The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Vicenza is a city in northeastern Italy. It is in the Veneto region at the northern base of the Monte Berico, where it straddles the Bacchiglione River. Vicenza is 60 kilometres west of Venice and 200 kilometres east of Milan. Vicenza is a thriving and cosmopolitan city, with a rich history and culture, many museums, art galleries, villas and elegant Renaissance palazzi. With the Palladian Villas of the Veneto in the surrounding area, his renowned Teatro Olimpico, the "city of Palladio" has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1994. In December 2008, Vicenza had an estimated population of 115,927 and a metropolitan area of 270,000. Vicenza is the third-largest Italian industrial centre as measured by the value of its exports, is one of the country's wealthiest cities, in large part due to its textile and steel industries, which employ tens of thousands. Additionally, about one fifth of the country's gold and jewelry is made in Vicenza contributing to the city's economy. Another important sector is the engineering/computer components industry.
Vicentia was settled by the Italic Euganei tribe and by the Paleo-Veneti tribe in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. The Romans allied themselves with the Paleo-Veneti in their fight against the Celtic tribes that populated north-western Italy; the Roman presence in the area grew exponentially over time and the Paleo-Veneti were assimilated. In 157 BC, the city was a de facto Roman centre and was given the name of Vicetia or Vincentia, meaning "victorious"; the citizens of Vicetia received Roman citizenship and were inscribed into the Roman tribe Romilia in 49 BC. The city was known for its agriculture, marble quarry, wool industry and had some importance as a way-station on the important road from Mediolanum to Aquileia, near Tergeste, but it was overshadowed by its neighbor Patavium. Little survives of the Roman city, but three of the bridges across the Bacchiglione and Retrone rivers are of Roman origin, isolated arches of a Roman aqueduct exist outside the Porta Santa Croce. During the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Vandals and his Visigoths, as well as the Huns laid waste to the area, but the city recovered after the Ostrogoth conquest in 489 AD, before being conquered by the Byzantine Empire soon after.
It was an important Lombard city and a Frankish center. Numerous Benedictine monasteries were built beginning in the 6th century. In 899, Vicenza was destroyed by Magyar raiders. In 1001, Otto III handed over the government of the city to the bishop, its communal organization had an opportunity to develop, separating soon from the episcopal authority, it took an active part in the League with Verona and, most of all, in the Lombard League against Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa compelling Padua and Treviso to join: its podestà, Ezzelino II il Balbo, was captain of the league. When peace was restored, the old rivalry with Padua and other cities was renewed, besides which there were the internal factions of the Vivaresi and the Maltraversi; the tyrannical Ezzelino III from Bassano drove the Guelphs out of Vicenza, caused his brother, Alberico, to be elected podestà. The independent commune joined the Second Lombard League against Emperor Frederick II, was sacked by that monarch, after which it was annexed to Ezzelino's dominions.
On his death the old oligarchic republic political structure was restored – a consiglio maggiore of four hundred members and a consiglio minore of forty members – and it formed a league with Padua and Verona. Three years the Vicentines entrusted the protection of the city to Padua, so as to safeguard republican liberty. Vicenza came under rule of Venice in 1404, its subsequent history is that of Venice, it was besieged by the Emperor Sigismund, Maximilian I held possession of it in 1509 and 1516. Vicenza was a candidate to host the Council of Trent; the 16th century was the time of Andrea Palladio, who left many outstanding examples of his art with palaces and villas in the city's territory, which before Palladio's passage, was arguably the most downtrodden and esthetically lacking city of the Veneto. After 1797, under Napoleonic rule, it was made a duché grand-fief within Napoleon's personal Kingdom of Italy for general Caulaincourt imperial Grand-Écuyer. After 1814, Vicenza passed to the Austrian Empire.
In 1848, the populace rose against Austria, more violently than in any other Italian centre apart from Milan and Brescia. As a part of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, it was annexed to Italy after the Third War of Italian independence. Vicenza's area was a location of major combat in both World War I and World War II, it was the most damaged city in Veneto by Allied bombings, including many of its monuments; the end of World War II was followed by a period of depression, caused by the devastation during the two world wars. In t
Mahershalalhashbaz Ali, known professionally as Mahershala Ali, is an American actor, a recipient of several awards, including two Academy Awards and a Golden Globe Award. After pursuing a MFA degree from New York University, Ali began his career as a regular on television series, such as Crossing Jordan and Threat Matrix, before his breakthrough role as Richard Tyler in the science fiction series The 4400, his first major film release was in the David Fincher-directed fantasy The Curious Case of Benjamin Button. He gained wider attention for his supporting role in the Netflix political thriller series House of Cards, he featured as Boggs in the final two films of The Hunger Games film series and as Cornell "Cottonmouth" Stokes in the Netflix superhero series Marvel's Luke Cage. For playing a drug dealer in the drama film Moonlight, Ali won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, becoming the first Muslim actor to win an Oscar for acting, he won a second Academy Award and the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor for portraying Don Shirley in the comedy-drama Green Book.
This made him the first black actor to win two Academy Awards in the same category. In 2019, he played the lead role of a troubled police officer in the third season of the HBO anthology crime series True Detective. Ali was born Mahershalalhashbaz Gilmore in 1974, in Oakland, the son of Willicia and Phillip Gilmore, he was raised in California. His father was an actor, he attended St. Mary's College of California in Moraga, where he graduated in 1996 with a degree in mass communication. Though Ali entered SMC with a basketball scholarship, he became disenchanted with the idea of a sports career because of the treatment given to the team's athletes. Ali developed an interest in acting after taking part in a staging of Spunk; this landed him an apprenticeship at the California Shakespeare Theater following graduation. Following a sabbatical year where Ali worked for Gavin Report, he enrolled in New York University's graduate acting program at Tisch School of the Arts, earning his master's degree in 2000.
He was named after Maher-shalal-hash-baz, a biblical prophetic-name child and raised a Christian by his mother, an ordained minister. During his college basketball career, he went under the first name of Hershal. In 2000, he converted to Islam, changing his surname from Gilmore to Ali and joined the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community – a revivalist movement within Islam. In interviews, he has recounted numerous problems he has encountered at airports, with banks and otherwise in everyday life as an American Muslim since the September 11 attacks. Ali was known professionally by his full name, Mahershalalhashbaz Ali, from 2001 until 2010, when he began to be credited as Mahershala Ali. Ali had considered shortening his name for a while, saying that using his full first name was "a crazy thing to do considering that we're in Hollywood", although he had never been pressured by managers or agents to change it, he decided to use a shorter version of his first name after being told that his full name was too long to fit on the poster for the film The Place Beyond the Pines.
He did not want the alternative of "M. Ali" to represent himself on the poster, so he chose to adopt the shorter version of his name, he elaborated in an interview to Vanity Fair in October 2016: He is known for his portrayal of Remy Danton in the Netflix series House of Cards, Cornell Stokes in Marvel's Luke Cage, Colonel Boggs in The Hunger Games: Mockingjay – Part 1 and The Hunger Games: Mockingjay – Part 2, Tizzy in the 2008 film The Curious Case of Benjamin Button. His first major film role was that of Tizzy Weathers in the 2008 David Fincher-directed romantic fantasy drama film The Curious Case of Benjamin Button. Other notable films include Predators, The Place Beyond the Pines, Free State of Jones, Hidden Figures, as Boggs in The Hunger Games series. For his performance as mentor and drug dealer Juan in the drama film Moonlight, Ali received universal acclaim from critics and won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, the SAG Award and the Critics' Choice Award for Best Supporting Actor, received a Golden Globe and a BAFTA Award nomination.
His win at the 89th Academy Awards made him the first Muslim actor to win an Oscar. In 2017 Ali joined the video game Madden NFL 18's story mode Longshot, in which he played Cutter Wade, the father of protagonist Devin, he played Don Shirley in the 2018 film Green Book, receiving his second Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. He won a 2019 Golden Globe award for best supporting actor for his role, as well as a BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role. Ali starred as Arkansas State Police detective Wayne Hays in the third season of the HBO series True Detective, which premiered on January 13, 2019, in the United States. On Rotten Tomatoes, the site's critical consensus reads, "Driven by Mahershala Ali's mesmerizing performance, True Detective's third season finds fresh perspective by exploring real world events – though it loses some of the series' intriguing strangeness along the way." Ali was signed to Bay Area recording label Hieroglyphics Imperium during the late 2000s and recorded rap music as Prince Ali.
He released his album, Curb Side Service, in 2007, but did not tour to promote the album, choosing instead to focus on his acting career. Ali is an Ahmadi Muslim, he named his cat Nas, after the rapper. He is married to an actress and musician; the couple welcomed their first child, a daughter, a few days before his Oscar win in 2017. Curb Side Service List of awards and nominations received by Mahershala Ali List of actors with Academy Award nomi
Luca Guadagnino is an Italian film director and screenwriter. He has collaborated a number of times with actress Tilda Swinton, including on the films The Protagonists, I Am Love, A Bigger Splash and Suspiria. For directing and producing Call Me by Your Name, Guadagnino received widespread critical acclaim and several accolades, including nominations for an Academy Award for Best Picture, Nastro d'Argento for Best Director, BAFTA Award for Best Direction. Born on 10 August 1971 in Palermo, Italy, to an Italian father from Canicattì, an Algerian mother, Guadagnino spent his early childhood in Ethiopia, where his father taught history and Italian literature at a technical school in Addis Abeba, he studied literature at the University of Palermo, graduated from Sapienza University of Rome in the faculty of History and Critics of Cinema with a thesis on the American filmmaker Jonathan Demme. Guadagnino made his directorial debut with the feature film The Protagonists, presented at the Venice Film Festival.
In 2002, he directed Mundo Civilizado, presented at the Locarno Film Festival in 2003. His 2004 film Cuoco Contadino was presented at the Venice Film Festival, Melissa P. made a successful debut the following year. In 2009, he directed and produced the cult hit I Am Love. Presented at a number of international festivals, the film was an immediate success with critics and audiences alike. In 2010, it was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Costume Design, the Golden Globe for Best Foreign Film, the BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language. In 2011, Guadagnino directed Inconscio Italiano, a feature-length documentary film presented at the Locarno Film Festival, his work in documentary continued with Bertolucci on Bertolucci, shown at the Venice Film Festival, the London Film Festival and Paris Cinemathèque, 50 other festivals in 2013 and 2014. Co-directed with Walter Fasano, the documentary was made from archival material and received top international accolades; as producer he realized the well-received short film Diarchia, directed by Ferdinando Cito Filomarino, which won the Pianifica prize at the Locarno Film Festival, received a special mention at the Sundance Film Festival in 2011, was nominated for Best Short Film at the European Film Awards, won the prize for Best Director of a Short Film at the Nastri d'Argento.
He produced Filomarino's feature Antonia. in 2015. Guadagnino produced Edoardo Gabbriellini's feature film Padroni di casa, presented at the Locarno Film Festival. In 2015, Guadagnino directed the erotic thriller A Bigger Splash, with Tilda Swinton, Matthias Schoenaerts, Ralph Fiennes and Dakota Johnson; the film premiered at the 72nd Venice Film Festival where it was a selection for the main competition. Guadagnino's next film was Call Me by Your Name, an adaptation of André Aciman's novel of the same name, starring Timothée Chalamet, Armie Hammer, Michael Stuhlbarg. Filming took place in Crema, Italy, in May and June 2016, the film debuted at the 2017 Sundance Film Festival, it was theatrically released in the United Kingdom on 27 October 2017, in the United States on 24 November. In September 2015, Guadagnino announced at the 72nd Venice Film Festival his plans to direct a remake of Dario Argento's Suspiria. Guadagnino set his version in Berlin circa 1977—the year in which the original film was released—and aimed to focus on "the concept uncompromising force of motherhood."
Tilda Swinton and Dakota Johnson starred in the film. Shooting began in Italy in October 2016, concluded on 10 March 2017, in Berlin. Suspiria premiered at the 75th Venice Film Festival and received positive reviews. In May 2017, it was announced Guadagnino was attached to direct Rio from a screenplay by Steven Knight, with Benedict Cumberbatch and Jake Gyllenhaal to star. In November 2017, Michelle Williams joined the project; however it was revealed in a profile for The New Yorker. In January 2019, it was announced Guadagnino had directed an untitled short film, starring Julianne Moore, Kyle MacLachlan, Marthe Keller, KiKi Layne, Mia Goth and Alba Rohrwacher. In July 2017, it was announced Guadagnino was attached to direct a version of Swan Lake from a screenplay by Kristina Lauren Anderson, with Felicity Jones attached in the lead role. Universal Pictures will distribute. Furthermore, in December 2017, it was announced that he would direct Burial Rites, based on the 2013 novel of the same name, with Jennifer Lawrence producing and starring as Agnes Magnusdottir, the last woman executed in Iceland.
After confirming in an interview, Guadagnino is planning on a sequel to Call Me by Your Name. In October 2018, it was announced that Guadagnino would be directing a film adaptation of the Bob Dylan album Blood on the Tracks with a screenplay written by Richard LaGravenese which follows characters "through a multiyear story, set in the seventies, drawing on the album’s central themes". In the same profile it was revealed that Guadagnino has been contacting the Kubrick estate about directing Stanley Kubrick's unrealized Holocaust project Aryan Papers. In February 2019, sources revealed that Guadagnino was set to direct and write a new eight-part series for HBO. Guadagnino has served twice on the jury of the Torino Film Festival: in 2003 for the Short Film section and in 2006 for the Official Jury. In 2010, he was a member of the Venice Film Festival. In 2011, he served as president of the Beirut Film Festival, on the jury of the Locarno Film Festival. Outside of film, he began working with the Italian fashion house Fendi in 2005. and in 2012 created Frenesy, a crea
Messiah Marcolin known as Eddie Marcolin, is a vocalist best known for his work in the doom metal band Candlemass. Marcolin is well known for his operatic voice and for his signature'Doom Dance'. Messiah Marcolin's first releases were with the heavy metal band Mercy. After recording an EP, Mercy were looking for a singer to record with and Messiah was asked to join just two weeks before recording, he sang on two Mercy albums, the first a self-titled debut in 1984, Witchburner a year later. The albums were influenced by Black Sabbath while the falsetto shrieks were influenced by Mercyful Fate singer King Diamond. Looking for a heavier direction, Messiah decided to leave the band. Marcolin joined Candlemass to replace session vocalist Johan Längqvist, who could not be convinced to remain as singer for the band after Epicus Doomicus Metallicus; the band got Marcolin's name from Tom Hallbäck, a refrigerator salesman from Helsingborg and the drummer for thrash bands God BC and Hysteriah GBC. His debut with Candlemass is Nightfall.
He sang on two subsequent albums, Ancient Dreams and Tales of Creation and performed on a live album. Due to personal differences with some of the other members during the Tales of Creation tour in 1991, Marcolin left Candlemass. Messiah worked on several projects after departing Candlemass. In 1993, he co-founded Memento Mori with Mike Wead and sang on two of their albums in 1993 and 1994 before leaving as he was not being credited for writing melodies. Messiah worked with members of Stillborn on a project named "Colossus" and released a demo and contributed a cover of "Sad But True" to a Metallica tribute album titled Metal Militia: A Tribute to Metallica II in 1996; the band was inactive after this recording and Messiah returned to Memento Mori to record and release Songs for the Apocalypse, Vol. 4 in 1997. He performed guest vocals for the melodic death metal/blackened death metal band Satariel; the "Nightfall era" line did various festivals and gigs. Candlemass released recordings from its live activity during this period as Doomed For Live and released a compilation, Essential Doom, which included a demo version of "Witches", a song that would be included on Candlemass' self-titled 2005 album.
After releasing Candlemass, Messiah appeared on two DVD releases: Documents of Doom and The Curse of Candlemass. Candlemass announced in October 2006. Additionally, in 2003, Messiah co-founded Requiem and released a three-song demo, although the band dissolved due to Candlemass' reunion and musical differences within the band. Messiah was a guest vocalist with Therion for a string of live performances in 2007. In 2011, Messiah appeared live with Swedish heavy metal band Portrait, covering the Mercyful Fate song "Black Funeral". In 2013, he sang on "Hel" on Amon Amarth's Deceiver of the Gods. Encyclopaedia Metallum: the Metal Archives Colossus Myspace Page Requiem Official Page Myspace Page
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations