Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises Californias 10 southernmost counties. The region is described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara. The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. Southern California is an economic center for the state of California. The 8-county and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.5 million people. With over 22 million people, Southern California contains roughly 60 percent of Californias population, located east of Southern California is the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with Arizona. The Mojave Desert is located at the border with the state of Nevada while towards the south is the Mexico–United States border, within Southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the countrys largest metropolitan areas.
With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation. The counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are the five most populous in the state, the motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in Southern California. Hollywood, a district within Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, headquartered in Southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers. Universal, Warner Brothers, and Sony run major record companies, Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, some of the worlds biggest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, and the U. S.
Open of Surfing, are all held in Southern California. Southern California is important to the world of yachting, the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii, is one of yachtings premier events. The San Diego Yacht Club held the Americas Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995, Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the Southern California coast for its popular beaches, the desert city of Palm Springs is popular for its resort feel and nearby open spaces. Southern California is not a geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes Southern California vary. Geographically, Californias North-South midway point lies at exactly 37°958.23 latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose, when the state is divided into two areas, the term Southern California usually refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state
The beauty and pageantry of heraldic designs allowed them to survive the gradual abandonment of armour on the battlefield during the seventeenth century. Heraldry has been described poetically as the handmaid of history, the shorthand of history, in modern times, heraldry is used by individuals and private organizations, cities and regions to symbolize their heritage and aspirations. Various symbols have been used to represent individuals or groups for thousands of years, similar emblems and devices are found in ancient Mesopotamian art of the same period, and the precursors of heraldic beasts such as the griffin can be found. In the Bible, the Book of Numbers refers to the standards and ensigns of the children of Israel, the Greek and Latin writers frequently describe the shields and symbols of various heroes, and units of the Roman army were sometimes identified by distinctive markings on their shields. The Book of Saint Albans, compiled in 1486, declares that Christ himself was a gentleman of coat armour, the medieval heralds devised arms for various knights and lords from history and literature.
Notable examples include the toads attributed to Pharamond, the cross and martlets of Edward the Confessor, and the arms attributed to the Nine Worthies. These too are now regarded as an invention, rather than evidence of the antiquity of heraldry. The development of the modern heraldic language cannot be attributed to an individual, time. Yet no individual is depicted twice bearing the arms, nor are any of the descendants of the various persons depicted known to have borne devices resembling those in the tapestry. A Spanish manuscript from 1109 describes both plain and decorated shields, none of which appears to have been heraldic, in England, from the time of the Norman conquest, official documents had to be sealed. A notable example of an armorial seal is attached to a charter granted by Philip I, Count of Flanders. Seals from the part of the eleventh and early twelfth centuries show no evidence of heraldic symbolism. One of the earliest known examples of armory as it came to be practiced can be seen on the tomb of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou.
An enamel, probably commissioned by Geoffreys widow between 1155 and 1160, depicts him carrying a shield decorated with six golden lions rampant. He wears a helmet adorned with another lion, and his cloak is lined in vair. A medieval chronicle states that Geoffrey was given a shield of this description when he was knighted by his father-in-law, Henry I, in 1128, but this account probably dates to about 1175. Since Henry was the son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, it seems reasonable to suppose that the adoption of lions as an emblem by Henry or his sons might have been inspired by Geoffreys shield. Richard is credited with having originated the English crest of a lion statant and it is from this garment that the phrase coat of arms is derived
California pottery includes industrial and decorative pottery produced in the Northern California and Southern California regions of the U. S. state of California. Production includes brick, sewer pipe, architectural terra cotta, garden ware, kitchenware, art ware, giftware, Ceramics include terra cotta, earthenware and stoneware products. California potters large and small have left a legacy of collectibles, Tile has been a favorite building material in California since the early Spanish settled the area and brought with them bright-colored tile, according to Helen Stiles. She noted that Spanish and the attending Chinese design of the 17th and 18th centuries have all influenced the decoration of tile, as people moved into California after statehood in 1848, the demand for ceramic products grew exponentially. Buildings needed roofs and sewer pipes, the ceramic industry grew as the demand increased. The Golden Era in tile making and art pottery, influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement, was around 1910, architect Julia Morgan used tiles to adorn her buildings including the Hearst Castle in the 1920s.
The most active period for the production of ceramics including tableware, giftware. The major area of production was in the Los Angeles basin, around Los Angeles there were over 300 producers of figurines. Next in size was the Trenton area, followed by East Liverpool, the period around World War II saw the greatest growth for the ceramic industry. With imports cut off from European and Asian markets, small family owned businesses, by 1948, the peak year for the industry, over eight hundred ceramic concerns were in operation throughout California. In the 1950s, imports resumed and flooded the United States market with competitively priced ceramic wares, only a fraction of California potteries survived until the early 1960s. Today, only a few are still in business, the Big Five California potteries, from the 1930s to the 1960s in reference to the range of products and output, were Vernon Kilns, J. A. Bauer Pottery, Metlox Potteries, Pacific Clay Products, and Gladding, all of the Big Five potteries operated production facilities in the Los Angeles Basin.
Gladding, McBean & Co. grew from one factory manufacturing sewer pipe and architectural terra cotta in Lincoln, California to factories throughout California, Vernon Kilns closed in 1958, J. A. Bauer in 1962, and Metlox in 1988, the former Gladding, McBean & Co. s Franciscan tableware and tile factory in Los Angeles was bought by Wedgwood from the Interpace corporation in 1979. Wedgwood closed the Franciscan Ceramics plant in 1984, moving production of the Franciscan tableware brands to England. The former Gladding, McBean & Co. s Lincoln factory was purchased by Pacific Coast Building Products in 1976 and continues to produce sewer pipe, architectural terra cotta, Pacific Clay Products discontinued manufacturing tableware, art ware, and figurines in 1942. Pacific Clay Products continues to manufacture sewer pipe, to use the sortable tables, click on the icons at the top of each column to sort that column in alphabetical order, click again for reverse alphabetical order
Batchelder House (Pasadena, California)
The Batchelder House is a historic home built in 1910 and located at 626 South Arroyo Boulevard in Pasadena, California. The house, a bungalow, has a woodsy design with elements of a Swiss chalet style. Batchelders first craft shop was located in the structure, where decorative tiles were made for Greene and Greene, the Heineman Brothers, coleman used the houses backyard stage to host chamber music concerts. The house was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 14,1978 and it is part of the Lower Arroyo Seco Historic District
A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, metal, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops. Alternatively, tile can sometimes refer to units made from lightweight materials such as perlite, wood. In another sense, a tile is a tile or similar object. The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Tiling stone is marble, granite or slate. Thinner tiles can be used on walls than on floors, which require more durable surfaces that will resist impacts, the earliest evidence of glazed brick is the discovery of glazed bricks in the Elamite Temple at Chogha Zanbil, dated to the 13th century BC. Glazed and colored bricks were used to make low reliefs in Ancient Mesopotamia, most famously the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, now reconstructed in Berlin. Mesopotamian craftsmen were imported for the palaces of the Persian Empire such as Persepolis, tiling was used in the second century by the Sinhalese kings of ancient Sri Lanka, using smoothed and polished stone laid on floors and in swimming pools.
Historians consider the techniques and tools for tiling as well advanced, evidenced by the fine workmanship, tiling from this period can be seen Ruwanwelisaya and Kuttam Pokuna in the city of Anuradhapura. The Achaemenid Empire decorated buildings with glazed tiles, including Darius the Greats palace at Susa. The succeeding Sassanid Empire used tiles patterned with geometric designs, plants and human beings, early Islamic mosaics in Iran consist mainly of geometric decorations in mosques and mausoleums, made of glazed brick. Typical turquoise tiling becomes popular in 10th-11th century and is used mostly for Kufic inscriptions on mosque walls, seyyed Mosque in Isfahan, Dome of Maraqeh and the Jame Mosque of Gonabad are among the finest examples. The dome of Jame Atiq Mosque of Qazvin is dated to this period, the golden age of Persian tilework began during the reign the Timurid Empire. In the moraq technique, single-color tiles were cut into small geometric pieces, after hardening, these panels were assembled on the walls of buildings.
But the mosaic was not limited to flat areas, Tiles were used to cover both the interior and exterior surfaces of domes. Prominent Timurid examples of this include the Jame Mosque of Yazd, Goharshad Mosque, the Madrassa of Khan in Shiraz. Other important tile techniques of time include girih tiles, with their characteristic white girih. Mihrabs, being the points of mosques, were usually the places where most sophisticated tilework was placed
Norton Simon Museum
The Norton Simon Museum is an art museum located in Pasadena, United States. It was previously known as the Pasadena Art Institute and the Pasadena Art Museum, the museum contains the Norton Simon Theater which shows film programs daily, and hosts lectures and dance and musical performances year-round. The museum is located along the route of the Tournament of Rosess Rose Parade, the Museum filled a void, being the only modern art museum between San Francisco and La Jolla in California at the time. It was renowned for art exhibits and supported the work of local contemporary artists such as Helen Lundeberg, John McLaughlin. Hopps drew up a short list of California architects for a new building, including Richard Neutra, Charles Eames, John Lautner, Craig Ellwood. Hopps insisted on an architect because he expected a high level of interaction throughout the design process. A new Pasadena Art Museum building was completed in 1969, designed by Pasadena architects Thornton Ladd, the distinctive and modern curvilinear exterior facade is faced in 115,000 glazed tiles, in varying rich brown tones with an undulating surface, made by renowned ceramic artisan Edith Heath.
Hopps resigned before the museum opened, in the early 1970s, due to an ambitious schedule of exhibits and the new building project, the museum began to experience serious financial hardships. He was first approached for assistance in 1971 by trustees of the museum. In 1974, the museum and Simon came to an agreement, the remainder was used to display the Pasadena museums contemporary collection. A new 10-member board of trustees was formed, consisting of four members from Simons group, Simon became responsible for the collection and building projects, in return the museum was renamed to Norton Simon Museum and renovated at a reported cost of more than $3 million. Simon died in 1993, and the actress Jennifer Jones, his widow and chairwoman of the board, made corrective, conciliatory moves that have repositioned the museum and its two collections. In 1995, the museum began a major $5 million renovation with the architect Frank Gehry, the gardens were redesigned by Power and Associates to house the 20th-century sculpture collection in an engaging setting.
The new Norton Simon Theater was the element of the renovation, designed by Gensler & Associates. The Norton Simon Museum, which more than 11,000 objects. As of 2014, their public filings placed the combined value of the artworks at about $2.5 billion. The museum makes relatively little effort to expand the collection amassed by its founder, for more than three decades after it was founded in 1975, the Norton Simon Museum maintained a no-loans policy. In 2007 the board agreed to select works to museums including the National Gallery in Washington
As a comprehensive design and art movement it remained popular into the 1930s. However, in arts and architectural design it has continued with numerous revivals. The American Craftsman style developed out of the British Arts and Crafts movement going on since the 1860s, while the American movement reacted against the eclectic Victorian over-decorated aesthetic, the Arts and Crafts styles American arrival coincided with the decline of the Victorian era. In the late 1800s, a group of Boston’s more influential architects and its first meeting, to organize an exhibition of contemporary craft objects, was held in January 1897 at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. They succeeded in opening the first American Arts and Crafts Exhibition in April 1897 at Copley Hall, featuring over 10 objects made by 160 craftsmen, half of whom were craftswomen. The exhibitions success led to the formation of The Society of Arts and Crafts in June 1897, with a mandate to “Develop and encourage higher standards in the handicrafts.
”The Society focused on the relationship of artists and designers to the world of commerce, and on high-quality workmanship. The Society of Arts and Crafts mandate was expanded into a credo which read. It hopes to bring Designers and Workmen into mutually helpful relations, in China the Arts and Crafts style incorporated locally handcrafted wood and metal work creating objects that were both simple and elegant. The movements name American Craftsman came from the magazine, The Craftsman, founded in 1901 by philosopher, furniture maker. The magazine featured original house and furniture designs by Harvey Ellis, the Greene and Greene company, emphasis on the originality of the artist/craftsman led to the design concepts of the 1930s Art Deco movement. Several developments in the American domestic architecture of the period are not only to changes in taste and style. The middle-class housewife of the era would not have domestic servants and would be doing much if not all of the housework herself, as well as watching the children.
These added roles made it important that the kitchen be integrated into the house with easy sight lines to the common areas of the main floor as well as to the back yard. Another common design development arising from the class-shift of the time was the built-in breakfast nook in the kitchen, the Victorian kitchen of the previous era was separated from the family view and daily routine. It typically had a table at which the servants would eat after the family meal was served. The Victorian kitchen had no place for a family member to sit, eat. Again, as the housewife of the Craftsman era was now preparing the family meals, the Victorian kitchen gave way to one designed as the heart of the familys daily life. The breakfast nook often placed under a window or in its own bay provided a place for the family to gather at any time of the day or evening, particularly while food was being prepared
California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology is a private doctorate-granting university located in Pasadena, United States. The vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910, the university is one among a small group of Institutes of Technology in the United States which is primarily devoted to the instruction of technical arts and applied sciences. Caltech has six divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering, managing $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research. Its 124-acre primary campus is located approximately 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles, first-year students are required to live on campus, and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at Caltech. Although Caltech has a tradition of practical jokes and pranks. The Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division IIIs Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Caltech is frequently cited as one of the worlds best universities. There are 112 faculty members who have elected to the United States National Academies.
In addition, numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA, according to a 2015 Pomona College study, Caltech ranked number one in the U. S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD. Caltech started as a school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop. The school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute, the vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907. At a time when research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale. He joined Throops board of trustees in 1907, and soon began developing it and he engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus.
In 1910, Throop moved to its current site, arther Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science, with the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. This institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, through the National Research Council, Hale simultaneously lobbied for science to play a larger role in national affairs, and for Throop to play a national role in science. During the course of the war, Hale and Millikan worked together in Washington on the NRC, they continued their partnership in developing Caltech. Under the leadership of Hale and Millikan, Caltech grew to prominence in the 1920s
Arroyo Seco (Los Angeles County)
The Arroyo Seco, meaning dry stream in Spanish, is a 24. 9-mile-long seasonal river, canyon and cultural area in Los Angeles County, California. The area was explored by Gaspar de Portolà who named the stream Arroyo Seco as this canyon had the least water of any they had seen, during this exploration he met the Chief Hahamog-na of the Tongva Indians. The watershed begins at Red Box Saddle in the Angeles National Forest near Mount Wilson in the San Gabriel Mountains, as it enters the urbanized area of the watershed, the Arroyo Seco stream flows between La Cañada Flintridge on the west and Altadena on the east. Just below Devils Gate Dam, the stream passes underneath the Foothill Freeway, at the north end of Brookside Golf Course the stream becomes channelized into a flood control channel and proceeds southward through the golf course. The Arroyo Seco goes through Pasadena, where it passes the Rose Bowl Stadium as it goes through Brookside Park. The Arroyo Seco stream, which is fed by a watershed of 46.7 square miles, helps to replenish the Raymond Basin, an aquifer underlying Pasadena that provides about half of the local water supply.
This arroyo is one of two streams that capture rainfall and storm water in Pasadena, the other being Eaton Wash on the eastern side of the city. The Arroyo Seco passes under the Ventura Freeway and the Colorado Street Bridge, the channel continues along the western boundary of South Pasadena, into northeast Los Angeles flowing southeast of the Verdugo Mountains and Mount Washington. The Arroyo Seco proceeds through the Los Angeles neighborhoods of Highland Park, Montecito Heights and it ends at the confluence with the Los Angeles River near Elysian Park, north of Dodger Stadium and Downtown Los Angeles. The Arroyo Seco Parkway, or Pasadena Freeway, runs parallel to the channelized Arroyo Seco from South Pasadena to the Los Angeles River, above Devils Gate, the rapids of the Arroyo Seco are positioned so that the falls make a beating, laughing sound. In Tongva-Gabrieliño traditional narratives, this is attributed to a wager made between the river and the coyote spirit, the Arroyo Seco was one of the Los Angeles River tributaries explored by Gaspar de Portola in the late summer and fall of 1770.
He named the stream Arroyo Seco, for of all the canyons he had seen, during this exploration he met the Chief Hahamog-na near Millard Canyon, at the settlement known as Hahamongna - California. This band of the Tongva Indians would end up gathered into the fold of the San Gabriel Mission and with other bands, the Arroyo Seco region can be considered by historical accounts as the birthplace of Pasadena. After the 1820s secularization of the Missions, the area to the east of the Arroyo was the Mexican land grant of Rancho San Pascual, present-day Pasadena. Manuel Garfias was the grantee of the Rancho and its longest early resident and his adobe house was on the east ridge of the Arroyo, in present-day South Pasadena. However, the deep and seasonally flooded Arroyo presented a barrier to easy travel, stories of four and five hours just crossing the chasm, whether exaggerated or not, abounded in Pasadena history. The first recorded American to live in the Upper Arroyo was simply known as Old Man Brunk, brunks cabin stood at a large bend in the canyon, roughly where the Forest Service housing is today.
It was said he left San Francisco for that towns good, dating back to the original Tongva residents of the area, the Arroyo Seco canyon has always served as a major transportation corridor
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial