Danyang is a county-level city located on the southwest bank of the Yangtze River, is under the administration of Zhenjiang, Jiangsu province, China. It is noted for the production of optical lenses used in eyeglasses. Danyang has a total area of 1,059 km2 and a population of 890,000. Danyang locals speak a dialect of Wu Chinese, the city is on the linguistic borderline between Wu Chinese and Jianghuai Mandarin. During the period of the four Southern Dynasties from 420 to 589 A. D. when China’s national capital was in Jiankang, Danyang was the hometown of the emperors of the Southern Qi and Liang Dynasties, who were buried in the countryside outside the city. Today 11 of these Southern Dynasties imperial tombs can still be found to the east and northeast of the city, they are notable for their unique stone statues of mythical animals marking the sacred way leading to each imperial tomb. As one of the key cities in the Yangtze River Delta open to foreign trade, Danyang has shown strong economic and standard-of-living growth since 2000.
In 2007, the GDP and per capita GDP of Danyang reached 35.7 billion yuan and 44,242 yuan respectively. Danyang's economy was 16th in a 2010 ranking of China's top county-level cities. Businesses from 32 countries and regions have invested in Danyang with accumulated paid-in capital of $1 billion USD; as a developing city within the Shanghai economic sphere of influence, Danyang has attracted domestic and foreign businesses. The main industries in Danyang are prescription eyewear and hardware, automobile parts; the Spectacles City, located in Danyang, is one of the largest eyeglass merchandise centers in China. Built in 1986, the market center's construction occurred in three phases, it subsequently merged with the Huayang Spectacles and Yunyang Spectacles markets. It covers an area of over 344,445 square feet. China National Highway 312 There are three railway stations in Danyang: Danyang Railway Station two separate, but unconnected stations; the old station is served by regular trains on the Huning Railway.
The new station is served by high-speed trains on the Huning Intercity High-Speed Railway. Danyang North Railway Station, north of the city, served by high-speed trains on the Jinghu High-Speed Railway. Danyang North station is at the beginning of the Danyang–Kunshan Grand Bridge the longest bridge in the world; the high-speed trains take about an hour and a half to get to Shanghai and about 30 minutes to get to Nanjing, the provincial capital. Direct service to Beijing from Danyang North Station takes 30 minutes. Danyang is known for its barley huangjiu, which has traditional medicinal properties. Government website of Danyang Danyang City English guide
Erling Knudtzon is a Norwegian football midfielder who plays for Eliteserien club Molde. Knudtzon began his career with Ullern, joining FC Lyn Oslo in 2007, he made his first team debut on 14 April 2007 against Fredrikstad, played twenty Norwegian top flight games in his first season, most of them as a starter. On 1 February 2010 Knudtzon signed a three-year contract with Lillestrøm, reunited with his former coach Henning Berg. Knudtzon played 231 league games for the club. On 17 July 2018, Molde FK announced that they had signed Knudtzon to a three-year contract, beginning 1 January 2019, he made his Molde debut on 31 March 2019 in a 1–1 away draw against Sarpsborg 08. As of match played 31 March 2019 LillestrømNorwegian Cup: 2017
Free University of Berlin
The Free University of Berlin is a research university located in Berlin, Germany. One of Germany's most distinguished universities, it is known for its research in the humanities and social sciences, as well as in the field of natural and life sciences; the Free University was founded in West Berlin in 1948 with American support during the early Cold War period as a de facto western continuation of the Frederick William University, located in East Berlin and faced strong communist repression. The Free University of Berlin is one of eleven German elite universities in the German Universities Excellence Initiative. In 2008, in a joint effort, The Free University of Berlin, along with the Hertie School of Governance, WZB Social Science Research Center Berlin, created the Berlin Graduate School for Transnational Studies. Free University of Berlin was established by students and scholars on 4 December 1948; the foundation is connected to the beginning of the Cold War period. The University of Berlin was located in the former Soviet sector of Berlin and was granted permission to continue teaching by the Soviet Military Administration in Germany in January 1946.
The universities were influenced by communism as they were ground for the political disputes of the postwar period. This led to protests by students critical of the prevailing system. Between 1945 and 1948, more than 18 students were arrested or persecuted, some executed by the soviet secret police. At the end of 1947, first students demanded a university free from political influence; the climax of the protests was reached on 23 April 1948: after three students were expelled from the university without a trial, about 2,000 students protested at the Hotel Esplanade. By the end of April, the governor of the United States Army Lucius D. Clay gave the order to check for the formation of a new university in the western sectors. On 19 June 1948 the "preparatory committee for establishing a free university" consisting of politicians, administrative staff members and students, met. With a manifesto titled "Request for establishing a free university in Berlin" the committee appealed to the public for support.
The municipal authorities of Berlin granted the foundation of a free university and requested the opening for the coming winter semester 1948/49. Meanwhile, the students committee in the German Democratic Republic protested against the formation, the GDR described the new university as the "so-called free university" in official documents until the fall of the Berlin Wall; the council-manager government accepted the by-law on 4 November 1948. The by-law achieved prominence under its alias "the Berlin model": The university was founded as a statutory corporation and was not directly subjected to the state, as it was controlled by a supervisory board consisting of six representatives of the state of Berlin, three representatives of the university and students; this form was unique in Germany at that time, as the students had much more influence on the system than before. But until the 1970s, the involvement of the students in the committees was cut back while adapting to the model of the western German universities in order to be recognized as an equivalent university.
On 15 November 1948, the first lectures were held in the buildings of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science. The actual foundation took place on 4 December 1948 in the Titania palace, the film theater with the biggest hall available in the western sectors of Berlin. Attendants of the event were not only scientists and students, but representatives of American universities, among them Stanford University and Yale University; the first elected president of the FU Berlin was the historian Friedrich Meinecke. By 1949, Free University had registered 4,946 students; until the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, many students came from the soviet sector supported through the "Währungsstipendium" of the senate. On 26 June 1963, the same day he held his famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech at Rathaus Schöneberg, John F. Kennedy was awarded honorary citizen by the Free University and held a ceremonial speech in front of the Henry Ford building in which he addressed the future of Berlin and Germany under the consideration of the motto of the FU.
Amongst the attendant crowd are the Governing Mayor of Berlin Willy Brandt and the Chancellor of Germany Konrad Adenauer. His brother, Robert F. Kennedy visited the university in 1962 for the first time and in June 1964 for receiving his honorary degree from the Department of Philosophy; the speech he held at the event was dedicated to John F. Kennedy, assassinated just the year before. In the late 1960s, Free University of Berlin was one of the main scenes of the German student movement of 68 as a reaction to the global student protests during that time. After the assassination of student Benno Ohnesorg and the attempt on Rudi Dutschke's life, protests escalated to violence in all of Germany; the events of the 68-movement provided the impulse for more openness and democracy in German society. During the 1970s and the 1980s, the university became a "Massenuniversität" with 50,298 registered students in 1983. After reunification, Free University of Berlin was the second largest university in Germany with 62,072 students in the winter te
Hennes & Mauritz AB is a Swedish multinational clothing-retail company known for its fast-fashion clothing for men, women and children. H&M and its associated companies operate in 62 countries with over 4,500 stores and as of 2015 employed around 132,000 people, it is the second-largest global clothing retailer, just behind Spain-based Inditex. The company has a significant online presence, with online shopping available in 33 countries: The company was founded by Erling Persson in 1947, when he opened his first shop in Västerås, Sweden; the shop, called Hennes sold women's clothing. A store was opened in Norway in 1964. In 1968, Persson acquired the hunting apparel retailer Mauritz Widforss, which led to the inclusion of a menswear collection in the product range and the name change to Hennes & Mauritz; the company was listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 1974. Shortly after, in 1976, the first store outside Scandinavia opened in London. H&M continued to expand in Europe, began to retail online in 1998, when it was able to buy the domain hm.com from a company called A1 in a non-published domain transaction.
The two-letter domain was registered in the early 1990s. The opening of the first U. S. store on 31 March 2000, on Fifth Avenue in New York marked the start of the expansion outside of Europe. In 2008, the company announced in a press release. Distributed through the company's online catalog, there are now H&M Home stores located internationally. Following expansion in Asia and the Middle East and the launch of concept stores including COS, Weekday and Cheap Monday, in 2009 and 2010, branding consultancy Interbrand ranked the company as the twenty-first most-valuable global brand, making it the highest-ranked retailer in the survey, its worth was estimated at $12–16 billion. H&M operated 2,325 stores at the end of 2011, 2,629 stores at the end of August 2012, its 3,000 th store opened in September 2013 in China. In November 2004, selected company stores offered an exclusive collection by fashion designer Karl Lagerfeld; the press reported large crowds and that the initial inventories in the larger cities were sold out within an hour, although the clothes were still available in less fashion-sensitive areas until the company redistributed them to meet with demand.
In November 2006, the company launched a collection by Stella McCartney and, in November 2006, by avant-garde Dutch designers Viktor & Rolf. In March 2007, it launched another collaboration designed by the pop star Madonna. In June 2007 the company worked with game developers Maxis to create a stuff pack for the latter's The Sims 2 computer game, H&M Fashion Stuff. In November 2007, the company launched a collection by Italian designer Roberto Cavalli, it was reported that the clothing sold out quickly. In 2007, another design with Kylie Minogue was launched in Shanghai, China. In the spring of 2008 the Finnish company Marimekko was selected as guest designer and was followed by Japanese Comme des Garçons in the fall. In 2008, H&M used the song "Hang On" by British singer-songwriter Lettie as background music to its UK website. For spring and summer 2009, the British designer Matthew Williamson created two exclusive ranges for the company – the first being a collection of women's clothes released in selected stores.
The second collection saw Williamson branch into menswear for the first time, only in selected stores. The second collection featured swimwear for men and women and was available in every company store worldwide. On 14 November 2009, the company released a limited-edition diffusion collection by Jimmy Choo featuring shoes and handbags, ranging from £30 to £170 including a range of men's shoes; the collection included clothing designed by Choo for the first time, many garments made from suede and leather, was available in 200 stores worldwide, including London's Oxford Circus store. Sonia Rykiel collaborated with the company, by designing a ladies knitwear and lingerie range, released in selected company stores on 5 December 2009. For Fall 2010, the company collaborated with French fashion house Lanvin as its 2010 guest designer. In March 2011, the brand's clothing was featured in an interactive fashion art film by Imagine Fashion called "Decadent Control", starring Roberto Cavalli, Kirsty Hume, Eva Herzigová and Brad Kroenig.
For Spring/Summer 2011, the company collaborated with fashion blogger Elin Kling, available at selected stores only. In June 2011, H&M announced a collaboration with Versace, released on 19 November. Versace planned a Spring collaboration with H&M, only available in countries with online sales. Similar to previous collaborations, Versace agreed to let H&M use the renowned name of the company for a agreed upon sum, without having a role in the design process. In November 2011, H&M announced a collaboration plan with Marni, that launched in March 2012; the campaign was directed by award-winning director Sofia Coppola. Lana Del Rey was the face of the plotted music video for the 2012 global summer collection, where she sang a cover of “Blue Velvet”. On 4 October 2012, Japanese Vogue editor Anna Dello Russo launched an accessories collection at H&M as Paris Fashion Week drew to an end; the collection was stocked in 140 H&M stores worldwide and sold through the H&M website On 12 June 2012, H&M confirmed that it would launch a collaboration with avant-garde label Maison Martin Margiela for a fall rollout.
The Maison Martin Margiela collection for H&M hit stores on 15 November 2012. Beyoncé was the face of H&M in summer 2013, her campaign, which b
Andechs is a municipality in the district of Starnberg in Bavaria in Germany. It is renowned in Germany and beyond for Andechs Abbey, a Benedictine monastery that has brewed beer since 1455; the monastery brewery offers tours to visitors. The 20th-century German composer Carl Orff is buried in the chapel of Andechs Abbey. Media related to Andechs at Wikimedia Commons Andechs travel guide from Wikivoyage
An ore-bulk-oil carrier known as combination carrier or OBO, is a ship designed to be capable of carrying wet or dry cargoes. The idea is to reduce the number of empty voyages, in which large ships only carry a cargo one way and return empty for another; these are a feature of the larger bulk trades. The Russian word for'ore-bulk-oil carrier', nefterudovoz, in combination with a number, is used as a proper name for a ship, e.g. Nefterudovoz-51M; the idea of the OBO was that it would function as a tanker when the tanker markets were good and a bulk / ore carrier when these markets were good. It would be able to take "wet" cargo one way and "dry" cargo the other way, thus reducing the time it had to sail in ballast; the first OBO carrier was Naess Norseman, built at A. G. Weser for the company Norness Shipping, controlled by the Norwegian shipowner Erling Dekke Næss. Næss was instrumental in conceiving the new type of vessel, together with his chief naval architect Thoralf Magnus Karlsen. Naess Norseman was delivered in November 1965 and was 250 m long with a beam of 31.6 m, a draft of 13.5 m, a gross register tonnage of 37,965 tonnes.
The OBO carrier became popular among shipowners around the world and as of today several hundreds of this type of vessel have been built. The ship type had its glory days in the early 1970s. In the 1980s, it became clear, it was expensive to "switch" from wet to dry cargoes, it took valuable time. If you had carried oil, you could switch to carrying ore or other dirty bulk cargoes, but not grain or other clean bulk cargoes; as the 1970s-built OBO vessels become older, most of them were used either as pure tankers or as pure ore carriers. In the 1990s, a smaller number of OBOs from 70,000 tonnes deadweight to 100,000 t DWT were built for the account of Danish and Norwegian shipowners. OBO-carriers are today not as common; this is due to investors seeking assets that are valued, whilst the value of the OBO is only appreciated by those operating them. With few of them being ordered after the 1980s, most no longer exist; some ship-owners continued to support its trading flexibility. SKS, part of the Kristian Gerhard Jebsen Group, is today operating the largest OBO-fleet in the world consisting of 10 OBO carriers.
The latest obo-vessel in the fleet, D Whale, was delivered from Hyundai Heavy Industries. The design of these vessels has been improved compared to the vessels made in the seventies and all problems which were related to the OBO-concept - including many that were common amongst tankers at that time - have been dealt with. A fleet of smaller, "river-sized" ore-bulk-oil carriers have been used for some decades on European Russia's waterways by Volgotanker. In addition to MV Berge Istra and MV Berge Vanga, one of the more famous OBOs was the Derbyshire MV Derbyshire of 180,000 deadweight tonnes, which in September 1980 became the largest British ship lost at sea, it sank in a Pacific typhoon. The loss of Derbyshire was found to be due to water ingress in the forward part of the ship subsequent to which IMO rules required higher hatch strengths of the forward hatch to ensure greater resistance to green seas coming over the forecastle MS Berge Istra MS Berge Vanga MV Derbyshire
An earl is a member of the nobility. The title is Anglo-Saxon in origin, akin to the Scandinavian form jarl, meant "chieftain" a chieftain set to rule a territory in a king's stead. In Scandinavia, it was replaced by duke. In medieval Britain, it became the equivalent of the continental count. However, earlier in Scandinavia, jarl could mean a sovereign prince. For example, the rulers of several of the petty kingdoms of Norway had the title of jarl and in many cases they had no less power than their neighbours who had the title of king. Alternative names for the rank equivalent to "earl/count" in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as the hakushaku of the post-restoration Japanese Imperial era. In modern Britain, an earl is a member of the peerage, ranking below a marquess and above a viscount. A feminine form of earl never developed; the term earl has been compared to the name of the Heruli, to runic erilaz. Proto-Norse eril, or the Old Norse jarl, came to signify the rank of a leader.
The Norman-derived equivalent count was not introduced following the Norman conquest of England though countess was and is used for the female title. Geoffrey Hughes writes, "It is a speculation that the Norman French title'Count' was abandoned in England in favour of the Germanic'Earl' because of the uncomfortable phonetic proximity to cunt". In the other languages of Britain and Ireland, the term is translated as: Welsh iarll and Scottish Gaelic iarla, Scots yarl or yerl, Cornish yurl. An earl has the title Earl of when the title originates from a placename, or Earl when the title comes from a surname. In either case, he is referred to as Lord, his wife as Lady. A countess who holds an earldom in her own right uses Lady, but her husband does not have a title; the eldest son of an earl, though not himself a peer, is entitled to use a courtesy title the highest of his father's lesser titles, for instance the eldest son of The Earl Of Wessex is styled as James, Viscount Severn. Younger sons are styled The Honourable, daughters, The Lady.
In the peerage of Scotland, when there are no courtesy titles involved, the heir to an earldom, indeed any level of peerage, is styled Master of, successive sons as younger of. In Anglo-Saxon England, earls had authority over their own regions and right of judgment in provincial courts, as delegated by the king, they collected fines and taxes and in return received a "third penny", one-third of the money they collected. In wartime they led the king's armies; some shires were grouped together into larger units known as earldoms, headed by an ealdorman or earl. Under Edward the Confessor earldoms like Wessex, East Anglia and Northumbria—names that represented earlier independent kingdoms—were much larger than any shire. Earls functioned as royal governors. Though the title of Earl was nominally equal to the continental duke, unlike them, earls were not de facto rulers in their own right. After the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror tried to rule England using the traditional system but modified it to his own liking.
Shires became the largest secular subdivision in England and earldoms disappeared. The Normans did create new earls like those of Herefordshire and Cheshire but they were associated with only a single shire at most, their power and regional jurisdiction was limited to that of the Norman counts. There was no longer any administrative layer larger than the shire, shires became "counties". Earls no longer aided in tax collection or made decisions in country courts and their numbers were small. King Stephen increased the number of earls to reward those loyal to him in his war with his cousin Empress Matilda, he gave some earls the right to hold royal castles or control the sheriff and soon other earls assumed these rights themselves. By the end of his reign, some earls held courts of their own and minted their own coins, against the wishes of the king, it fell to Stephen's successor Henry II to again curtail the power of earls. He took back the control of royal castles and demolished castles that earls had built for themselves.
He did not create new earldoms. No earl was allowed to remain independent of royal control; the English kings had found it dangerous to give additional power to an powerful aristocracy, so sheriffs assumed the governing role. The details of this transition remain obscure, since earls in more peripheral areas, such as the Scottish Marches and Welsh Marches and Cornwall, retained some viceregal powers long after other earls had lost them; the loosening of central authority during the Anarchy complicates any smooth description of the changeover. By the 13th century, earls had a social rank just below the king and princes, but were not more powerful or wealthier than other noblemen; the only way to become an earl was to inherit the title or marry into one—and the king reserved a right to prevent the transfer of the title. By the 14th century, creating an earl included a special public ceremony where the king tied a sword belt around the waist of the new earl, emphasizing the fact that the earl's rights came from him.
Earls still held influence and, as "companions of the king", were regarded as supporters of the king's power. They showed that power for the first time in 1327 when they deposed Edward II, they would do th