In heraldry, murrey is a "stain", i. e. A non-standard tincture, a dark reddish purple colour, it is distinct therefrom. According to dictionaries, "murrey" is the colour of mulberries, being somewhere between the heraldic tinctures of gules and purpure, maroon; the livery colours of the House of York in England in the fifteenth century were azure and murrey, as depicted on the shields of the Falcon of the Plantagenets and the White Lion of Mortimer, which are 2 of the Queen's Beasts. Mulberry Purple Purpure Sanguigne Stain Tenné Tincture Media related to Murrey at Wikimedia Commons
The stoat known as the short-tailed weasel or the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not live, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip. From Eurasia, it crossed into North America some 500,000 years ago, where it naturalized and joined the notably larger related native long-tailed weasel; the name ermine is used for any species in the genus Mustela the stoat, in its pure white winter coat, or the fur thereof. In the late 19th century, stoats were introduced into New Zealand to control rabbits, where they have had a devastating effect on native bird populations; the stoat is classed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as least concern, due to its wide circumpolar distribution, because it does not face any significant threat to its survival. It was nominated as one of the world's top 100 "worst invaders". Ermine luxury fur was used in the 15th century by Catholic monarchs, who sometimes used it as the mozzetta cape.
It was used in capes on images such as the Infant Jesus of Prague. The root word for "stoat" is either the Dutch word stout or the Gothic word. According to John Guillim, in his Display of Heraldrie, the word "ermine" is derived from Armenia, the nation where it was thought the species originated, though other authors have linked it to the Norman French from the Teutonic harmin; this seems to come from the Lithuanian word šarmu. In Ireland, the stoat is referred to as a weasel, while in North America it is called a short-tailed weasel. A male stoat is called a hob or jack, while a female is called a jill; the collective noun for stoats is either pack. The stoat's direct ancestor was Mustela palerminea, a common carnivore in central and eastern Europe during the Middle Pleistocene, that spread to North America during the late Blancan or early Irvingtonian; the stoat is the product of a process begun 5–7 million years ago, when northern forests were replaced by open grassland, thus prompting an explosive evolution of small, burrowing rodents.
The stoat's ancestors were larger than the current form, underwent a reduction in size as they exploited the new food source. The stoat first arose in Eurasia, shortly after the long-tailed weasel arose as its mirror image in North America 2 million years ago; the stoat thrived during the Ice Age, as its small size and long body allowed it to operate beneath snow, as well as hunt in burrows. The stoat and the long-tailed weasel remained separated until 500,000 years ago, when falling sea levels exposed the Bering land bridge. Combined phylogenetic analyses indicate the stoat's closest living relative is the mountain weasel, though it is closely related to the least weasel and long-tailed weasel, its next closest relatives are the Amazon weasel. As of 2005, 37 subspecies are recognized; the stoat is similar to the least weasel in general proportions, manner of posture, movement, though the tail is longer, always exceeding a third of the body length, though it is shorter than that of the long-tailed weasel.
The stoat has the head being set exceptionally far in front of the shoulders. The trunk is nearly cylindrical, does not bulge at the abdomen; the greatest circumference of body is little more than half its length. The skull, although similar to that of the least weasel, is longer, with a narrower braincase; the projections of the skull and teeth are weakly developed, but stronger than those of the least weasel. The eyes are round and protrude slightly; the whiskers are brown or white in colour, long. The ears are short and lie flattened against the skull; the claws are not retractable, are large in proportion to the digits. Each foot has five toes; the male stoat has a curved baculum with a proximal knob. Fat is deposited along the spine and kidneys on gut mesenteries, under the limbs and around the shoulders; the stoat has four pairs of nipples. The dimensions of the stoat are variable, but not as as the least weasel's. Unusual among the Carnivora, the size of stoats tends to decrease proportionally with latitude, in contradiction to Bergmann's rule.
Sexual dimorphism in size is pronounced, with males being 25% larger than females and 1.5-2.0 times their weight. On average, males measure 187 -- 325 mm in body length -- 270 mm; the tail measures 75–120 mm in males and 65–106 mm in females. In males, the hind foot measures 40.0 -- 48.2 mm. The height of the ear measures 14.0 -- 23.3 mm. The skulls of males measure 39.3–52.2 mm in length, while those of females measure 35.7–45.8 mm. Males average 258 grams in weight; the stoat has large anal scent glands measuring 8.5 mm × 5 mm in smaller in females. Scent glands are present on the cheeks and flanks. Epidermal secretions, which are deposited during body rubbing, are chemically distinct from the products of the anal scent glands, which contain a higher proportion of volatile chemicals; when attacked or being aggressive, the stoat secretes the conten
Duchy of Brittany
The Duchy of Brittany was a medieval feudal state that existed between 939 and 1547. Its territory covered the northwestern peninsula of Europe, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the west, the English Channel to the north, it was less definitively bordered by the Loire River to the south, Normandy and other French provinces to the east. The Duchy was established after the expulsion of Viking armies from the region around 939; the Duchy, in the 10th and 11th centuries, was politically unstable, with the dukes holding only limited power outside their own personal lands. The Duchy had mixed relationships with the neighbouring Duchy of Normandy, sometimes allying itself with Normandy, at other times, such as the Breton-Norman War, entering into open conflict. Henry II of England invaded Brittany in the mid-12th century and became Count of Nantes in 1158 under a treaty with Duke Conan IV. Henry's son, became Duke through his marriage to Constance, the hereditary Duchess; the Angevins remained in control until the collapse of their empire in northern France in 1204.
The French Crown maintained its influence over the Duchy for the rest of the 13th century. Monastic orders supported by the Breton aristocracy spread across the Duchy in the 11th and 12th centuries, in the 13th, the first of the mendicant orders established themselves in Brittany's major towns. Civil war broke out in the 14th century, as rival claimants for the Duchy vied for power during the Breton War of Succession, with different factions supported by England and France; the independent sovereign nature of the Duchy began to come to an end upon the death of Francis II in 1488. The Duchy was inherited by his daughter, but King Charles VIII of France had her existing marriage annulled and married her himself; as a result, the King of France acquired the title of Duke of Brittany - jure uxoris. The Ducal crown became united with the French crown in 1532 through a vote of the Estates of Brittany, after the death of Queen Claude of France, the last sovereign duchess, her sons Francis III, Duke of Brittany and Henry II of France would in any case have created a personal union on the death of their father.
Following the French Revolution, as a result of the various republican forms of French government since 1792, the duchy was replaced by the French system of départements which continues under the Fifth Republic of France. In modern times the departments have joined into administrative regions although the administrative region of Brittany does not encompass the entirety of the medieval duchy; the Duchy of Brittany that emerged in the early 10th century was influenced by several earlier polities. Prior to the expansion of the Roman Empire into the region, Gallic tribes had occupied the Armorican peninsula, dividing it into five regions that formed the basis for the Roman administration of the area, which survived into the period of the Duchy; these Gallic tribes – termed the Armorici in Latin – had close relationships with the Britonnes tribes in Roman Britain. Between the late 4th and the early 7th centuries, many of these Britonnes migrated to the Armorican peninsula, blending with the local people to form the Britons, who became the Bretons.
The reasons for these migrations remain uncertain. These migrations from Britain contributed to Brittany's name. Brittany fragmented into small, warring regna, each competing for resources; the Frankish Carolingian Empire conquered the region during the 8th century, starting around 748 taking the whole of Brittany by 799. The Carolingians tried to create a unitary administration around the centres of Rennes and Vannes using the local rulers, but the kings of Brittany's hold on the region remained tenuous. Carolingian technology and culture began to influence Brittany, the church in Brittany began to emulate the Frankish model; the greatest influence on the Duchy, was the formation of a unitary Brittany kingdom in the 9th century. In 831 Louis the Pious appointed Nominoe, the Count of Vannes, ruler of the Bretons, imperial missus, at Ingelheim in 831. After the death of Louis in 840, Nominoe rose to challenge the new emperor, Charles the Bald, emboldened in part by new Viking raids on the empire.
Charles the Bald created the Marches of Neustria to defend Western Francia from the Bretons and the Vikings. Erispoe fought Charles the Bald, who felt that a quick attack would challenge the new Breton leader. Erispoe won a victory at the Battle of Jengland and, under their Treaty of Angers in 851, Brittany's independence was secured; the new kingdom collapsed under Viking attack. In 853 the Viking Godfried left the Seine with his fleet, sailed around the Breton peninsula and sacked Nantes. Erispoe entered into an alliance with the leader of another Viking fleet, who betrayed him, resulting in Erispoe's defeat at the hands of the Vikings. A weakened Erispoe ruled until 857 when he was assassinated and followed as Breton ruler by his cousin and rival, the Count of Rennes and Nantes. Viking raids continued. Alan I defeated one wave of Vikings around 900, expanding the kingdom to include not only the Breton territories of Léon, Domnonée, the Vannetais, but the Frankish counties of Rennes, Nantes and Avranches, as well as the western parts of Poitou and Anjou.
Alan I's military success resulted in a period of peace from Viking invasions and few raids from the Vikings were recorded from 900 through to 907. After Alan I's death in 907, Brittany was overrun once again by Vikings. Fulk the Red, Count of Anjou, is said to have occupied Nantes from 907 to 919 when he abandoned it to the invading Vikings. In 919, the
Vair is a fur, a set of patterns in heraldry. It represents a kind of fur common in the Middle Ages, made from the greyish-blue backs of squirrels sewn together with the animals' white underbellies. Vair is the second-most common fur in heraldry, after ermine; the word vair, with its variant forms veir and vairé, was brought into Middle English from Old French, from Latin varius "variegated", has been alternatively termed variorum opus. The squirrel in question is a variety of the Eurasian red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris. In the coldest parts of Northern and Central Europe the Baltic region, the winter coat of this squirrel is blue-grey on the back and white on the belly, was much used for the lining of cloaks called mantles, it was sewn together in alternating cup-shaped pieces of back and belly fur, resulting in a pattern of grey-blue and grey-white which, when simplified in heraldic drawing and painting, became blue and white in alternating pieces. In early heraldry, vair was represented by means of straight horizontal lines alternating with wavy lines.
It mutated into a pattern of bell or pot-like shapes, conventionally known as panes or "vair bells", of argent and azure, arranged in horizontal rows, so that the panes of one tincture form the upper part of the row, while those of the opposite tincture are on the bottom. The early form of the fur is still sometimes found, under the name vair vair ancien; the only mandatory rule concerning the choice of tincture is the respect of the heraldic rule of tincture, that orders the use of a metal and a color. When the pattern of vair is used with other colours, the field is termed vairé or vairy of the tinctures used. Vairé consists of one metal and one colour, although ermine or one of its variants is sometimes used, with an ermine spot appearing in each pane of that tincture. Vairé of four colours is known consisting of two metals and two colours. Traditionally vair was produced in three sizes, each size came to be depicted in armory. A field consisting of only three rows, representing the largest size, was termed gros vair or beffroi.
This distinction is not observed in English heraldry, is not observed in continental heraldry, although in French heraldry it is customary to specify the number of rows if there are more than four. There are forms of vair in which the arrangement of the rows is changed; the most familiar is counter-vair, in which succeeding rows are reversed instead of staggered, so that the bases of the panes of each tincture are opposite those of the same tincture in adjoining rows. Less common is vair in pale, in which the panes of each tincture are arranged in vertical columns. In German heraldry one reversed vair in pale. Vair in bend and vair in bend sinister, in which the panes are arranged in diagonal rows, is found in continental heraldry. Vair in point is formed by reversing alternate rows, as in counter-vair, displacing them by half the width of a pane, forming an undulating pattern across adjoining rows. German heraldry uses a form called Wechselfeh, or "alternate vair", in which each pane is divided in half along a vertical line, one side being argent and the other azure..
Any of these may be combined with size or color variations, though the variants which changed several aspects are correspondingly rarer. Potent is a similar pattern. In this form, the familiar "vair bell" is replaced by a T-shaped figure, known as a "potent" due to its resemblance to a crutch; the pattern used with tinctures other than argent and azure is termed potenté or potenty of those colours. The appearance of this shape is thought by some authorities to have originated from crude draftsmanship, although others regard it as an old and acceptable variation. A encountered variation of potent is counter-potent or potent-counter-potent, produced in the same fashion as counter-vair. Three other, rarer furs are seen in continental heraldry, of unclear derivation but most from variations on vair made to imitate other types of animals: in plumeté or plumetty, the panes are depicted as feathers. In German heraldry there is a fur known as Kürsch, or "vair bellies", consisting of panes depicted hairy and brown.
Here the phrase "vair bellies" may be a misnomer, as the belly of the red squirrel is always white, although its summer coat is indeed reddish brown. Tincture This article incorporates text from A. C. Fox-Davies' 1914 edition of Charles Boutell's The Handbook to English Heraldry at Project Gutenberg, in the public domain in the United States. Veale, Elspeth M.: The English Fur Trade in the Later Middle Ages, 2nd Edition, London Folio Society 2005. ISBN 0-900952-38-5
In heraldry, copper is the tincture of metallic copper. Copper has been introduced in Canadian heraldry, it is considered a metal along with Argent and Or and should be depicted as bright, new copper metal. While not used, it features prominently in the arms of the City of Whitehorse, Yukon
Variation of the field
In heraldry, variations of the field are any of a number of ways that a field may be covered with a pattern, rather than a flat tincture or a simple division of the field. Variations of the field of present a particular problem concerning consistent spelling of adjectival endings in English blazons; because heraldry developed at a time when English clerks wrote in Anglo-Norman French, many terms in English heraldry are of French origin, as is the practice of placing most adjectives after nouns rather than before. A problem arises as to acceptable spellings of French words used in English blazons in the case of adjectival endings, determined in normal French usage by gender and number, it is considered by some heraldic authorities as pedantry to adopt correct linguistic usage for English blazons: "To describe two hands as appaumées, because the word main is feminine in French, savours somewhat of pedantry. A person may be a good armorist, a tolerable French scholar, still be uncertain whether an escallop-shell covered with bezants should be blazoned as bezanté or bezantée".
Cussans adopted the convention of spelling all French adjectives in the masculine singular, without regard to the gender and number of the nouns they qualify. The diminutives of the ordinaries are employed to vary the field. Any of these patterns may be counterchanged by the addition of a division line; when the field is patterned with an number of horizontal stripes, this is described as barry e.g. of six or eight of a colour and metal specified, e.g. barry of six argent and gules. More a barry field can be of two colours or two metals. (The arms of the Kingdom of Hawai'i show a unusual example of barry of three different tinctures, there are more exceptional examples of barry of a single tincture, as in the arms of Kempten on the Zurich roll. The arms of Eyfelsberg zum Weyr provide a unique example of barry of four different tinctures that do not repeat. With ten or more pieces, the field is described as barruly. A field having the appearance of a number of narrow piles throughout issuing from the dexter of sinister flanks is barry pily.
When the field is patterned with an number of vertical stripes, the field is described as paly. When the field is patterned with a series of diagonal stripes, running from top-left to bottom-right, the field is described as bendy. In the opposite fashion it is bendy sinister. In modern practice the number of pieces is nearly always even. A shield of thirteen vertical stripes, alternating argent and gules, would not be paly of thirteen and gules, but argent, six pallets gules. One unusual design is described in part as bendy of three though, as each third is again divided, the effect is of a six-part division. If no number of pieces is specified, it may be left up to the heraldic artist. An instance of a fess... paly Sable, Celeste and Or occurs in the arms of the 158th Quartermaster Battalion of the United States Army, although this is atypical terminology and it could be argued that the fess should be blazoned as "per pale, in dexter per pale Sable and Argent, in sinister per pale Bleu Celeste and Or".
In the modern arms of the Count of Schwarzburg, the quarters are divided by a cross bendy of three tinctures. When the shield is divided by lines both palewise and bendwise, with the pieces coloured alternately like a chess board, this is paly-bendy. A field which seems to be composed of a number of triangular pieces is barry bendy and bendy sinister; when divided by palewise and fesswise lines into a chequered pattern, the field is chequy. The coat of arms of Croatia Chequy gules and argent is well known; the arms of "Bleichröder, banker to Bismarck," show chequy fimbriated. The arms of the 85th Air Division of the United States Air Force show "a checky grid" on part of the field, though this is to be distinguished from "chequy"; the number of chequers is indeterminate, though the fess in the arms of Robert Stewart, Lord of Lorn, they are blazoned as being "of four tracts". The number of vertical rows can be specified; when a bend or bend sinister, or one of their diminutives, is chequy, the chequers follow the direction of the bend unless otherwise specified.
James Parker cites the French term equipolle to mean chequy of nine, though mentions that this is identical to a cross quarter-pierced. He gives the arms of Prospect as an unusual example of cheq