the border between the two localities. They lie 100 meters apart; the palace at Birstein a fortified royal hunting lodge, was first cited in documents in 1279 as castrum birsenstein and gave its name to the surrounding town. The name comes from the archaic verb "birsen"; the palace was remodeled several times and took its present form in 1764-1768. It is still inhabited by members of the Isenburg-Birstein dynasty, whose ancestor Heinrich II von Isenburg obtained it as part of his marriage settlement with Adelheid von Hanau in 1332. In 1815, the principality was divided between Hesse-Darmstadt and Hesse-Kassel, Birstein fell to Kassel. With the Prussian victory against Austria in 1866, Birstein became part of the Prussian empire until German unification in 1875.
Birstein, like other German regions, was affected by the Thirty Years War, most markedly in 1634-36. It was occupied by Swedish soldiers in 1643. On September 7, 1763, the French army under Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, defeated at Würzburg four days before, marched through the town on their retreat. Other events left their mark. On July 21, 1684, fire destroyed 17 homes, 18 barns, 9 cattle stalls, a bakehouse in the Oberberg, but spared the nearby church and rectory. Another fire in the Oberberg on July 14, 1744 destroyed 23 homes. On June 27, 1767, a terrible hailstorm gave rise to a yearly day of prayer against severe weather. In 1590 a Latin school was founded in Birstein, it remained in various locations for over three hundred years. By the early 20th century, girls were admitted; the school closed in 1939. Birstein escaped damage in World War II, it was occupied by the Americans after the war, became part of the Main-Kinzig-Kreis in the state of Hesse in the new Federal Republic of Germany. It was declared an official fresh-air spa resort in 1963, increasing its attractiveness for tourists.
The unification of its various district subdivisions took place from 1971–74, bringing the municipality to its present form. A high percentage of the population of greater Birstein is Protestant. In addition to the five Protestant churches, there is one Roman Catholic church and other religious communities. Roman Catholic, Birstein began to move toward Protestantism in 1530, when the minister Johannes Henkel began to preach in favor of Martin Luther in Unterreichenbach. In 1544, Count Reinhard of Isenburg, the ruler of the region, converted to Protestantism. On August 7, 1597 Count Wolfgang Ernst I of Isenburg announced the conversion of the region itself; the 200-year-old Protestant church in Birstein burned to its foundations on January 7, 1913. In 1840, a small Catholic house of worship was built. A larger Catholic church, Mariä Heimsuchung was built in 1912-14; the current Count of Isenburg, Franz Alexander, is Catholic. This came about as follows: Franz Alexander's ancestor Karl Viktor of Isenburg was raised a Protestant in the family tradition after his father's early death, but converted to Catholicism, the religion of his mother Princess Maria Crescentia zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, on May 2, 1861.
Four years he married the Catholic princess Marie Luise of Austria, Princess of Tuscany, since all the ducal family have remained members of this faith. The church has been the site of many Isenburg weddings, most that of Princess Katharina of Isenburg to Archduke Martin of Austria-Este in 2004. Princess Katharina's younger sister, Princess Sophie of Isenburg, married Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, in August 2011; this wedding, had to take place in Potsdam-Sanssouci as the bridegroom is the head of the former Imperial House of Germany and Royal House of Prussia. Katharina and Sophie's eldest brother, Franz Alexander, the heir to the family castle, was married to plastic surgeon Sarah Lorenz in a civil ceremony in Birstein, followed by a Catholic ceremony near her hometown of Munich in June 2014. A Jewish community existed in Birstein from the 17th century on, with the first mention of a Jewish inhabitant in 1549. A Jewish cemetery was founded in 1679, while a synagogue built in 1749 was rebuilt a
Erlensee is a municipality in the Main-Kinzig district, in Hesse, Germany. It is situated on the river Kinzig, 5 km northeast of Hanau, it was formed in 1970 by the merger, in 1970, of the towns of Rückingen. The name deduces from the abundant alders at the lakes in this area. In the north it borders the municipality Neuberg. In the east it borders the municipality Rodenbach. In the southwest it borders Hanau. Langendiebach and Rückingen Erlensee is located close to three major German autobahnen; the E42 connects the Ruhr Area with Frankfurt am Main and further towards Bavaria with cities like Aschaffenburg, Würzburg and Nuremberg. The E41 connects the cities like Aschaffenburg in the south; the A66 is the main connection between Frankfurt and Hanau at the south-west end and Fulda at the north-east end. Two bus lines connect Erlensee with Hanau and Langenselbold on the one hand and Hanau and Neuberg/Ronneburg on the other hand. Erlensee is member of the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund, a public transport network, so you can reach all other connected places around Frankfurt with one ticket.
The ICE station in Hanau is reachable within 10 minutes by car. The Frankfurt Airport is away 35 minutes by car. Rückingen was first mentioned in 1173 as "Rukkingin". Langendiebach was first mentioned in 1226 as "Dyppach". In 1937 the Luftwaffe built an airfield known as Langendiebach Fliegerhorst. World War II limited plans to expand it into a larger airfield. Glider and nightfighter units of the German Air Force stationed here participated in the 1939 invasion of Poland and the 1944-45 defense of Germany against allied invasion. Multiple bombings by allied forces rendered the airfield unserviceable by the war's end. Under the name Fliegerhorst Kaserne American forces occupied the facilities from 1945 until 2007 with artillery, ordnance, transportation and military police units. List of United States Army installations in Germany Located in the Georg-Büchner-Schule is a modern public library with a Café and internet access, it houses over 30,000 items on 540qm. More than 80 registered societies of all sorts keep the culture in Erlensee alive.
Centrally located between Langendiebach and Rückingen are the major sports facilities of Erlensee: 3 football pitches, 4 tennis courts and 1 indoor swimming pool. Roman bath, remains of Kastell Rückingen, a castrum at the Limes Germanicus Wasserburg Rückingen, moated medieval castle, first mentioned 1248. - Wusterwitz, Germany, since 1991 - Biggleswade, United Kingdom, since 2000 Erlensee at Curlie Georg-Büchner-Schule http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/fliegerhorst.htm Der Weltkrieg war vor deiner Tür – Fliegerhorst Langendiebach im zweiten Weltkrieg / Airfield Langendiebach in ww2
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Schlüchtern is a town in the Main-Kinzig district, in Hesse, Germany. It is located on the river Kinzig 30 km southwest of Fulda. Schlüchtern has a population close to 16,000. Schlüchtern is located in the Bergwinkel, the area between the Mittelgebirge or low mountains of the Vogelsberg, Spessart and Rhön; the river Kinzig flows through the municipality, in southwest area of a hill called Landrücken. The town itself is mentioned in a document for the first time in 1278. However, since by the mid-12th century there was a family using that name, the town is older than that; the oldest documented local establishment was the Benedictine abbey of Schlüchtern. A foundation document signed by Charlemagne was discovered to be a medieval forgery. A possible first mention of the abbey dates from 819, but cannot be attributed without doubt to this location; the earliest mention that irrefutably referred to Schlüchtern Abbey dates from 993, when Otto III granted the abbey sluohderin to the Bishop of Würzburg.
The abbey became influential and by the High Middle Ages had acquired substantial land holdings far beyond the Kinzig valley. However, by the late Middle Ages its power was waning; the Peasants' War and the Reformation accelerated its decline. The last abbot, Johannes Wankel, died in April 1609. Today, the abbey buildings continue to serve as a Gymnasium and education facility for the regional Protestant church; the abbey church, rebuilt in Gothic style in the 15th century, became a teachers' seminary in 1835/6. However, the crypt from Carolingian times has been preserved. An ancient trade route, the Eselsweg connected Schlüchtern to Großheubach/Miltenberg on the river Main. Jarocin, Poland Fameck, France Schlüchtern is connected to the Frankfurt Rhine-Main region by the A 66 and the Kinzig Valley Railway at Schlüchtern station, both connecting Frankfurt am Main and Fulda. Emma Zimmer, overseer at the Ravensbrück concentration camp executed for war crimes Website Schlüchtern
Freigericht is a town in the Main-Kinzig district, in Hesse, Germany. It is situated 15 km east of Hanau, close to the Frankfurt Rhein-Main region at the foothills of the Spessart, directly at the Hesse-Bavaria border. More than 40% of the area is forested. Freigericht has an elevation of 140 to 371 m in a side valley of the Kinzig river. In the southern parts of the town several pre-historical cairns have been found. On 19 June 1930 a tooth of a 40,000-year-old mammoth was discovered during building works in Somborn, it was transferred to the county seat Gelnhausen. Since the opening of Freigericht's local museum several attempts have been made to get the tooth back, none of, successful. Freigericht borders the municipalities of Hasselroth to the north, Linsengericht to the east and Rodenbach to the west. South of Freigericht (already belonging to the Bavarian district of Aschaffenburg are the town of Alzenau, the municipalities of Mömbris and Geiselbach, as well as the unincorporated area of Geiselbach Forest.
Freigericht is divided into five villages, which have been independent villages until 1970. Altenmittlau Bernbach Horbach Neuses SombornOn 1 January 1970 the five villages voluntarily incorporated into a new municipality named Freigericht; the name Freigericht had been unofficially used for the villages for several centuries. According to legend, it states that farmers from the areas between the rivers Main and Kinzig stood and defended their Emperor Frederick I, during a surprise ambush; as a reward, the Kaiser granted them with "free jurisdiction", hence the name "Freigericht". The town council consists of 37 members; the CDU has been the leading party in Freigericht, although it has suffered severe losses in the recent elections. Independent groups, which have been strong prior to the incorporation of Freigericht, get a higher share. Elections in 2016: CDU = 9 SPD = 7 Greens = 4 UWG = 13 Die Unbestechlichen = 4
The Vogelsbergkreis is a Kreis in the middle of Hesse, Germany. Neighbouring districts are Schwalm-Eder, Hersfeld-Rotenburg, Main-Kinzig, Gießen and Marburg-Biedenkopf; the district was created in 1972 by merging the former districts Lauterbach. The main feature of the district is the Vogelsberg, an extinct volcano, last active 7 million years ago. Official website Website of the district administration Touristic website
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany, or SPD, is a social-democratic political party in Germany. Led by Andrea Nahles since 2018, the party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany along with the Christian Democratic Union; the Social Democrats have governed at the federal level in Germany as part of a grand coalition with the CDU and the Christian Social Union since December 2013 following the results of the 2013 and 2017 federal elections. The party participates in 14 state governments and 7 of them are governed by SPD Minister-Presidents; the SPD is a member of the Party of European Socialists and initiated the founding of the Progressive Alliance international for social-democratic parties on 22 May 2013 after criticising the Socialist International for its acceptance of authoritarian parties. Established in 1863, the SPD is by far the oldest extant political party represented in the German Parliament and was one of the first Marxist-influenced parties in the world.
The General German Workers' Association founded in 1863 and the Social Democratic Workers' Party founded in 1869 merged in 1875 under the name Socialist Workers' Party of Germany. From 1878 to 1890, any grouping or meeting that aimed at spreading socialist principles was banned under the Anti-Socialist Laws, but the party still gained support in elections. In 1890, when the ban was lifted and it could again present electoral lists the party adopted its current name. In the years leading up to World War I, the party remained ideologically radical in official principle, although many party officials tended to be moderate in everyday politics. By 1912, the party claimed the most votes of any German party. Despite the agreement of the Second International to oppose World War I, the Social Democrats voted in favor of war in 1914. In response to this and the Bolshevik Revolution, members of the left-wing and of the far-left of the SPD formed alternative parties, first the Spartacus League the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany while the more conservative faction was known as the Majority Social Democratic Party of Germany.
After 1918, the SPD played an important role in the political system of the Weimar Republic, although it took part in coalition governments only in few years. Adolf Hitler prohibited the party in 1933 under the Enabling Act and party officials were imprisoned, killed or went into exile. In exile, the party used the name Sopade; the Social Democrats had been the only party to vote against the Enabling Act while the Communist Party was blocked from voting. In 1945, the Allied occupants in the Western zones allowed four parties to be established, which led to the Christian Democratic Union, the Free Democratic Party, the Communist Party and the SPD being established. In the Soviet zone of occupation, the Soviets forced the Social Democrats to form a common party with the Communists. In the Western zones, the Communist Party was banned by West Germany's Federal Constitutional Court in 1956. Since 1949, the SPD has been one of the two major parties in the Federal Republic of Germany, with the other being the Christian Democratic Union.
From 1969 to 1982 and 1998 to 2005, the Chancellors of Germany were Social Democrats whereas the other years the Chancellors were Christian Democrats. Shortly before the reunification of Germany in 1990, the East German Social Democratic Party merged into the West German SPD; the SPD was established as a Marxist party in 1875. However, the Social Democrats underwent a major shift in policies reflected in the differences between the Heidelberg Program of 1925 which "called for the transformation of the capitalist system of private ownership of the means of production to social ownership" and the Godesberg Program of 1959 which aimed to broaden its voter base and move its political position toward the centre. After World War II, under the leadership of Kurt Schumacher the SPD re-established itself as a socialist party representing the interests of the working class and the trade unions. However, with the Godesberg Program the party evolved from a socialist working-class party to a modern social-democratic party working within liberal capitalism.
The current party platform of the SPD espouses the goal of social democracy, seen as a vision of a societal arrangement in which freedom and social justice are paramount. According to the party platform, freedom and social solidarity form the basis of social democracy; the coordinated social market economy should be strengthened and its output should be distributed fairly. The party sees that economic system as necessary in order to ensure the affluence of the entire population; the SPD tries to protect the society's poor with a welfare state. Concurrently, it advocates a sustainable fiscal policy that does not place a burden on future generations while eradicating budget deficits. In social policy, the Social Democrats stand for political rights in an open society. In foreign policy, the party aims at ensuring global peace by balancing global interests with democratic means, thus European integration is one of the main priorities of the party; the SPD supports economic regulations to limit potential losses for people.
They support a common European economic and financial policy and to prevent speculative bubbles as well as environmentally sustainable growth. The SPD is composed of members belonging to either of the two main wings, namely the Keynesian social democrats and Third Way mod