Sèvres is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.9 kilometres from the centre of Paris and is in the department of Hauts-de-Seine in the region of Île-de-France. The commune is known for its famous porcelain production at the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, where the abortive Treaty of Sèvres was signed, for being the location of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. Sèvres is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, 10.5 km to the west of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, with an eastern edge by the River Seine. The commune borders the Île Seguin, an island in the River Seine, in the commune of Boulogne-Billancourt, adjoining Sèvres. Situation of Sèvres The area of the commune is 391 hectares; the altitude varies between 27–171 metres. Work at Sèvres, including for the construction of the expressway, permitted an update of interesting fossils in different geological layers. For example, in chalk, some types of sea urchins, belemnite beaks and oysters were found.
The Seine The Ru de Marivel 80 metres upstream of the Pont de Sèvres. The climate of île-de-France is oceanic; the popular observation stations for meteorology at Sèvres are Vélizy-Villacoublay airport. The climate in the departments of the small Parisian crown is characterised by sunshine and low precipitation; the following table allows a comparison of the île-de-France climate with that of some large French cities: The following table shows the monthly averages of temperature and precipitation for the station of Orly collected over the period 1961-1990: Sèvres is traversed from side to side by the RN 10, today downgraded and allowing connection of the city to Boulogne-Billancourt and Chaville. It is the starting point of the RN 118 at the level of the Pont de Sèvres. Sèvres presents a main traffic artery which supports important transit traffic at morning and evening peak hours; this allows preservation of its secondary residential purpose from suffering the negative effects of through traffic, on which the development zone 30 was under study, as early as 2007.
The city hall has, launched a reconsideration on these routes for sharing public spaces in favour of soft links and the use of public transit where they pass. Since November 2011, fifteen streets have two-way cycle lanes, they are the subject of ground markings and installation of specific signaling panels: Avenue de la Cristallerie Rue Brancas, between the Rue de Ville-d'Avray and Rue Bernard-Palissy Grande Rue, between the Rue de Ville-d'Avray and the Place Gabriel-Péri Rue du Docteur Gabriel-Ledermann, between the Rue de Rueil and Rue Jules Sandeau Rue Riocreux, between Place Pierre-Brossolette and Rue de Ville d'Avray Rue Brongniart Rue Léon Journault Rue Victor-Hugo Rue des Bas-Tillets between Rue Benoît Malon and the Rue de la Garenne Rue Albert Dammouse, between Rue Avice and the Stade des Fontaines turn Rue Rouget-de-l'Isle Rue Jules-Ferry Rue du Docteur Roux Rue Charles-Vaillant Rue Jean-Jaurès Rue des Verrières Bus routes 169, 171, 179, 426 of the RATP bus network, route 469 of the Établissement Transdev de Nanterre, route 45 in the Phébus bus network and at night by N61 and N145 of the Noctilien route network.
The city makes one minibus available to people with L'autre Bus. Sèvres is served by Sèvres-Rive-Gauche station on the Transilien Paris – Montparnasse suburban rail line, it is served by Sèvres – Ville d'Avray station on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line. It is served by the Musée de Sèvres and Brimborion stations on Line 2 of the Tramway of Île-de-France which links Paris - Porte de Versailles and La Défense. INSEE has divided the commune into ten islets grouped for statistical information; the commune of Sèvres includes 16 quarters, named as follows: In the project planning and sustainable development approved 10 May 2007, the commune displays an ambition to maintain its population around its situation of early 2005. It has a commitment to offer every household in the commune the opportunity to live and grow in Sèvres, a stake in preserving its fabric of facilities and local businesses. Studies conducted in the context of the PLH show that by 2015, this would involve the construction of 40 homes per year to maintain the communal population.
In 2005, the commune had 24.5% of its total as social housing. These homes are located along the RD 910, around the city centre; the commune displays a desire to preserve this social mix by ensuring a diversity of different types of housing, under the framework of future construction operations. As such, it shows the will to maintain its social housing stock at around 25% of the total stock of main residences. On the other hand, private rental declined between 1990 and 1999. An effort in favour of this type of housing will be always sought in order to maintain the diversity of population profiles; some areas of the city are poorly provided with social housing, the development of this type of housing should allow a better balance across the commune. The main projects are: The reconstruction of the Croix Bosset school The development of links between the banks of the Seine, the city and woodlands by pedestrian openings designed to develop a frame of soft East/West links
The Wright brothers and Wilbur, were two American aviation pioneers credited with inventing and flying the world's first successful airplane. They made the first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft with the Wright Flyer on December 17, 1903, four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In 1904–05, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft, the Wright Flyer III. Although not the first to build experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible; the brothers' breakthrough was their creation of a three-axis control system, which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft and to maintain its equilibrium. This method remains standard on fixed-wing aircraft of all kinds. From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused on developing a reliable method of pilot control as the key to solving "the flying problem"; this approach differed from other experimenters of the time who put more emphasis on developing powerful engines.
Using a small homebuilt wind tunnel, the Wrights collected more accurate data than any before, enabling them to design more efficient wings and propellers. Their first U. S. patent did not claim invention of a flying machine, but a system of aerodynamic control that manipulated a flying machine's surfaces. The brothers gained the mechanical skills essential to their success by working for years in their Dayton, Ohio-based shop with printing presses, bicycles and other machinery, their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle such as a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice. From 1900 until their first powered flights in late 1903, they conducted extensive glider tests that developed their skills as pilots, their shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first airplane engine in close collaboration with the brothers. The Wright brothers' status as inventors of the airplane has been subject to counter-claims by various parties.
Much controversy persists over the many competing claims of early aviators. Edward Roach, historian for the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park, argues that they were excellent self-taught engineers who could run a small company, but they did not have the business skills or temperament to dominate the growing aviation industry; the Wright brothers were two of seven children born to Milton Wright, of English and Dutch ancestry, Susan Catherine Koerner, of German and Swiss ancestry. Milton Wright's mother, Catherine Reeder, was descended from the progenitor of the Vanderbilt family and the Huguenot Gano family of New Rochelle, New York. Wilbur was born near Millville, Indiana, in 1867; the brothers never married. The other Wright siblings were Reuchlin, Lorin and twins Otis and Ida; the direct paternal ancestry goes back to a Samuel Wright who sailed to America and settled in Massachusetts in 1636. None of the Wright children had middle names. Instead, their father tried hard to give them distinctive first names.
Wilbur was named for Wilbur Fisk and Orville for Orville Dewey, both clergymen that Milton Wright admired. They were "Will" and "Orv" to their friends and in Dayton, their neighbors knew them as "the Bishop's kids", or "the Bishop's boys"; because of their father's position as a bishop in the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, he traveled and the Wrights moved — twelve times before returning permanently to Dayton in 1884. In elementary school, Orville was once expelled. In 1878 when the family lived in Cedar Rapids, their father brought home a toy helicopter for his two younger sons; the device was based on an invention of French aeronautical pioneer Alphonse Pénaud. Made of paper and cork with a rubber band to twirl its rotor, it was about a foot long. Wilbur and Orville played with it until it broke, built their own. In years, they pointed to their experience with the toy as the spark of their interest in flying. Both brothers did not receive diplomas; the family's abrupt move in 1884 from Richmond, Indiana, to Dayton, where the family had lived during the 1870s, prevented Wilbur from receiving his diploma after finishing four years of high school.
The diploma was awarded posthumously to Wilbur on April 16, 1994, which would have been his 127th birthday. In late 1885 or early 1886 Wilbur was struck in the face by a hockey stick while playing an ice-skating game with friends, resulting in the loss of his front teeth, he had been vigorous and athletic until and although his injuries did not appear severe, he became withdrawn. He had planned to attend Yale. Instead, he spent the next few years housebound. During this time he cared for his mother, terminally ill with tuberculosis, read extensively in his father's library and ably assisted his father during times of controversy within the Brethren Church, but expressed unease over his own lack of ambition. Orville dropped out of high school after his junior year to start a printing business in 1889, having designed and built his own printing press with Wilbur's help. Wilbur joined the print shop, in March the brothers launched a weekly newspaper, the West Side News. Subsequent issues listed Orville as Wilbur as editor on the masthead.
In April 1890 they converted the paper to a daily, The Evening Item, but it lasted only f
Jules-Albert de Dion
Marquis Jules Félix Philippe Albert de Dion de Wandonne was a pioneer of the automobile industry in France. Jules-Albert was the heir of a leading French noble family, in 1901 succeeding his father Louis Albert William Joseph de Dion de Wandonne as Count and Marquis. A "notorious duellist", he had a passion for mechanics, he had built a model steam engine when, in 1881, he saw one in a store window and asked about building another. The engineers, Georges Bouton and his brother-in-law, Charles Trépardoux, had a shop in Léon where they made scientific toys. Needing money for Trépardoux's long-time dream of a steam car, they acceded to De Dion's request. During 1883 they formed a partnership which became the De Dion-Bouton automobile company, the world's largest automobile manufacturer for a time, they tried marine steam engines, but progressed to a steam car which used belts to drive the front wheels whilst steering with the rear. This was destroyed by fire during trials. In 1884 they built another, "La Marquise", with drive to the rear wheels.
As of 2011, it is the world's oldest running car, is capable of carrying four people at up to 38 mph. Comte de Dion entered one in an 1887 trial, "Europe's first motoring competition", the brainchild of M. Paul Faussier of cycling magazine Le Vélocipède Illustré. Evidently, the promotion was insufficient, for the de Dion was the sole entrant, but it completed the course; the de Dion tube was invented by steam advocate Trépardoux, just before he resigned because the company was turning to internal combustion. In 1898 he co-founded the Mondial de l'Automobile, he died in 1946, age 90, is buried in the cemetery at Montparnasse in Paris. There is a memorial plaque in the family chapel in Wandonne, 3 km south of Audincthun in the Pas-de-Calais. Motor racing was started in France as a direct result of the enthusiasm with which the French public embraced the motor car. Manufacturers were enthusiastic due to the possibility of using motor racing as a shop window for their cars; the first motor race took place on 22 July 1894 and was organised by Le Petit Journal, a Parisian newspaper.
It was run over the 122 kilometres distance between Rouen. The race was won by de Dion, although he was not awarded the prize for first place as his steam powered car required a stoker and the judges deemed this outside of their objectives; the roots of both the Tour de France cycle race and L'Auto, a daily sporting newspaper, can be traced to the Dreyfus affair and de Dion's passionate opinion and actions regarding it. Opinions were heated and there were demonstrations by both sides in the Dreyfus affair. Historian Eugen Weber described an 1899 conflagration at the Auteuil horse-race course in Paris as "an absurd political shindig" when, among other events, the President of France was struck on the head by a walking stick wielded by de Dion, he served 15 days in jail and was fined 100 francs, his behaviour was criticised by Le Vélo, the largest daily sports newspaper in France, its Dreyfusard editor, Pierre Giffard. The result was that de Dion withdrew of all his advertising from the paper, in 1900 he led a group of wealthy'anti-Dreyfusard' manufacturers, such as Adolphe Clément, to found L'Auto-Velo and compete directly with Le Velo.
After a enforced change of name to L'Auto it in turn created the Tour de France race in 1903 to boost falling circulation. In 1900 de Dion led a group of wealthy anti-Dreyfusards including Édouard Michelin to start a rival daily sports paper, L'Auto-Velo. De Dion and Michelin were concerned with Le Vélo – which reported more than cycling – because its financial backer was one of their commercial rivals, the Darracq company. De Dion believed that him too little. De Dion was an outspoken man who wrote columns for Le Figaro, Le Matin and others, his wealth allowed him to indulge his whims, which included refounding Le Nain jaune, a fortnightly publication which "answers no particular need."
Issy-les-Moulineaux is a commune in the southwestern suburban area of Paris, lying on the left bank of the river Seine. It is one of Paris entrances and is located 6.6 km from Notre-Dame Church, considered Kilometre Zero of France. On 1 January 2010, Issy-les-Moulineaux became part of the Communauté d'agglomération Grand Paris Seine Ouest, which merged into the Métropole du Grand Paris in January 2016. Issy-les-Moulineaux has moved its economy from an old manufacturing base to high value-added service sectors and is at the heart of the Val de Seine business district, the largest cluster of telecommunication and media businesses in France hosting the headquarters of most major French TV networks. Issy-les-Moulineaux was called Issy; the name Issy comes from Medieval Latin Issiacum or Isciacum meaning "estate of Isicius", a Gallo-Roman landowner, although some think the name comes from a Celtic radical meaning "under the wood". Local legend recounted on the city's official website mentions alternative origin of the name arising from a temple of the Egyptian goddess Isis said to be under the site of the Church of Saint Stephen.
In 1893 Issy became Issy-les-Moulineaux. Les Moulineaux was the name of a hamlet on the territory of the commune named Les Moulineaux due to the windmills that stood there; the town was once the location of the Château d'Issy, destroyed in 1871, former home of the Princes of Conti. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighboring communes. On that occasion, about a third of the commune of Issy-les-Moulineaux was annexed to Paris, forms now the neighborhood of Javel, in the 15th arrondissement of Paris. Issy-les-Moulineaux is home to a community of 5,000 Armenians that have established themselves in the area since the 1930s; the community has two Armenian churches, an athletic club, a school, a monument dedicated to the Armenian Genocide, a street named after Armenia called Rue d'Armenie, Rue d'Erevan named after Armenia's capital Yerevan. Issy-les-Moulineaux became twin cities with Echmiadzin, Armenia in December 1989. In the late 19th century, an expansive field in Issy had been dedicated to military exercises.
This land, owned by the French Army, was made into an airfield in the 1900s during the pioneering era of aviation. Issy-les-Moulineaux soon became a hot spot for aviation in France, the most active airfield in Paris, the site of many flight experiments. Photographers, newspaper reporters and intelligence agents from other countries gathered there to report on developments; the airfield of Issy-les-Moulineaux was the starting point of the 1911 Paris to Madrid air race. One of the competing planes crashed into the audience during take-off, killing the French Minister of War Henri Maurice Berteaux, it hosted the trap shooting events for the 1924 Summer Olympics. The firm of Appareils d'Aviation Les Frères Voisin, the world's first commercial airplane factory, located in Boulogne-Billancourt, transformed itself into a luxury automobile manufacturing company named Avions Voisin in 1920. Most of Voisin's manufacturing facilities were relocated in neighboring Issy-les-Moulineaux. Avions Voisin closed its doors in 1940.
The last fixed wing flight occurred in 1953. It is operated by Aeroports de Paris. Since the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015, Issy forms one canton: Canton of Issy-les-Moulineaux. Mayors of Issy-les-Moulineaux: 1903–1908: Auguste Gervais 1908–1911: Henri Mayer 1911–1919: Léon-Victor Clément 1919–1922: Justin Oudin February – May 1923: Saint-Martin May – October 1923: Eugène Demarne 1923–1935: Justin Oudin 1935–1939: Victor Cresson 1945–1949: Fernand Maillet 1949–1953: Jacques Madaule May – July 1953: Fernand Maillet 1953–1973: Bonaventure Leca 1973–1980: Raymond Menand 1980 – present: André Santini Eurosport, the Canal+ Group, Coca-Cola France, France 24, Microsoft France and Europe and Technicolor SA are based in Issy-les-Moulineaux. Issy-les-Moulineaux is served by two stations on Paris Métro line 12: Corentin Celton and Mairie d'Issy, two stations on Paris RER line C: Issy – Val de Seine and Issy and three stations on Île-de-France tramway Line 2: Les Moulineaux, Jacques-Henri Lartigue and Issy – Val de Seine.
Multiple RATP bus lines have their arrival/departure station in the city. Multiple Vélib' and Autolib' stations allow subscribers of those services to share bicycles or electric cars. There was a cable car project, abandoned in February 2008; the commune has 16 public elementary schools. Four public junior high schools, one public senior high school, three private schools. Junior high schools: Collège de la Paix Collège Henri Matisse Collège Georges Mandel Collège Victor HugoLycée Eugène-Ionesco is the community's public senior high school. Private schools: Groupe scolaire La Salle Saint Nicolas École Arménienne « TARKMANTCHATZ » - An Armenian school École Sainte-Clotilde Mickael Brisset, footballer Peter Leo Gerety, Roman Catholic Arh Bishop Christelle Diallo, basketball player Rahavi Kifoueti, footballer Jean Jansem, painter Leïla Bekhti, actress Ali, rapper Robert Charpentier, cyclist Manu Larcenet, comics writer Gilles Vincent, writer Weiden in der Oberpfalz, Germany, since 1954 Frameries, since 1979 Macerata, Italy, since 1982 Hounslow, United Kingdom, since 1982 Dapaong, since 1989 Echmiadzin, sinc
The Wright brothers designed and flew a series of three manned gliders in 1900–1902 as they worked towards achieving powered flight. They made preliminary tests with a kite in 1899. In 1911 Orville conducted tests with a much more sophisticated glider. Neither the kite nor any of the gliders was preserved; the 1899 kite, which Wilbur flew near his home in Dayton, Ohio had a wingspan of only 5 feet. This pine wood and shellacked craft, although too small to carry a pilot, tested the concept of wing-warping for roll control that would prove essential to the brothers' solving the problem of controlled flight; the Wrights burned the craft along with other trash in 1905. The 1900 Wright Glider was the brothers' first to be capable of carrying a human, its overall structure was based on Octave Chanute's two-surface glider of 1896. Its wing airfoil was derived from Otto Lilienthal's published tables of aerodynamic lift; the glider was designed with wing-warping capability for full-size testing of the concept first tried on the 1899 Wright Kite.
The glider was first flown as an unmanned kite on October 5, 1900 near North Carolina. Next, Wilbur rode as pilot. Subsequently, Wilbur made about a dozen free flights on a single day, concluding the season's test efforts; the brothers abandoned the glider when they broke camp on 23 October, it disappeared in the region's severe storms. The fabric covering of the wing components were given to the wife of helper Bill Tate, whose family Wilbur first stayed with at Kitty Hawk in 1900. Mrs. Tate used the material to make dresses for her daughters; the 1901 Wright Glider was the second of the brothers' experimental gliders. They tested it four miles south of Kitty Hawk; the glider had larger wings. It first flew on July 27, 1901, was retired on August 17. During this time it made between 100 free flights, in addition to tethered flights as a kite; the wing ribs flexed under the weight of the pilot. The brothers fixed the trouble, but the wings still produced much less lift than expected, wing-warping sometimes made the glider turn opposite the intended direction: it was the discovery and first description of the adverse yaw.
After testing concluded, the brothers stored. The shed and glider were badly damaged by windstorms; the wing uprights were salvaged for the 1902 Glider. As a result of lift and "drift" measurements taken with the tethered glider, the brothers concluded that Lilienthal's data were inaccurate. Upon returning to Dayton, they built a small wind tunnel to collect their own data; the 1902 Wright Glider was the third free-flight glider built by the brothers. This was their first glider to incorporate yaw control by use of a rear rudder, its design led directly to the powered 1903 Wright Flyer; the brothers designed the 1902 glider during the winter of 1901/02. The wing design was based on data from extensive tests of miniature airfoils in their homemade wind tunnel, they built the components of the glider in Dayton and completed assembly at their Kill Devil Hills camp in September 1902. Flights took place between 24 October. In order to cope with 1901 glider discovered adverse yaw, the Wrights tested a double fixed rear rudder, hoping improve turning control, but several times the pilot was unable to stop turning and collided with the ground.
"The addition of a fixed vertical vane in the rear increased the trouble, made the machine dangerous". The brothers decided to remove one rudder, without success make the remaining rudder steerable to solve the problem. With this modification, they made between 700 and 800 glides; the longest glide was timed at 622.5 ft in 26 seconds. In September 1903 they brought the 1902 glider out of storage and made over 200 glides to hone their piloting skills while preparing the powered Flyer. One of their photographs shows they installed a second vertical fin as part of the steerable rear rudder, matching the original design and that of the powered Flyer's twin rear rudder; the glider was last flown in November 1903. After their successful powered flights, they put the glider back in storage at camp before returning home for Christmas; when they next visited Kitty Hawk in 1908 to test their improved Flyer III, Outer Banks weather had taken its toll: the storage shed and glider inside were wrecked. Today a salvaged piece of wingtip from the 1902 Glider is preserved at the National Air and Space Museum a few feet from the 1903 Wright Flyer.
Source: 1902 Wright Glider - National Air and Space Museum General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 16 ft 1 in Wingspan: 32 ft 1 in Height: 8 ft Wing area: 305 ft² Empty weight: 117 lb Performance In 1911 Orville Wright returned to the Kill Devil Hills with a new glider, accompanied by his English friend Alec Ogilvie. Orville intended to test an automatic control system on the glider, but did not because of the presence of reporters; the glider had what was becoming a conventional tailplane, rather than the front-mounted elevator or canard. The pilot was seated with hand controls, rather than lying prone in a cradle, as with the original gliders. On October 24 Orville soared in the glider above Kill Devil Hill in a 40 miles per hour wind for 9 minutes 45 seconds, far exceeding the brothers' previous gliding durations; the rec
Alberto Santos-Dumont was a Brazilian inventor and aviation pioneer, one of the few people to have contributed to the development of both lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air aircraft. The heir of a wealthy family of coffee producers, Santos-Dumont dedicated himself to aeronautical study and experimentation in Paris, where he spent most of his adult life. In his early career he designed and flew hot air balloons and early dirigibles, culminating in his winning the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize on 19 October 1901 for a flight that rounded the Eiffel Tower, he turned to heavier-than-air machines, on 23 October 1906 his 14-bis made the first powered heavier-than-air flight in Europe to be certified by the Aéro-Club de France and the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. His conviction that aviation would usher in an era of worldwide peace and prosperity led him to publish his designs and forego patenting his various innovations. Santos-Dumont is a national hero in Brazil, where it is popularly held that he preceded the Wright brothers in demonstrating a practical airplane.
Countless roads, schools and airports there are dedicated to him, his name is inscribed on the Tancredo Neves Pantheon of the Fatherland and Freedom. He was a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters from 1931 until his suicide in 1932. Santos-Dumont was born on 20 July 1873 in Cabangu in the Brazilian town of Palmira in the state of Minas Gerais in southeast Brazil, he was the youngest of seven children born to Henrique Dumont, an engineer of French descent, Francisca de Paula Santos. Santos-Dumont's father managed a coffee plantation on land owned by his wife's family, bought land in Ribeirão Preto on which he established a plantation of his own, his extensive use of labor-saving inventions earned him a fortune, he was known for a time as the "Coffee King of Brazil." Santos-Dumont was fascinated by machinery, while still a child he learned to drive the plantation's steam tractors and locomotives. He read a great deal of the works of Jules Verne, he wrote in his autobiography that the dream of flying came to him while contemplating the magnificent skies of Brazil from the plantation.
After basic instruction with private tutors, Santos-Dumont studied for a time at the Colégio Culto à Ciência in Campinas, after which he was sent to the Colégio Morton in São Paulo and the Escola de Minas in Minas Gerais. In 1891 Santos-Dumont's father was paralyzed by a fall from a horse, he went to Europe with his wife and Santos-Dumont in search of treatment. In Paris, Santos-Dumont contacted a balloonist with the intention of making an ascent; the price quoted was 1,200 francs for a two-hour flight, plus payment for any damage caused and for returning the balloon to Paris. This was a considerable sum of money, Santos-Dumont decided not to make the flight, reasoning that "If I risk 1,200 francs for an afternoon's pleasure I shall find it either good or bad. If it is bad the money will be lost. If it is good I shall want to repeat it and I shall not have the means." After this he bought a Peugeot automobile, which he took with him when he returned to Brazil with his parents at the end of the year.
In 1892 the family returned to Europe, but Henriques felt too ill to continue on to Paris from Lisbon, Alberto made the journey on his own. His father's health deteriorated and he decided to return to Brazil, where he died on 30 August 1892. For the next four years Alberto lived in Paris, studying physics, chemistry and electricity with the help of a private tutor, returning to Brazil for short holidays. During this period he sold his Peugeot, replacing it with a more powerful and faster De Dion motor-tricycle. In 1896 he returned to Brazil for a longer period, but began to miss Paris and so returned to Europe in 1897. Before embarking he had bought a copy of an account of Salomon Andrée's attempt to fly to the North Pole by balloon, written by the constructors of the balloon, MM. Lachambre and Machuron. In his biography Santos-Dumont describes the book as "a revelation", resolved to make contact with the balloon constructors when he reached Paris. On arrival in Paris Santos-Dumont contacted Lachambre and Machuron and arranged to make a flight, piloted by Alexis Machuron.
Taking off from Vaugirard, the flight lasted nearly two hours during which the balloon travelled 100 km, coming down in the grounds of the Château de Ferrières. Enchanted by the experience, during the train journey back to Paris Santos-Dumont told Machuron that he wanted to have a balloon constructed for himself. Before this was completed he gained experience by making a number of demonstration flights for Lachambre. Santos-Dumont's first balloon design, the Brésil, was remarkable for its small size and light weight, with a capacity of only 113 m3. In comparison, the balloon in which he had made his first flight had a capacity of 750 m3. After numerous balloon flights, Santos-Dumont turned to the design of steerable balloons, or what became known as non-rigid airships, which could be propelled through the air rather than drifting along with the wind. A dirigible powered by an electric motor, La France, capable of flying at around 24 km/h had been flown in 1884 by Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs, but their experiments had not progressed due to a lack of funding.
His first design was wrecked during its second flight on 29 September 1898, he had less luck with his second, abandoned after his first attempt to fly it on 11 May 1899. A major cause of the accidents to his first two airships had been loss of pressure causing the elongated envelope