A serjeant-at-arms, or sergeant-at-arms is an officer appointed by a deliberative body a legislature, to keep order during its meetings. The word "serjeant" is derived from the Latin serviens, which means "servant". Serjeants-at-arms were armed men retained by English lords and monarchs, the ceremonial maces with which they are associated were in origin a type of weapon.. The term "sergeant" can be given two main definitions. Whereas technically the two roles were not mutually exclusive, they were different in roles and duties; the soldier sergeant was a man of what would now be thought of as the'middle class', fulfilling a junior role to the knight in the medieval hierarchy. Sergeants could fight either as heavy to light cavalry, or as well-trained professional infantry, either spearmen or crossbowmen. Most notable medieval mercenaries fell into the'sergeant' class, such as Flemish crossbowmen and spearmen, who were seen as reliable quality troops; the sergeant class were deemed to be'worth half of a knight' in military value.
The office originated in medieval England to serve the sovereign in a police role, much like a bailiff in more recent times. Indeed, the sergeants-at-arms constitute the oldest royal bodyguard in England, dating from the time of King Richard I as a formed body; the title "sergeant-at-arms" appears during the crusades during the reign of King Philip II of France in 1192. The sergeant-at-arms was a personal attendant upon the king, specially charged with arresting those suspected of treason. Richard I had 24 with him on the Crusades, they were formed into a twenty-strong Corps of Sergeants-at-Arms by King Edward I in 1278, as a mounted close escort. In 1399 King Richard II limited the corps to thirty sergeants, King Charles II had sixteen; the number was reduced to eight in 1685 and since it has declined. The original responsibilities of the sergeant-at-arms included "collecting loans and, impressing men and ships, serving on local administration and in all sorts of ways interfering with local administration and justice."
Around 1415, the British House of Commons received its first sergeant-at-arms. From that time onwards the sergeant has been a royal appointment, the sergeant being one of the sovereign's sergeants-at-arms; the House of Lords has a similar officer. The formal role of a sergeant-at-arms in modern legislative bodies is to keep order during meetings, and, if necessary, forcibly remove any members or guests who are overly rowdy or disruptive. A sergeant-at-arms may thus be a retired soldier, police officer, or other official with experience in law enforcement and security; the Sergeant-at-Arms of the House of Commons has general charge of certain administrative and custodial functions, as well as security within the chamber of the House. The Australian House of Representatives operates under the Westminster parliamentary system; the Serjeant-at-Arms is a career officer of the Department of the House of Representatives. The ceremonial duties are as the custodian of the mace, the symbol of the authority of the Crown and the House, as the messenger for formal messages from the House to the Senate.
The Serjeant has the authority to remove disorderly people, by force if necessary, from the House or the public or press galleries on the instructions of the Speaker. The administrative duties of the Serjeant include allocation of office accommodation and fittings for members' offices, coordination of car transport for members and courier services for the House, security for the House and arrangements for school visits. Once a meeting has started in a House the Serjeant will stand at the door to keep authority and make sure no one else comes in or out; the Serjeant-at-Arms is the senior official of the National Parliament, responsible for maintaining order during sessions and to maintain security and protocol at Parliament under the guidance of Speaker. Presently, Commodore M. Ashraful Haq, a naval officer, is appointed as Serjeant-at-Arms; the Sergeant-at-Arms is the senior official of the House of Commons of Canada. In this role, the sergeant-at-arms is responsible for the building services and security of the House of Commons, is appointed by the Governor General acting on the advice of the Federal cabinet.
The Sergeant-at-Arms carries the mace, the symbol of the authority of the Crown, in the daily parade into the House of Commons chamber. Provincial legislative assemblies, houses of assembly, national assemblies, provincial parliaments employ sergeants-at-arms. Although the position has become ceremonial, during the 2014 shootings at Parliament Hill, the Sergeant-at-Arms of the House of Commons, Kevin M. Vickers, assisted RCMP officers in engaging the gunman. Reports show that Sergeant-at-Arms Kevin Vickers alongside RCMP Constable Curtis Barrett shot and killed the gunman who had gained access to the Centre Block of the Canadian Parliament buildings. René Jalbert, Sergeant-at-Arms of the National Assembly of Quebec, is known for his role in ending Denis Lortie's killing spree in the Parliament Building on 8 May 1984 by constituting himself hostage and negotiating with the shooter for four hours. In addition to the president pro tempore, the Senate of Liberia elects a Secretary of the Senate, Assistant Secretary of the Senate and a Sergeant-at-Arms as officers of the Senate, though these positions are not held by sitting senators.
The New Zealand House of Representatives operates under the Westminster parliamentary system. The current Serjeant-at-Arms is Commander Steve Streefkerk, RNZN, a permanent Officer
John Anson Ford
John Anson Ford was an American journalist, advertising executive and Democratic Party politician. He was a long-serving member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Ford was born in Illinois, he attended Beloit College in Beloit, taught history and economics moved to Chicago, where he worked on the Chicago Tribune. He was on the editorial board of Popular Mechanics. In 1920 he entered the advertising and publicity business. Ford represented District 3 on the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors from 1934 to 1958, he was active in Democratic Party politics, serving on the state Central Committee, as chair of the Los Angeles County Democratic Party, as delegate to Democratic National Conventions from California, Democratic candidate for U. S. Senator from California, 1940, as chairman of the Southern California Citizens for Kennedy Committee. On his motion, in 1944, the Board of Supervisors established the Joint Committee for Interracial Progress that became the Human Relations Commission.
After retiring, Ford "wrote regular newspaper columns and continued to give service to the community at large." The John Anson Ford Human Relations Award is named for him, as are the John Anson Ford Amphitheatre in Los Angeles, John Anson Ford Park in Bell Gardens, California. John Anson Ford died at Midway Hospital in Los Angeles, he is buried in Glendale. "Thirty Explosive Years in Los Angeles County", University of California Press, 2010 Transcript of an eight-hour interview – Ford discusses his life and career in Los Angeles, at The UCLA Oral History Program
California State Route 2
State Route 2 is a state highway in the U. S. state of California. It begins at the intersection of Centinela Avenue in the City of Los Angeles limits adjacent to the city of Santa Monica and extends all the way to SR 138 east of Wrightwood; the highway is divided into three segments, runs concurrent with U. S. Route Interstate 210 to connect the segments; the western section of the highway is an old routing of U. S. Route 66. SR 2 is known as the Angeles Crest Scenic Byway from SR 2's east junction with I-210 in La Canada Flintridge to the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county line; the Big Pines Highway is routed along SR 2 from County Route N4 in Big Pines to the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county line. SR 2 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, except for much of the mountain portion is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 2 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System.
The California legislature has relinquished state control of various segments of SR 2 in Santa Monica, Los Angeles, Beverly Hills and West Hollywood, turned them over to local control. The original official western terminus of SR 2 was at the junction of Lincoln Boulevard, State Route 1, Interstate 10 in Santa Monica. SR 2 proceeded northwest on Lincoln Boulevard before turning northeast on Santa Monica Boulevard. With the California legislature relinquishing segments of the highway, state control of Route 2 now begins at the point where Santa Monica Boulevard crosses the Santa Monica-Los Angeles city limits at Centinela Avenue. From Centinela Avenue, Route 2 heads northeast on Santa Monica Boulevard, where it heads northeast through West Los Angeles, Century City, Beverly Hills before entering West Hollywood. Santa Monica Boulevard, being a major street, is for most of its length, at least four lanes wide. At its west end, Santa Monica Boulevard starts off Ocean Avenue in Santa Monica. From there until Sepulveda Boulevard, Santa Monica Boulevard is a densely urban commercial street.
Most of the Westside car dealerships are located on Santa Monica Boulevard. After Sepulveda, Santa Monica Boulevard passes Century City, intersects Wilshire Boulevard in Beverly Hills; the south roadway of Santa Monica Boulevard called Little Santa Monica Boulevard in Beverly Hills, runs parallel to the state highway roadway of Santa Monica Boulevard from the city's west limit to Rexford Drive. After Rexford Drive, Little Santa Monica turns east. Burton Way merges into San Vicente Boulevard at its intersection with La Cienega Boulevard, it is noted that the south roadway of Santa Monica Boulevard in Beverly Hills is a city street while the north roadway of Santa Monica Boulevard is a California state highway, each roadway handling bi-directional traffic. After intersecting Wilshire, Santa Monica Boulevard continues northeast toward West Hollywood, spanning Beverly Boulevard and Melrose Avenue. At Holloway Drive, in the middle of West Hollywood, Santa Monica, now north of Melrose Avenue turns to the east.
In West Hollywood, between Fairfax Avenue and Doheny Drive along Santa Monica Boulevard, bronze name plaques are embedded in the sidewalks as part of the West Hollywood Memorial Walk. One of the most famous spots for male prostitution and transgender prostitution is Santa Monica Boulevard in the Hollywood area, the area along Santa Monica Boulevard east of La Brea Avenue. SR 2 continues east through Hollywood on Santa Monica Boulevard to the Hollywood Freeway. Route 2 merges onto U. S. Route heads southeast leaving US 101 at the Alvarado Street exit. From US 101, Route 2 heads northeast on Alvarado Street through the community of Echo Park; the route turns north onto Glendale Boulevard. The route branches northeast onto the Glendale Freeway, a north–south route. With five lanes each direction, the freeway is quite wide, it crosses the Los Angeles River, runs through the communities of Glassell Park and Eagle Rock. After its interchange with the eastern Ventura Freeway, the Glendale Freeway route follows a ridge in the San Rafael Hills through eastern Glendale.
The freeway ends at Foothill Boulevard in La Cañada Flintridge. Just before reaching Foothill Boulevard, SR 2 turns off the Glendale Freeway onto the eastbound Foothill Freeway for a short distance until reaching the Angeles Crest Highway exit in La Cañada Flintridge; the Glendale Freeway was proposed to continue through Echo Park all the way to Hollywood Freeway. Since that plan has been scrapped, the freeway is somewhat isolated from the remainder of the LA freeway system. Leaving La Cañada Flintridge at an altitude of 1,300 feet, the route turns north onto the Angeles Crest Highway; this route winds east-northeast through the canyons of the San Gabriel Mountains for over 80 miles, before descending through Big Pines and Wrightwood to the edge of the Victor Valley 20 miles west of Hesperia and ending at SR 138. The highway climbs
A counterculture is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ from those of mainstream society in opposition to mainstream cultural mores. A countercultural movement expresses the ethos and aspirations of a specific population during a well-defined era; when oppositional forces reach critical mass, countercultures can trigger dramatic cultural changes. Prominent examples of countercultures in Europe and North America include Romanticism, the more fragmentary counterculture of the Beat Generation, followed by the globalized counterculture of the 1960s associated with the hippie subculture and the diversified punk subculture of the 1970s and 1980s. John Milton Yinger originated the term "contraculture" in his 1960 article in American Sociological Review. Yinger suggested the use of the term contraculture "wherever the normative system of a group contains, as a primary element, a theme of conflict with the values of the total society, where personality variables are directly involved in the development and maintenance of the group's values, wherever its norms can be understood only by reference to the relationships of the group to a surrounding dominant culture."
Some scholars have attributed the counterculture to Theodore Roszak, author of The Making of a Counter Culture. It became prominent in the news media amid the social revolution that swept the Americas, Western Europe, Japan and New Zealand during the 1960s. Scholars differ in the characteristics and specificity they attribute to "counterculture". "Mainstream" culture is of course difficult to define, in some ways becomes identified and understood through contrast with counterculture. Counterculture might oppose middle-class culture and values. Counterculture is sometimes conceptualized in terms of generational conflict and rejection of older or adult values. Counterculture may not be explicitly political, it involves criticism or rejection of powerful institutions, with accompanying hope for a better life or a new society. It does not look favorably on authoritarianism. Cultural development can be affected by way of counterculture. Scholars such as Joanne Martin and Caren Siehl, deem counterculture and cultural development as "a balancing act, some core values of a counterculture should present a direct challenge to the core values of a dominant culture".
Therefore, a prevalent culture and a counterculture should coexist in an uneasy symbiosis, holding opposite positions on valuable issues that are important to each of them. According to this theory, a counterculture can contribute a plethora of useful functions for the prevalent culture, such as "articulating the foundations between appropriate and inappropriate behavior and providing a safe haven for the development of innovative ideas". A "fringe culture" expands and grows into a counterculture by defining its own values in opposition to mainstream norms. Countercultures tend to peak go into decline, leaving a lasting impact on mainstream cultural values, their life cycles include phases of rejection, partial acceptance and absorption into the mainstream. During the late 1960s, hippies became the largest and most visible countercultural group in the United States; the "cultural shadows" left by the Romantics, Bohemians and Hippies remain visible in contemporary Western culture. According to Sheila Whiteley, "recent developments in sociological theory complicate and problematize theories developed in the 1960s, with digital technology, for example, providing an impetus for new understandings of counterculture".
Andy Bennett writes that "despite the theoretical arguments that can be raised against the sociological value of counterculture as a meaningful term for categorising social action, like subculture, the term lives on as a concept in social and cultural theory… become part of a received, mediated memory". However, "this involved not the utopian but the dystopian and that while festivals such as those held at Monterey and Woodstock might appear to embrace the former, the deaths of such iconic figures as Brian Jones, Jimi Hendrix, Jim Morrison and Janis Joplin, the nihilistic mayhem at Altamont, the shadowy figure of Charles Manson cast a darker light on its underlying agenda, one that reminds us that ‘pathological issues still much at large in today's world"; the counterculture of the 1960s and early 1970s generated its own unique brand of notable literature, including comics and cartoons, sometimes referred to as the underground press. In the United States, this includes the work of Robert Crumb and Gilbert Shelton, includes Mr. Natural.
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, these comics and magazines were available for purchase in head shops along with items like beads, cigarette papers, tie-dye clothing, Day-Glo posters, etc. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, some of these shops selling hippie items became cafés where hippies could hang out, smoke marijuana, read books, etc. e.g. Gandalf's Garden in the King's Road, which published a magazine of the same name. Another such hippie/anarchist bookshop was Mushroom Books, tucked away in the Lace Market area of Nottingham; some genres tend to challenge societies with their content, meant to outright question the norms within cultures and create change towards a more modern way of thought. More than not, sour
Kenneth Hahn Hall of Administration
Kenneth Hahn Hall of Administration the Los Angeles County Hall of Administration, completed 1960, is the seat of the government of the County of Los Angeles and houses the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, meeting chambers, the offices of several County departments. It is located in the Civic Center district of downtown Los Angeles, encompassing a city block bounded by Grand, Temple and Grand Park. On an average workday, 2,700 civil servants occupy the building; the Hall of Administration was conceived as part of the 1947 Civic Center Master Plan that transformed Bunker Hill, as the Civic Center expanded westward. Los Angeles County Courthouse, located opposite of the Hall of Administration, was built at the same time, by the same team of architects. Construction for the Hall of Administration began in 1952 and was completed in 1960. Prior to its construction, Los Angeles County Hall of Records housed the Board of Supervisors, as well as other county government entities. On the night of November 13th of 1968, Security Officer Lee Edward Roach was murdered at the Hall of Administration by a former janitorial employee.
Officer Roach, of the Los Angeles County Mechanical Department, was guarding payroll warrants on the 5th Floor of the building. The complex was renamed the Kenneth Hahn Hall of Administration in 1992, in honor of Los Angeles County's longest serving Supervisor, Kenneth Hahn; the Hall of Administration, a 10-story, 980,000 square feet complex, is built in the Late Moderne architecture style. The complex was designed by architects Paul R. Williams, Adrian Wilson and the firms Austin, Field & Fry, Stanton & Stockwell; the Hall of Administration sits atop a complex of underground pedestrian tunnels that connect it to other government buildings in Civic Center. The complex features integrated public art displays, including a pair of sculptures called "The Law Givers," by Albert Stewart, a sculptor. On the second floor lobby stands a bronze bust of Abraham Lincoln, sculpted by Emil Seletz in 1958. Civic Center, Los Angeles Grand Park
Elizabeth Short, known posthumously as the "Black Dahlia," was an American woman, found murdered in the Leimert Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. Her case became publicized due to the graphic nature of the crime, which included her corpse having been mutilated and bisected at the waist. A native of Boston, Short spent her early life in Medford and Florida before relocating to California, where her father lived, it is held that Short was an aspiring actress, though she had no known acting credits or jobs during her time in Los Angeles. She would acquire the nickname of the Black Dahlia posthumously, as newspapers of the period nicknamed lurid crimes. After the discovery of her body on January 15, 1947, the Los Angeles Police Department began an extensive investigation that produced over 150 suspects, but yielded no arrests. Short's unsolved murder and the details surrounding it have had a lasting cultural intrigue, generating various theories and public speculation, her life and death have been the basis of numerous books and films, her murder is cited as one of the most famous unsolved murders in American history, as well as one of the oldest unsolved cases in Los Angeles County.
It has been credited by historians as one of the first major crimes in post-World War II America to capture national attention. Elizabeth Short was born in the Hyde Park section of Boston, the third of five daughters of Cleo and Phoebe May Short. Around 1927, the Short family relocated to Portland, before settling in Medford, Massachusetts the same year; this is where Short was spent most of her life. Short's father built miniature golf courses until the 1929 stock market crash, when he lost most of his savings and the family became broke. In 1930, her father's car was found abandoned on the Charlestown Bridge, it was assumed that he had committed suicide by jumping into the Charles River. Believing her husband to be deceased, Short's mother moved with her five daughters into a small apartment in Medford and worked as a bookkeeper to support them. Troubled by bronchitis and severe asthma attacks, Short underwent lung surgery at age 15, after which doctors suggested she relocate to a milder climate during the winter months to prevent further respiratory problems.
Short's mother sent her to spend winters in Miami, Florida with family friends. During the next three years, Short lived in Florida during the winter months and spent the rest of the year in Medford with her mother and sisters. In her sophomore year, Short dropped out of Medford High School. In late 1942, Short's mother received a letter of apology from her presumed-deceased husband, which revealed that he was in fact alive and had started a new life in California. In December, aged 18, Short relocated to Vallejo to live with her father, whom she had not seen since she was six years old. At the time, he was working at the nearby Mare Island Naval Shipyard on San Francisco Bay. Arguments between Short and her father led to her moving out in January 1943. Shortly after, she took a job at the Base Exchange at Camp Cooke, near Lompoc, living with several friends, with an Army Air Force sergeant who abused her. Short left Lompoc in mid-1943 and moved to Santa Barbara, where she was arrested on September 23, 1943 for underage drinking at a local bar.
The juvenile authorities sent her back to Medford, but she returned instead to Florida, making only occasional visits to Massachusetts. While in Florida, Short met Major Matthew Michael Gordon, Jr. a decorated Army Air Force officer at the 2nd Air Commando Group. He was training for deployment to the China Burma India Theater of Operations of World War II. Short told friends that Gordon had written to propose marriage while he was recovering from injuries from a plane crash in India, she accepted his offer, but Gordon died in a second crash on August 10, 1945, less than a week before the Surrender of Japan ended the war. She relocated to Los Angeles in July 1946 to visit Army Air Force Lieutenant Joseph Gordon Fickling, whom she had known from Florida. Fickling was stationed at the Naval Reserve Air Base in Long Beach. Short spent the last six months of her life in Southern California in the Los Angeles area. Short has been variously depicted as an aspiring or "would-be" actress. According to some sources, she did in fact have aspirations to be a film star, though she had no known acting jobs or credits.
On January 9, 1947, Short returned to her home in Los Angeles after a brief trip to San Diego with Robert "Red" Manley, a 25-year-old married salesman she had been dating. Manley stated that he dropped Short off at the Biltmore Hotel located at 506 South Grand Avenue in downtown Los Angeles, that Short was to meet her sister, visiting from Boston, that afternoon. By some accounts, staff of the Biltmore recalled having seen Short using the lobby telephone. Shortly after, she was seen by patrons of the Crown Grill Cocktail Lounge at 754 South Olive Street one-half mile away from the Biltmore Hotel. On the morning of January 15, 1947, Short's half-naked body was found severed into two pieces on a vacant lot on the west side of South Norton Avenue, midway between Coliseum Street and West 39th Street (at 34.0164°N 118.333°W / 34.0164.
Cinema of the United States
The cinema of the United States metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a large effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century. The dominant style of American cinema is classical Hollywood cinema, which developed from 1917 to 1960 and characterizes most films made there to this day. While Frenchmen Auguste and Louis Lumière are credited with the birth of modern cinema, American cinema soon came to be a dominant force in the industry as it emerged, it produces the total largest number of films of any single-language national cinema, with more than 700 English-language films released on average every year. While the national cinemas of the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand produce films in the same language, they are not considered part of the Hollywood system. Hollywood has been considered a transnational cinema. Classical Hollywood produced multiple language versions of some titles in Spanish or French. Contemporary Hollywood offshores production to Canada and New Zealand.
Hollywood is considered the oldest film industry where earliest film studios and production companies emerged, it is the birthplace of various genres of cinema—among them comedy, action, the musical, horror, science fiction, the war epic—having set an example for other national film industries. In 1878, Eadweard Muybridge demonstrated the power of photography to capture motion. In 1894, the world's first commercial motion-picture exhibition was given in New York City, using Thomas Edison's kinetoscope; the United States produced the world's first sync-sound musical film, The Jazz Singer, in 1927, was at the forefront of sound-film development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the US film industry has been based in and around the 30 Mile Zone in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. Director D. W. Griffith was central to the development of a film grammar. Orson Welles's Citizen Kane is cited in critics' polls as the greatest film of all time; the major film studios of Hollywood are the primary source of the most commercially successful and most ticket selling movies in the world, such as The Birth of a Nation, Gone with the Wind, The Sound of Music, The Godfather, Star Wars, E.
T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Jurassic Park and Avatar. Moreover, many of Hollywood's highest-grossing movies have generated more box-office revenue and ticket sales outside the United States than films made elsewhere. Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, making the United States one of the most prolific producers of films in the world and a leading pioneer in motion picture engineering and technology; the first recorded instance of photographs capturing and reproducing motion was a series of photographs of a running horse by Eadweard Muybridge, which he took in Palo Alto, California using a set of still cameras placed in a row. Muybridge's accomplishment led inventors everywhere to attempt to make similar devices. In the United States, Thomas Edison was among the first to produce such a device, the kinetoscope; the history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the East Coast where, at one time, Fort Lee, New Jersey was the motion-picture capital of America.
The industry got its start at the end of the 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edison's "Black Maria", the first motion-picture studio in West Orange, New Jersey. The cities and towns on the Hudson River and Hudson Palisades offered land at costs less than New York City across the river and benefited as a result of the phenomenal growth of the film industry at the turn of the 20th century; the industry began attracting both capital and an innovative workforce, when the Kalem Company began using Fort Lee in 1907 as a location for filming in the area, other filmmakers followed. In 1909, a forerunner of Universal Studios, the Champion Film Company, built the first studio. Others followed and either built new studios or who leased facilities in Fort Lee. In the 1910s and 1920s, film companies such as the Independent Moving Pictures Company, Peerless Studios, The Solax Company, Éclair Studios, Goldwyn Picture Corporation, American Méliès, World Film Company, Biograph Studios, Fox Film Corporation, Pathé Frères, Metro Pictures Corporation, Victor Film Company, Selznick Pictures Corporation were all making pictures in Fort Lee.
Such notables as Mary Pickford got their start at Biograph Studios. In New York, the Kaufman Astoria Studios in Queens, was built during the silent film era, was used by the Marx Brothers and W. C. Fields; the Edison Studios were located in the Bronx. Chelsea, Manhattan was frequently used. Picture City, Florida was a planned site for a movie picture production center in the 1920s, but due to the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane, the idea collapsed and Picture City returned to its original name of Hobe Sound. Other major centers of film production included Chicago, Texas and Cuba; the film patents wars of the early 20th century led to the spread of film companies across the US Many worked with equipment for which they did not own the rights and thus filming in New York could be dangerous. By 1912, most major film companies had set up production facilities in Southern California near or in Los Angeles because of the region's favorable year-round weather. In early 1910, director D. W. Griffith was sent by the Biograph Company to the west coast with his acting troupe, consisting of actors Blanche Sweet, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford, Lionel Barrymore and others.
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