Erma, New Jersey
Erma is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located within Lower Township in Cape May County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the CDP's population was 2,134. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP had a total area of 3.360 square miles, including 3.260 square miles of land and 0.100 square miles of water. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,134 people, 821 households, 596.046 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 654.6 per square mile. There were 920 housing units at an average density of 282.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 95.74% White, 1.12% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.94% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 0.70% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.62% of the population. There were 821 households out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.4% were non-families.
22.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.04. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 21.4% from 25 to 44, 34.3% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.4 years. For every 100 females there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 94.3 males. As of the 2000 United States Census of 2000, there were 2,088 people, 751 households, 561 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 240.7/km2. There were 846 housing units at an average density of 97.5/km2. The racial makeup of the CDP was 97.22% White, 0.48% African American, 0.05% Native American, 1.05% Asian, 0.48% from other races, 0.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.68% of the population. There were 751 households out of which 38.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.7% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.2% were non-families.
20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.24. In the CDP the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $64,261, the median income for a family was $69,063. Males had a median income of $45,694 versus $21,923 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $20,765. About 1.8% of families and 3.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.9% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over. The main transportation route for Erma is U. S. Route 9; the Cape May Airport is located in Erma. As with other parts of Lower Township, it is served by Lower Township School District for primary grades and Lower Cape May Regional School District for secondary grades.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise associated with Erma include: Charles W. Sandman, Jr. represented New Jersey's 2nd congressional district from 1967 to 1975. Matt Szczur, outfielder for the San Diego Padres; the Cape May Gazette Newspaper serving Erma. Erma Tabernacle: A United Methodist Church serving Lower Township NJ
Erma Knoll is a 412m peak in upper Huron Glacier, Livingston Island. The peak was first visited on 17 December 2004 by the Bulgarian Lyubomir Ivanov from Camp Academia, was mapped by Bulgaria in 2005 and 2009 from the Tangra 2004/05 topographic survey; the knoll is named after Erma River in western Bulgaria. The knoll is located at 62°38′31″S 60°08′01″W, 1.6 km east-southeast of Kuzman Knoll, 1.3 km northeast of Zograf Peak and 390 m northeast of Lozen Nunatak. L. L. Ivanov et al. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands. Scale 1:100000 topographic map. Sofia: Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, 2005. L. L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich, Robert and Smith Islands. Scale 1:120000 topographic map. Troyan: Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2009. Erma Knoll. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission; this article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission
Erma M. "Bergie" Bergmann was an American baseball pitcher and outfielder who played from 1946 through 1951 in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League. Listed at 5 ft 7 in, 155 lb. she batted and threw right-handed. Born in St. Louis, Erma Bergmann was one of three children into the family of Otto and Sophie Bergmann, her father was a packinghouse butcher, while her mother, a ragtime pianist, wanted her only daughter to take piano lessons. But Erma declined, preferring to play sandlot ball with her two brothers and other neighborhood kids. At fourteen, she began playing at third base in the St. Louis Amateur Softball League since other opportunities at school were limited. At fifteen, she played shortstop for the Melbas, a girl's softball team at St. Louis Park, pitched for the Phantoms, a boy's baseball team, pitching ten straight victories. After eight years of experience, she was recruited by an AAGPBL scout that followed her for three years before signing a contract to play after graduation.
Since the only organized ball for women in the country was softball, the AAGPBL created a hybrid game which included both softball and baseball. Over the twelve years of history of the league, the rules were modified to more resemble baseball. Throwing underhand, Bergmann was one of the few AAGPBL hurlers to pitch all three styles in the league's history, being able to make the transition to full sidearm in 1947 and overhand pitching in 1948. Bergmann entered the league in 1946 with the expansion Muskegon Lassies, playing for them two years before joining the Springfield Sallies, Racine Belles and Battle Creek Belles. In her rookie season, Bergmann posted a 15–16 record and a 2.05 earned run average in 35 pitching appearances, top numbers for the sixth-place Lassies. She spent time at outfield, hitting a.255 average in 50 games. Her biggest thrill in her season debut came when she belted her only career home run in the top of the ninth inning of a game against the Rockford Peaches, she shut down the Peaches in the bottom of the inning for a victory with her parents in attendance.
In 1947 the AAGPBL moved its spring training camp to Havana and Bergmann was one of the two hundred girls who made the trip. That season she was used as a pitcher, she ended the season with an 11–10 mark and a solid 1.74 ERA in 27 games, helping the Lassies win the pennant. In addition, she tossed a no-hitter against the host Grand Rapids Chicks on May 22 of that year. For the rest of her career, Bergmann played for awful teams and her season records reflect reflected it, she went 9–19 in 1948, though she recorded a 3.05 ERA. She finished 11–14 with a 2.09 ERA in 1949, went 11–14 with a 2.68 ERA in 1950. Her worst season came in 1951, when she went 7–18 with a 3.92 ERA while leading the league in losses, runs allowed and earned runs. It would be her last year in the league. After that, Bergmann moved to Chicago and played in the rival National Girls Baseball League from 1952 to 1954. During this stint, she tied two league records by pitching a 23-inning game and hitting five singles in a game. Following her baseball career, Bergmann became one of the first commissioned police women in the city of St. Louis.
She retired in 1981 after 25 years of exemplary service in the St. Louis Police Department. In 1988, Bergmann became part of Women in Baseball, a permanent display based at the Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York, unveiled to honor the entire All-American Girls Professional Baseball League rather than any individual personality. In 1996 she gained induction in the St. Louis Amateur Softball Hall of Fame, was inducted into the Missouri Sports Hall of Fame in 2007. Pitching Batting
Erma Vernice Franklin was an American gospel and Soul singer. Franklin was the elder sister of American singer/musician Aretha Franklin. Franklin's best known recording was the original version of "Piece of My Heart", written and produced by Bert Berns, recorded in 1967, for which she was nominated for a Grammy Award. A cover version of the same song was recorded the following year by Big Brother and the Holding Company, with the lead vocal by Janis Joplin. Erma Franklin was born in Shelby, the oldest daughter of Barbara and the Reverend C. L. Franklin, she was raised in Detroit, where her father was pastor of the New Bethel Baptist Church. She was raised by both parents until the age of 10, her mother took her eldest sibling, half-brother Vaughn, with her to Buffalo, New York in 1948. Barbara Siggers-Franklin died four years on March 7, 1952 in Buffalo, New York. Franklin studied Business at Clark Atlanta University. During her childhood Erma and her sisters Aretha and Carolyn sang at New Bethel Baptist Church.
When Aretha became a recording artist, Erma provided backing vocals and toured with her. Among her more notable back-up performances for her sister was on Aretha's signature tune "Respect". Erma Franklin sang the original version of "Piece of My Heart", a top 10 Soul hit in the U. S. and rose to number 62 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 chart. In the UK, Franklin's version was used in a Levi's jeans commercial, leading to a resurgence of interest in the song; the single was peaked on the UK Singles Chart at number nine. Franklin told an interviewer that when she first heard Janis Joplin's version on the radio, she didn't recognize it because of the vocal arrangement. Erma's solo recording career was hampered by misfortune and by recording contracts with record labels that did not find the most suitable material for her husky voice. In the mid-1970s, Erma left the music industry, apart from occasional engagements with Aretha, she was one of the special guests on Aretha's 1986 Showtime cable television special—filmed at Detroit's Music Hall—and performed on June 28, 1990 at Nelson Mandela's rally at Tiger Stadium.
Franklin married Thomas Garrett and gave birth to their two children: Thomas Garrett Jr. and Sabrina Garrett. For 25 years, Erma worked for the Boysville Holy Cross Community Center, a Detroit organization that helps homeless and disadvantaged minority children. Franklin died of throat cancer in Detroit, Michigan on September 7, 2002 at age 64, she is interred at Detroit's historic Woodlawn Cemetery. Source: source: Erma Franklin at Find a Grave Erma Franklin interview Tribute to Erma Franklin Erma Franklin discography
The Erfurter Maschinenfabrik was a German weapons manufacturer founded in 1922 by Berthold Geipel. Prior to and during World War II it manufactured many firearms, including the Karabiner 98k, the MP40 and other submachine guns; the company is noted for having produced various forms of military training rifles, including the famous EL 24 subcaliber'Insert Barrel' training devices that allowed.22 long rifle ammunition to be fired from infantry rifles such as the Karabiner 98 and Steyr-Mannlicher M1895 through use of a special action conversion kit and a thin-walled.22 caliber barrel inserted within the larger rifle's bore. The Erfurter Maschinen- und Werkzeugfabrik GmbH was formed in 1922 in Erfurt, Thuringia, by Berthold Geipel. At the beginning of the 1930s the company started its firearms business, acquiring licenses to produce Mauser carbines like the'Karabiner 98k' and rights to manufacture submachine guns, which received the designation'EMP' for'ERMA Maschinenpistole'. Die'EMP' series was based on designs by Heinrich Vollmer, bought by Geipert in the early 1930s.
These SMGs would be produced in different variants from 1932 to 1938 and sold in Germany, but to Spain, Mexico and Yugoslavia. The Spanish acquired a license for domestic production on. By 1935 a license to produce repeating rifles of the Mauser Model 98 system has been acquired, production would go on until the early 1940s mid-war. Pre-war conversion kits as training devices, with subcaliber'Insert Barrels' like the type'Erma EL 24', would be sold for those weapons systems. In 1933 Berthold's brother Elmar Geipel is hired by the company. In 1934 the enterprise was renamed to Erfurter Maschinenfabrik B. Geipel GmbH, or'ERMA' for short. In 1937 Berthold Geipel is appointed Wehrwirtschaftsführer of Erfurt by the national socialist regime. From the version'EMP 36' of ERMA the SMG'MP 38' and the following model'MP 40' had been developed under the guidance of Vollmer, been accepted by the german Wehrmacht, been put into production. In 1943 another SMG had been constructed by the'ERMA-Werke', the'Erma EMP 44', a simplified Machine Pistol, which could have been manufactured with speed and in great numbers.
Such a crudely designed. Reconsiderations on the viability for a setup to manufacture the firearm led to nowhere, although there had been certain demand by the end of the war. Similar designs for such simple SMGs had been met with success and these were issued in numbers to the Soviet army and the British, to be used for decades. During the war part of the Geipel enterprise was located at the Altonaer Straße 25 in Erfurt, an area on the campus of the Fachhochschule Erfurt, founded in 1991. Furthermore, since about 1940 a forced labour camp for the nearby weaponry manufacture plants had been erected in the vicinity of said Fachhochschule. Around 2000 workers had been re-settled there in shacks to keep production going. In 1945 Geipel was arrested and imprisoned by the Allied occupation forces in Germany due to his involvement with the Nazi party, he was freed and underwent denazification, after which he worked for'Vollmer GmbH' as Assistant Director to Heinrich Vollmer. Following the end of the war, the Thuringia region found itself in the Soviet occupation zone.
Marshal Zhukov of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany ordered what was left of the'ERMA' assets to be liquidated on August 31st 1948. Geipel re-established the company under the brand name ERMA-Werke in Bavaria in 1949 and in 1952 the company moved to Dachau, near Munich. Geipel's son Rudolf became the Chief Engineer of the new company and for the first few years production was devoted to household appliances. Around 1952'ERMA' was awarded a contract by the government of West Germany to service and produce parts for the various Allied forces weapons, supplied to the German police forces, notably M1 Carbines; the company commenced manufacture of gas pistols and revolvers, rifles a.o. with lever actions. Following the foundation of the Bundeswehr in May 1955, the Federal government gave ERMA permission to research and develop a new submachine gun. ERMA's design was, however and out-performed by a submission of the Uzi, which became the'MP 2' issued to the German Army. In the 1960s the Walther MP would be used by federal police forces.
The financial resources expended in developing the new submachine gun had been quite substantial, as a consequence'ERMA-Werke' were taken over in 1961 by'Fiberglide', a division of Lear-Siegler, which traded under the'ERMA' brand name. Berthold Geipel and his son left the company. In October 1997'ERMA Werke' commenced bankruptcy proceedings and in 1998 was taken over by'Suhler Jagd- und Sportwaffen GmbH', at that time a division of Steyr-Mannlicher. An'ERMA Suhl' logo was used on their products for a while. By 2004 Heckler & Koch had taken over the Thuringian company forming the'H&K Jagd und Sportwaffen GmbH' as hunting and shooting sports section under the'Merkel' brand name, following which the'ERMA' name and brand ceased to exist for manufacturing firearms. EMP / MPE MP38 / MP40 EMP 44, experimental low cost SMG EG 70, an M1 Carbine copy, ERMA manufactured parts for these weapons in the early 1950s and produced a.22 caliber training rifle modeled after the carbine that proved so popular it was commercially marketed as the EM-1 and available in.22 WMR Various low cost.22 caliber pistols resembling the Luger p
GIS and environmental governance
Geographic information system is a used tool for environmental management and planning. As defined by Michael Goodchild, GIS is as ‘a computer system for handling geographic information in a digital form’. In recent years it has played an integral role in participatory and open data philosophies. Social and technological evolutions have elevated ‘digital’ and ‘environmental’ agendas to the forefront of public policy, the global media and the private sector. Government departments use digital spatial platforms to plan and model proposed changes to road networks, building design, greenbelt land, utility provision, crime prevention, energy production, waste management and security. Non-profit organizations incorporate geospatial and web-mapping approaches into political campaigns to lobby governments, to protest against or environmentally harmful companies, to generate public support. Private business, whether in land management, resource extraction, manufacturing or social media for example incorporate GIS into overall profit-making strategies.
Citizen science is part of the wider emphasis upon public involvement in expert fields across Western democracies. The term is'often used to describe communities or networks of citizens who act as observers in some domain of science’. Although more narrowly used to describe the shift to user-generated forms of knowledge creation, it has been invoked in both the public participatory GIS and environmental governance literature at large. Much of the citizen science literature is grounded in wildlife study. For example, Goodchild references the National Audubon Society’s Christmas Bird Count as a classic case of citizen science in action; each year over the winter period, the American conservation organization encourages volunteer bird-watchers to gather information on the number of bird species in their local area. Once field data has been collected, each volunteer is able to submit their bird sightings into an online database, for the benefit of both scientific researchers and bird enthusiasts.
The eBird project – enabling the general public to explore a range of map- and chart-based bird species datasets – is a result of these yearly mass volunteer events. Of particular interest is the Gulf Spill Bird Tracker. Gulf Coast bird watchers were encouraged to submit their sightings of a range of at-danger birds, to help aid the clean-up operation, pin-point beaches most affected by the oil spill; the National Audubon Society has been involved in the Gulf Oil Response since the disaster, has a dedicated program to co-ordinate resources, liaise with local government, deploy equipment post-spill. Their 6-month report brought together some of these key factors. Not only was the National Audubon Society’s citizen science initiative highlighted as the ‘backbone…for understanding the impact of the disaster’, but for long-term efforts to monitor the health of imperilled species in the Gulf Coast region. Moreover, their grassroots ethos has mobilized a vast number of Gulf volunteers to ‘urge elected officials and government agencies to hold polluters like BP accountable’, for the financial, environmental and social costs associated with such disasters.
This is the most obvious example of web-based mapping software and environmental governance discourses colliding head on. The notion of volunteered, user-generated, citizen data is the guiding mantra for such projects, the cornerstone of any wider attempts to lobby national governments, engage with local community groups, generate scientific research. Another example of citizen science and GIS in action is taken from inside the academy. University College London and London 21 sustainability network's Mapping for Change initiative has encouraged voluntary groups, local authorities and development agencies to build map-based projects to support political and environmental aims, they provide a noise mapping toolkit on the Mapping for Change website itself, designed to help local communities gather evidence of intrusive and unwanted environmental nuisances and hazards. The Royal Docks community in London has used such a toolkit to help present their concerns to the Greater London Authority Environment Committee over plans to expand London City Airport.
Armed with sound meters, survey sheets and access to an online mapping platform, residents were able to monitor noise levels. Their data was visualized in various formats to help advance their argument. Royal Docks’ residents are continually plagued by planes taking-off and landing at London City Airport, plans to expand the number of flights a year by 50% were opposed by local communities on the basis that it would decrease their quality of life. GIS and citizen science go hand-in-hand. Web-based mapping platforms serve as useful tools for national conservation societies, local community groups and planning departments to compile tangible data on environmental issues. Voluntary, grassroots approaches can help compile lay knowledges that feed back into more formal political frameworks. At a local level, GIS has been used to engage stakeholders in the planning of environmentally ‘bad’ sites. Nuclear power stations, wind farms, landfill sites, other energy facilities are subject to NIMBY opposition for aesthetic and social reasons.
This is despite of their capacity to produce'good' economic f
The Jerma or Erma is a river in southeastern Serbia and western Bulgaria. Though not long, it is notable for passing the Serbian-Bulgarian border twice; the Jerma originates in the undeveloped and sparsely populated area of Krajište, in the southeastern corner of Serbia. Starting from the area between the artificial Lake Vlasina and the Bulgarian border, it flows to the northwest on the eastern slopes of the Gramada mountain, passing through the village of Klisura, after which it enters the area of Знепоље, an arid region stretching over the border into Bulgaria; this is where the Jerma crosses the border for the first time, at the border crossing of Strezimirovci. Continuing through the Bulgarian part of Znepole curving around the eastern side of the Ruy mountain, the river, now called Erma, is known as Transka reka after the town of Tran, a regional centre of this area; the Erma passes close to the villages of Glavanovtsi and Turokovtsi, where it turns north, running through Tran. After Tran, the Erma cut the famous gorge Transko zhdrelo.
After the gorge, Erma flows through the Bulgarian part of the village of Petačinci. Erma receives its major tributary, the Yablanitsa, right before it re-enters Serbia after a 26 km travel through Bulgaria; the river crosses the border for the second time about a kilometer after Petachinci. The Jerma continues to flow to the north, passing next to the village of Iskrovci and the picturesque spa of Zvonačka Banja. Proceeding between the mountains of Greben and Vlaška planina, it runs close to the villages of Trnsko-Odorovce and Vlasi, the monasteries of Sveti Jovan, Sveti Nikolaj and Sveta Bogorodica, before it empties into the Nišava River, southeast of Pirot after a total of 48 km in Serbia. In this last section, the Jerma flows through the Sukovo coal basin, named after the village Sukovo, not on the banks of the Jerma itself, but to the west. Despite the hard coal's high quality, the coal mine near Pirot was shut down and coal is not being extracted any more. In this final section, the Jerma is known as Sukovska reka.
Mala Prosvetina Enciklopedija, Third edition. Marković: Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon Jugoslavije.