Telefunken was a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens & Halske and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft. The name "Telefunken" appears in: the product brand name "Telefunken". H. System Telefunken, founded 1903 in Berlin as a subsidiary of Siemens & Halske. H.. KG" in Heilbronn, Germany. L." The company Telefunken USA was incorporated in early 2001 to provide restoration services and build reproductions of vintage Telefunken microphones. Around the start of the 20th century, two groups of German researchers worked on the development of techniques for wireless communication; the one group at AEG, led by Adolf Slaby and Georg Graf von Arco, developed systems for the Kaiserliche Marine. Their main competitor was the British Marconi Company; when a dispute concerning patents arose between the two companies, Kaiser Wilhelm II urged both parties to join efforts, creating Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie System Telefunken joint venture on 27 May 1903, with the disputed patents and techniques invested in it.
On 17 April 1923, it was renamed The Company for Wireless Telegraphy. Telefunken was the company's telegraphic address; the first technical director of Telefunken was Count Georg von Arco. Telefunken became a major player in the radio and electronics fields, both civilian and military. During World War I, they supplied radio sets and telegraphy equipment for the military, as well as building one of the first radio navigation systems for the Zeppelin force; the Telefunken Kompass Sender operated from 1908 to 1918, allowing the Zeppelins to navigate throughout the North Sea area in any weather. Starting in 1923, Telefunken built broadcast transmitters and radio sets. In 1928, Telefunken made history by designing the V-41 amplifier for the German Radio Network; this was the first two-stage, "Hi-Fi" amplifier. Over time, Telefunken perfected their designs and in 1950 the V-72 amplifier was developed; the TAB V-72 soon became popular with recording facilities. The V-72S was the only type of amplifier found in the REDD.37 console used by the Beatles at Abbey Road Studios on many of their early recordings.
In 1932, record players were added to the product line. In 1941, Siemens transferred its Telefunken shares to AEG as part of the agreements known as the "Telefunken settlement", AEG thus became the sole owner and continued to lead Telefunken as a subsidiary. During the Second World War, Telefunken was a supplier of vacuum tubes and radio relay systems, developed Funkmess facilities and directional finders, as part of the German air defence against aerial bombing. During the war, manufacturing plants were developed in west of Germany or relocated. Thus, under AEG, turned into the smaller subsidiary, with the three divisions realigning and data processing technology, elements as well as broadcast and phono. Telefunken was the originator of the FM radio broadcast system. Telefunken, through the subsidiary company Teldec, was for many decades one of the largest German record companies, until Teldec was sold to WEA in 1988. In 1959, Telefunken established a modern semiconductor works in Heilbronn, where in April 1960 production began.
The works was expanded several times, in 1970 a new 6-storey building was built at the northern edge of the area. At the beginning of the 1970s it housed 2,500 employees. In 1967, Telefunken was merged with AEG, renamed to AEG-Telefunken. In the beginning of the 1960s, Walter Bruch developed the PAL-colour television system for the company, in use by most countries of the western Hemisphere. PAL is established i.e. in the United Kingdom and, except France, many other European countries - in Brazil, South Africa and Australia. The mainframe computer TR 4 was developed at Telefunken in Backnang, the TR 440 model was developed at Telefunken in Konstanz, including the first ball-based mouse named Rollkugel in 1968; the computers were in use at many German university computing centres from the 1970s to around 1985. The development and manufacture of large computers was separated in 1974 to the Konstanz Computer Company; the production of mini- and process computers was integrated into the automatic control engineering division of AEG.
When AEG was bought by Daimler in 1985, "Telefunken" was dropped from the company name. In 1995, Telefunken was sold to Tech Sym Corporation for $9 million. However, Telefunken remained a German company. In the 1970s and early 1980s, Telefunken was instrumental in the development of high quality audio noise reduction sy
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
The Merry Widow
The Merry Widow is an operetta by the Austro-Hungarian composer Franz Lehár. The librettists, Viktor Léon and Leo Stein, based the story – concerning a rich widow, her countrymen's attempt to keep her money in the principality by finding her the right husband – on an 1861 comedy play, L'attaché d'ambassade by Henri Meilhac; the operetta has enjoyed extraordinary international success since its 1905 premiere in Vienna and continues to be revived and recorded. Film and other adaptations have been made. Well-known music from the score includes the "Vilja Song", "Da geh' ich zu Maxim", the "Merry Widow Waltz". In 1861, Henri Meilhac premiered a comic play in Paris, L'attaché d'ambassade, in which the Parisian ambassador of a poor German grand duchy, Baron Scharpf, schemes to arrange a marriage between his country's richest widow and a Count to keep her money at home, thus preventing economic disaster in the duchy; the play was soon adapted into German as Der Gesandschafts-Attaché and was given several successful productions.
In early 1905, Viennese librettist Leo Stein came across the play and thought it would make a good operetta. He suggested this to one of his writing collaborators, Viktor Léon and to the manager of the Theater an der Wien, eager to produce the piece; the two adapted the play as a libretto and updated the setting to contemporary Paris, expanding the plot to reference an earlier relationship between the widow and the Count, moving the native land from a dour German province to a colourful little Balkan state. In addition, the widow admits to an affair to protect the Baron's wife, the Count's haven is changed to the Parisian restaurant and nightclub Maxim's, they asked Richard Heuberger to compose the music, as he had a previous hit at the Theater an der Wien with a Parisian-themed piece, Der Opernball. He composed a draft of the score, but it was unsatisfactory, he gladly left the project; the theatre's staff next suggested. Lehár had worked with Stein on Der Göttergatte the previous year. Although Léon doubted that Lehár could invoke an authentic Parisian atmosphere, he was soon enchanted by Lehar's first number for the piece, a bubbly galop melody for "Dummer, dummer Reitersmann".
The score of Die Lustige Witwe was finished in a matter of months. The theatre engaged Mizzi Louis Treumann for the leading roles, they had starred as the romantic couple in other operettas in Vienna, including a production of Der Opernball and a previous Léon and Lehár success, Der Rastelbinder. Both stars were so enthusiastic about the piece that they supplemented the theatre's low-budget production by paying for their own lavish costumes. During the rehearsal period, the theatre lost faith in the score and asked Lehár to withdraw it, but he refused; the piece was given little rehearsal time on stage before its premiere. Die Lustige Witwe was first performed at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna on 30 December 1905, with Günther as Hanna, Treumann as Danilo, Siegmund Natzler as Baron Zeta and Annie Wünsch as Valencienne, it was a major success, running for 483 performances. The production was toured in Austria in 1906; the operetta had no overture. The Vienna Philharmonic performed the overture at Lehár's 70th birthday concert in April 1940.
The embassy in Paris of the poverty-stricken Balkan principality of Pontevedro is holding a ball to celebrate the birthday of the sovereign, the Grand Duke. Hanna Glawari, who has inherited twenty million francs from her late husband, is to be a guest at the ball – and the Pontevedrin ambassador, Baron Zeta, is scheming to ensure that she will keep her fortune in the country, saving Pontevedro from bankruptcy; the Baron intends that Count Danilo Danilovitsch, the first secretary of the embassy, should marry the widow. Danilo meets Hanna, it emerges they were in love before her marriage, but his uncle had interrupted their romance because Hanna had had nothing to her name. Though they still love each other, Danilo now refuses to court Hanna for her fortune, Hanna vows that she will not marry him until he says "I love you" – something he claims he will never do. Meanwhile, Baron Zeta's wife Valencienne has been flirting with the French attaché to the embassy, Count Camille de Rosillon, who writes "I love you" on her fan.
Valencienne puts off Camille's advances. However, they lose the incriminating fan, found by embassy counsellor Kromow. Kromow jealously fears that the fan belongs to his own wife and gives it to Baron Zeta. Not recognising it, Baron Zeta decides to return the fan discreetly, in spite of Valencienne's desperate offers to take it "to Olga" herself. On his way to find Olga, the Baron meets Danilo, his diplomatic mission takes precedence over the fan; the Baron orders Danilo to marry Hanna. Danilo offers to eliminate any non-Pontevedrin suitors as a compromise; as the "Ladies' Choice" dance is about to begin, Hanna becomes swarmed with hopeful suitors. Valencienne volunteers Camille to dance with Hanna hoping that the Frenchman will marry her and cease to be a temptation for Valencienne herself. True to his bargain with the Baron, Danilo circulates the ballroom, rounding up ladies to claim dances and thin the crowd around the
Carnegie Hall is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, United States, located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east side of Seventh Avenue between West 56th Street and West 57th Street, two blocks south of Central Park. Designed by architect William Burnet Tuthill and built by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie in 1891, it is one of the most prestigious venues in the world for both classical music and popular music. Carnegie Hall has its own artistic programming and marketing departments, presents about 250 performances each season, it is rented out to performing groups. The hall has not had a resident company since 1962, when the New York Philharmonic moved to Lincoln Center's Philharmonic Hall. Carnegie Hall has 3,671 seats, divided among its three auditoriums. Carnegie Hall contains three separate performance spaces; the Isaac Stern Auditorium seats 2,804 on five levels and was named after violinist Isaac Stern in 1997 to recognize his efforts to save the hall from demolition in the 1960s.
The hall is enormously high, visitors to the top balcony must climb 137 steps. All but the top level can be reached by elevator; the main hall was home to the performances of the New York Philharmonic from 1892 until 1962. Known as the most prestigious concert stage in the U. S. all of the leading classical music and, more popular music performers since 1891 have performed there. After years of heavy wear and tear, the hall was extensively renovated in 1986; the Ronald O. Perelman Stage is 42 feet deep; the five levels of seating in the Stern Auditorium begin with the Parquet level, which has twenty-five full rows of thirty-eight seats and four partial rows at stage level, for a total of 1,021 seats. The First Tier and Second Tier consist of sixty-five boxes. Second from the top is the Dress Circle, seating 444 in six rows. At the top, the balcony seats 837. Although seats with obstructed views exist throughout the auditorium, only the Dress Circle level has structural columns. Zankel Hall, which seats 599, is named after Arthur Zankel.
Called Recital Hall, this was the first auditorium to open to the public in April 1891. Following renovations made in 1896, it was renamed Carnegie Lyceum, it was leased to the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in 1898, converted into a cinema, which opened as the Carnegie Hall Cinema in May 1961 with the film White Nights by Luchino Visconti and was reclaimed for use as an auditorium in 1997. The reconstructed Zankel Hall is flexible in design and can be reconfigured in several different arrangements to suit the needs of the performers, it opened in September 2003. The 599 seats in Zankel Hall are arranged in two levels; the Parterre level seats a total of 463 and the Mezzanine level seats 136. Each level has a number of seats which are situated along the side walls, perpendicular to the stage; these seats are designated as boxes. The boxes on the Parterre level are raised above the level of the stage. Zankel Hall is accessible and its stage is 44 feet wide and 25 feet deep—the stage occupies one fifth of the performance space.
The Joan and Sanford I. Weill Recital Hall seats 268 and is named after Sanford I. Weill, a former chairman of the board, his wife Joan; this auditorium, in use since the hall opened in 1891, was called Chamber Music Hall. The Weill Recital Hall is the smallest of the three performance spaces, with a total of 268 seats; the Orchestra level contains fourteen rows of fourteen seats, a total of 196, the Balcony level contains 72 seats in five rows. The building contains the Carnegie Hall Archives, established in 1986, the Rose Museum, which opened in 1991; until 2009 studios above the Hall contained working spaces for artists in the performing and graphic arts including music, dance, as well as architects, literary agents and painters. The spaces were unusual in being purpose-designed for artistic work, with high ceilings and large windows for natural light. In 2007 the Carnegie Hall Corporation announced plans to evict the 33 remaining studio residents, some of whom had been in the building since the 1950s, including celebrity portrait photographer Editta Sherman and fashion photographer Bill Cunningham.
The organization's research showed that Andrew Carnegie had always considered the spaces as a source of income to support the hall and its activities. The space has been re-purposed for corporate offices. Carnegie Hall is one of the last large buildings in New York built of masonry, without a steel frame; the exterior is rendered in narrow Roman bricks of a mellow ochre hue, with details in terracotta and brownstone. The foyer avoids typical 19th century Baroque theatrical style with the Florentine Renaissance manner of Filippo Brunelleschi's Pazzi Chapel: white plaster and gray stone form a harmonious system of round-headed arched openings and Corinthian pilasters that support an unbroken cornice, with round-headed lunettes above it, under a vaulted ceiling; the famous white and gold auditorium interio
The Wrocław Opera is an opera company and opera house in Wrocław, Poland. The opera house up to 1945 was known as the Breslau Opera. An Italian opera company was established in Wroclaw in 1725 by Antonio Maria Peruzzi, following a split with Antonio Denzio with whom he had collaborated in the Peruzzi-Denzio company at the Sporck theatre in Prague; the Theater on the Cold Ashes was opened in 1755 by Franz von Schuch and performed operas till his death in 1764. His son, Schuch the younger, brought the first operas of Johann Adam Hiller to the Theodor Lobe's theatre in Breslau in 1770, his successor Johann Christian Wäser introduced more, including local Singspiel translations of works by Pierre-Alexandre Monsigny. In 1804 Abbé Vogler invited Carl Maria von Weber to conduct the Breslau Opera when he was only 18; the opera house was constructed in 1841 to designs by Carl Gotthard Langhans, supervised by his son Carl Ferdinand. It was remodelled twice after fires in 1865 by 1871 by Karl Schmidt. After the first fire Theodor Lobe in 1867 invited the young conductor Ernst Schuch to begin his career at the theatre.
After World War I notable productions during the interwar years included Schönberg's Die glückliche Hand. The music directors in this period included Franz von Hoesslin, forced to leave the city, Germany, in 1928. Following the inclusion of Breslau into Poland in 1945, the Lower Silesian Opera made its inaugural performance in Polish Wrocław on September 8, 1945 with Stanisław Moniuszko's Halka directed by Stanislaw Drabik. From 1945 to 1950 the building housed not only the Opera, but theater, puppet theater and operetta performances. In 1997 the current Director Ewa Michnik, undertook the idea to use other venues during the complete rehab of the building, she created a series of mega-productions that took place around the city including the Centennial Hall, The National Museum courtyard and banks of the Oder River. This tradition continues to this day; the super productions are famous for interesting surroundings, attractive decorations and guest actors. The Opera organized Wagner festivals building on the tradition of Wagner's involvement with Wroclaw Opera.
The current repertoire of the Opera House includes Kot w butach by Bogdan Pawłowski and Matka czarnoskrzydłych snów by Hanna Kulenty. The list of current productions is growing by the year. Several productions were rewarded both in Abroad. Wroclaw Opera is one of the leading Opera companies in Europe. Ludomir Różycki Eros und Psyche 1914 Media related to Wrocław Opera at Wikimedia Commons Website of the Wrocław Opera
Eugen Francois Charles d'Albert was a Scottish-born German pianist and composer. Educated in Britain, d'Albert showed early musical talent and, at the age of seventeen, he won a scholarship to study in Austria. Feeling a kinship with German culture and music, he soon emigrated to Germany, where he studied with Franz Liszt and began a career as a concert pianist. D'Albert considered himself German. While pursuing his career as a pianist, d'Albert focused on composing, producing 21 operas and a considerable output of piano, vocal and orchestral works, his most successful opera was Tiefland, which premiered in Prague in 1903. His successful orchestral works included his cello concerto, a symphony, two string quartets and two piano concertos. In 1907, d'Albert became the director of the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin, where he exerted a wide influence on musical education in Germany, he held the post of Kapellmeister to the Court of Weimar. D'Albert was married six times, including to the pianist-singer Teresa Carreño, was successively a British and Swiss citizen.
D'Albert was born at 4 Crescent Place, Scotland, to an English mother, Annie Rowell, a German-born father of French and Italian descent, Charles Louis Napoléon d'Albert, whose ancestors included the composers Giuseppe Matteo Alberti and Domenico Alberti. D'Albert's father was a pianist, arranger and a prolific composer of salon music, ballet-master at the King's Theatre and at Covent Garden. D'Albert was born; the Musical Times wrote in 1904 that "This, other circumstances, accounted for a certain loneliness in the boy's home-life and the years of his childhood. He was misunderstood, and'cribbed and confined' to such an extent as to prejudice him against the country which gave him birth". D'Albert was brought up in Glasgow and taught music by his father until he won a scholarship to the new National Training School for Music in London, which he entered in 1876 at the age of 12. D'Albert studied at the National Training School with Ernst Pauer, Ebenezer Prout, John Stainer and Arthur Sullivan.
By the age of 14, he was winning public praise from The Times as "a bravura player of no mean order" in a concert in October 1878. He played Schumann's Piano Concerto at the Crystal Palace in 1880, receiving more encouragement from The Times: "A finer rendering of the work has been heard." In 1880, d'Albert arranged the piano reduction for the vocal score of Sullivan's sacred music drama The Martyr of Antioch, to accompany the chorus in rehearsal. He is credited with writing, under Sullivan's direction, the overture to Gilbert and Sullivan's 1881 opera, Patience. For many years, d'Albert dismissed his work during this period as worthless; the Times wrote that he "was born and educated in England, won his earliest successes in England, although, in a freak of boyish impetuosity, he repudiated some years ago all connexion with this country, according to his own account, he was born by mere accident and where he learnt nothing." In years, however, he modified his views: "The former prejudice which I had against England, which several incidents aroused, has vanished since many years."
In 1881, Hans Richter invited d'Albert to play his first piano concerto, "received with enthusiasm". This seems to have been d'Albert's lost concerto in A major, not the work published three years as his Piano Concerto No. 1 in B minor, Op. 2. In the same year d'Albert won the Mendelssohn Scholarship, enabling him to study in Vienna, where he met Johannes Brahms, Franz Liszt and other important musicians who influenced his style. D'Albert, retaining his early enthusiasm for German culture and music changed his first name from Eugène to Eugen and emigrated to Germany, where he became a pupil of the elderly Liszt in Weimar. In Germany and Austria, d'Albert built a career as a pianist. Liszt called him "the second Tausig", d'Albert can be heard in an early recording of Liszt works, he played his own piano concerto with the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra in 1882, the youngest pianist who had appeared with the orchestra. D'Albert toured extensively, including in the United States from 1904 to 1905.
His virtuoso technique was compared to that of Busoni. He was praised of Beethoven's sonatas. "As an exponent of Beethoven, Eugen d'Albert has few, if any, equals." D'Albert's work as a composer occupied his time more and more, he reduced his concert playing. He was the recipient of a number of dedications, most notably of Richard Strauss's Burleske in D minor, which he premiered in 1890. D'Albert was a prolific composer, his output includes a large volume of lieder. He composed twenty-one operas, in a wide variety of styles, which premiered in Germany, his first, Der Rubin was an oriental fantasy. His most successful opera was his seventh, which premiered in Prague in 1903; when Thomas Beecham introduced the opera to London, The Times observed, "the scoring owes more than a little to the discipline of Sullivan. Tiefland played in opera houses throughout
East Germany the German Democratic Republic, was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state", the territory was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II — the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line; the Soviet zone did not include it. The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones. East Germany was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. However, Soviet forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War; until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party, though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany.
The SED made the teaching of Marxism -- the Russian language compulsory in schools. The economy was centrally planned and state-owned. Prices of housing, basic goods and services were set by central government planners rather than rising and falling through supply and demand. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Emigration to the West was a significant problem – as many of the emigrants were well-educated young people, it further weakened the state economically; the government fortified its western borders and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to flee were killed by border guards or booby traps, such as landmines. Several others were imprisoned for many years. In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the establishment of a government committed to liberalisation; the following year, open elections were held, international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty on the status and borders of Germany.
The GDR dissolved itself, Germany was reunified on 3 October 1990, becoming a sovereign state again. Several of the GDR's leaders, notably its last communist leader Egon Krenz, were prosecuted in reunified Germany for crimes committed during the Cold War. Geographically, the German Democratic Republic bordered the Baltic Sea to the north. Internally, the GDR bordered the Soviet sector of Allied-occupied Berlin, known as East Berlin, administered as the state's de facto capital, it bordered the three sectors occupied by the United States, United Kingdom and France known collectively as West Berlin. The three sectors occupied by the Western nations were sealed off from the rest of the GDR by the Berlin Wall from its construction in 1961 until it was brought down in 1989; the official name was Deutsche Demokratische Republik abbreviated to DDR. Both terms were used in East Germany, with increasing usage of the abbreviated form since East Germany considered West Germans and West Berliners to be foreigners following the promulgation of its second constitution in 1968.
West Germans, the western media and statesmen avoided the official name and its abbreviation, instead using terms like Ostzone, Sowjetische Besatzungszone, sogenannte DDR. The centre of political power in East Berlin was referred to as Pankow. Over time, the abbreviation DDR was increasingly used colloquially by West Germans and West German media; the term Westdeutschland, when used by West Germans, was always a reference to the geographic region of Western Germany and not to the area within the boundaries of the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this use was not always consistent. Before World War II, Ostdeutschland was used to describe all the territories east of the Elbe, as reflected in the works of sociologist Max Weber and political theorist Carl Schmitt. Explaining the internal impact of the DDR regime from the perspective of German history in the long term, historian Gerhard A. Ritter has argued that the East German state was defined by two dominant forces – Soviet Communism on the one hand, German traditions filtered through the interwar experiences of German Communists on the other.
It always was constrained by the powerful example of the prosperous West, to which East Germans compared their nation. The changes wrought by the Communists were most apparent in ending capitalism and transforming industry and agriculture, in the militarization of society, in the political thrust of the educational system and the media. On the other hand, there was little change made in the independent domains of the sciences, the engineering professions, the Protestant churches, in many bourgeois lifestyles. Social policy, says Ritter, became a critical legitimization tool in the last decades and mixed socialist and traditional elements about equally. At the Yalta Conference during World War II, the Allies (the U. S. the UK and