Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, the force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859, firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, there is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol or methanol for spark ignition engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be made from fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines, in 1791, John Barber developed a turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine, in 1794 Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, which was the first to use liquid fuel, and built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine, in 1807, Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially, in 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine.
In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine, in 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, in 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gas engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed the first compressed charge, compression ignition engine, in 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the worlds first jet aircraft, at one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery — a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A motor is any machine that produces mechanical power, electric motors are not referred to as Engines, combustion engines are often referred to as motors. In boating an internal combustion engine that is installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
1916 Indianapolis 500
The 6th International 300-Mile Sweepstakes Race was the sixth running of the Indianapolis 500. It was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Tuesday, May 30,1916, the management scheduled the race for 120 laps,300 miles, the only Indianapolis 500 scheduled for less than 500 miles. Despite the one-time altered distance, the race is considered part of the continuous lineage of the Memorial Day classic. Dario Resta led 103 of the 120 laps, and claimed the victory, Resta was accompanied by riding mechanic Bob Dahnke. Seven of the cars were entered by the Speedway or its owners, none of them finished in the top five. Despite the promoters entries, the field consisted of only 21 cars, three months after the 1916 race, on Labor Day weekend of 1916, the Speedway held a second event, the Harvest Auto Racing Classic. The 1917 race was scheduled to return to 500 miles, but a dispute with the local hoteliers, on March 23,1917, Speedway management cancelled the 1917 Indianapolis 500, and halted racing at the facility for both 1917 and 1918.
The track was offered as a strip and maintenance/refueling station for military aircraft traveling between Wilbur Wright Field and Chanute Air Force Base. It was referred to as the Speedway Aviation Repair Depot, in addition, several experimental aircraft were tested at the grounds. At least one test pilot was injured in a plane crash at the track. No racing of any kind took place at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in 1917-1918, the National Championship was suspended in both 1917 and 1918. There were, however, AAA races conducted during the war years at other tracks, on Memorial Day 1917, a 250-mile race was held at Cincinnati. The Indianapolis 500 resumed after the war in 1919, for 1916, riding mechanics were required. In the weeks and months leading up to the race, Speedway president Carl G. Fisher had expressed concern and it reached a boiling point where Fisher threatened to move the 1916 and/or 1917 Memorial Day 500-mile race to a board track in Cincinnati, Ohio. Ultimately, a truce was reached, and the race were not moved, apropos to that, the 1917 Indianapolis 500 was cancelled anyway shortly after the entry blanks were mailed out, due to the escalation of World War I.
Driver Jack LeCain was forced to miss the race due to a broken crankshaft suffered during a practice run two days before the race and he drove relief for Delage teammate Jules Devigne, taking over shortly beyond the 100-mile mark. After 61 laps, he suffered a crash, leaving him critically injured. 1915 winner Ralph DePalma withheld his entry for 1916, demanding $5,000 in appearance money from Speedway management, Carl Fisher refused to accede to the demand, and DePalmas subsequent entry blank, filed after the deadline, was rejected
Suresnes is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.3 km from the center of Paris, the nearest communes are Neuilly-sur-Seine, Rueil-Malmaison, Saint-Cloud and Boulogne-Billancourt. It is on a line giving access to La Defense. Fort Mont-Valérien is situated in this commune, and has a view of Paris. In 1974 the Spanish Socialist Workers Party held its 26th Congress in Suresnes, felipe González was elected Secretary General, replacing Rodolfo Llopis Ferrándiz. González was from the wing of the party, and his victory signaled a defeat for the historic. The direction of the party shifted from the exiles to the people in Spain who had not fought in the Spanish Civil War. Suresnes is served by Suresnes-Mont-Valérien station on the Transilien La Défense, the Pont de Suresnes carries the Allée de Longchamp from the Bois de Boulogne over the Seine into the western suburbs of Paris. Noor Inayat Khan returned to France as a Special Operations Executive and she was executed by the Germans and posthumously awarded the Croix de Guerre and the George Cross
Harry Miller (auto racing)
Harold Arminius Miller, commonly called Harry, was an American race car designer and builder who was most active in the 1920s and 1930s. Griffith Borgeson called him the greatest creative figure in the history of the American racing car, cars built by Miller won the Indianapolis 500 nine times, and other cars using his engines won three more. Millers accounted for 83% of the Indy 500 fields between 1923 and 1928, Miller was born on December 9,1875 in Menomonie, Wisconsin to Jacob Miller and Martha Ann Miller. Millers first work in the business was with the short-lived Yale Automobile Company. From Yale he moved to Lansing, Michigan to work for motoring pioneer Ransom E. Olds at Oldsmobile, after a poor 1906 race season, Miller left for Los Angeles, California, to open a small machine shop specializing in carburetor production. Among Millers innovations include perhaps the first engine mounted on a bicycle, Miller built a 4 cylinder engine and mounted it on a boat. His neighbor, Ole Evinrude, removed two cylinders and patented the first outboard motor, Miller produced the first aluminum pistons, developed the aluminum alloys still used in engine development today, and the first carburetors and induction system to use Helmholtz resonators.
Miller produced the first front drive race cars and the first 4 wheel drive car and his involvement with the racing side of his carburetor business led first to repairing and building race cars. In the 1910s, Miller was making $1 million per year through sales of his carburetors, in the early 1920s, he built his own 3.0 litre engine. Inspired by multiple engine designs including Duesenberg and Peugeot engines which had been serviced in his shop and it had 4 cylinders, dual overhead camshafts and 4 valves per cylinder. Tommy Milton supplied the financial backing to produce this engine but it was Jimmy Murphy who first won with it and it powered Jimmy Murphys Duesenberg to victory in the 1922 Indianapolis 500. Miller progressed to making Miller single-seater race cars used supercharged versions of his 2.0 and 1.5 liter engines. The engines took four wins in the 500 up to 1929, twice in Miller chassis. In the 1920s and 1930s, Miller engines powered speedboats to several race wins, among those that won with his engines on the water was the great Gar Wood.
His shop foreman and chief machinist Fred Offenhauser purchased the business, with insufficient time available for their development and testing, all these cars dropped out when the steering boxes, installed too close to the exhaust and locked up. The design was perfected by privateers, and examples ran at Indianapolis through 1948. Miller and Tucker, Inc. moved to Indianapolis and continued race car development, in the late 1930s Miller and Tucker developed the Tucker Combat Car and tried unsuccessfully to sell it to the Dutch and U. S. governments. Miller took some of the elements from the Tucker Combat Car, notably the suspension, to American Bantam
1914 French Grand Prix
The 1914 French Grand Prix was a Grand Prix motor race held at Lyon on 4 July 1914. The restriction on Grand Prix cars for 1914 included an 1,100 kg maximum weight, christian Lautenschlager won at an average speed of 65.665 mph. The fastest lap was set by Max Sailer, at an speed of 69.780 mph. The Grand Prix was a contest between the French Peugeots and the German Mercedes and this was the last Grand Prix before the First World War, and took place less than a week after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. An estimated crowd of over 300,000 watched thirty-seven cars start in pairs with a gap between each pair. Sailer led by 18 seconds at the end of the first lap, Sailer retired with a blown engine on lap six. Georges Boillot took over the lead and retained it for the next twelve laps, at one point he led by over four minutes. The Mercedes drivers each made one stop during the race for new Continental tyres and this contrasted with the poor wear of the Dunlop tyres used by Peugeot and Boillots eight stops for tyres.
Boillots many stops allowed Lautenschlager to pass Boillot on lap 18, by the end of that lap, Lautenschlager had opened up a lead of over 30 seconds. Boillot dropped out during the final lap, ferenc Szisz, the winner of the first French Grand Prix in 1906, had to retire from the race through injury. On the 11th lap Szisz was forced to stop to change a wheel, during the wheel change, he was hit by another car and suffered a broken arm. This was the last Grand Prix before World War I started, and racing did not resume until 1919
For the article about the bicycle manufacturer, see Cycles Peugeot. Peugeot is a French car manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA, the family business that preceded the current Peugeot company was founded in 1810, and manufactured coffee mills and bicycles. On 20 November 1858, Émile Peugeot applied for the lion trademark, due to family discord, Armand Peugeot in 1896 founded the Société des Automobiles Peugeot. The Peugeot company and family are originally from Sochaux, Peugeot retains a large manufacturing plant and Peugeot museum there. In February 2014, the agreed to a recapitalisation plan, in which Dongfeng Motors. Peugeot has received international awards for its vehicles, including five European Car of the Year awards. In 2013 and 2014, Peugeot ranked the second lowest for average CO2 emissions among generalist brands in Europe, the Renault car maker group being ranked first, with 114. 9g CO2/km. Peugeot is known as a very reliable brand, citing how its 1950s and 1960s models are running in Africa and Cuba in the 2010s.
Peugeot has been involved in sport for more than a century. In 2015, Peugeot returned to the Dakar Rally after its four victories in the 1980s, the Peugeot family of Valentigney, Montbéliard, Franche-Comté, began in the manufacturing business in the 19th century. In 1842, they added production of coffee, the companys entry into the vehicle market was by means of crinoline dresses, which used steel rods, leading to umbrella frames, saw blades, wire wheels, and bicycles. Armand Peugeot introduced his Le Grand Bi penny-farthing in 1882, along with a range of other bicycles, the car company and bike company parted ways in 1926 but Peugeot bicycles continued to be built until very recently. Armand Peugeot became interested in the early on and, after meeting with Gottlieb Daimler. The first Peugeot automobile, a three-wheeled, steam-powered car designed by Léon Serpollet, was produced in 1889, steam power was heavy and bulky and required lengthy warmup times. In 1890, after meeting Daimler and Émile Levassor, steam was abandoned in favour of a car with a petrol-fuelled internal combustion engine built by Panhard under Daimler licence.
The car was more sophisticated than many of its contemporaries, with a three-point suspension, an example was sold to the young Alberto Santos-Dumont, who exported it to Brazil. More cars followed,29 being built in 1892,40 in 1894,72 in 1895,156 in 1898 and these early models were given type numbers. Peugeot became the first manufacturer to fit rubber tyres to a petrol-powered car, Peugeot was an early pioneer in motor racing, with Albert Lemaître winning the worlds first motor race, the Paris–Rouen, in a 3 hp Peugeot
It includes modification of vehicles. The study of engineering is to design, fabricate. Production and manufacturing are the three functions in this field. Automobile Engineering is mainly divided into three such as production or design engineering focuses on design components, testing of parts, coordinating tests. Automobile Engineering is a study of engineering which teaches manufacturing, designing. It is an introduction to vehicle engineering which deals with motorcycles, cars and it include branch study of mechanical, electronic and safety elements. These are tested against very stringent governmental regulations, some of these requirements include, seat belt and air bag functionality testing and side impact testing, and tests of rollover resistance. Assessments are done with various methods and tools, including Computer crash simulation, crash test dummies, Fuel economy/emissions, Fuel economy is the measured fuel efficiency of the vehicle in miles per gallon or kilometers per litre. Emissions testing includes the measurement of vehicle emissions, including hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, Vehicle dynamics, Vehicle dynamics is the vehicles response of the following attributes, handling, braking and traction. NVH engineering, NVH is the feedback from the vehicle.
While sound can be interpreted as a rattle, squeal, or hoot and this feedback is generated by components either rubbing, vibrating, or rotating. NVH response can be classified in various ways, powertrain NVH, road noise, wind noise, component noise, there are both good and bad NVH qualities. The NVH engineer works to eliminate bad NVH, or change the “bad NVH” to good. Vehicle Electronics, Automotive electronics is an important aspect of automotive engineering. Modern vehicles employ dozens of electronic systems and it would not be possible for automobiles to meet modern safety and fuel economy requirements without electronic controls. Performance, Performance is a measurable and testable value of an ability to perform in various conditions. Performance can reflect the amount of control in inclement weather, Shift quality, Shift quality is the driver’s perception of the vehicle to an automatic transmission shift event. This is influenced by the powertrain, and the vehicle Shift feel is both a tactile and audible response of the vehicle, Shift quality is experienced as various events, Transmission shifts are felt as an upshift at acceleration, or a downshift maneuver in passing
Hemispherical combustion chamber
A hemispherical combustion chamber is a type of combustion chamber in a reciprocating internal combustion engine with a domed cylinder head. The hemispherical shape provides a number of advantages over a cylinder head but comes up short in others. An engine featuring this type of chamber is known as a hemi engine. Hemispherical combustion chambers were introduced on some of the earliest automotive engines and their name reflects the concept of a domed cylinder head and the top of the piston enclosing a space that approximates a half of a sphere, although in practice it is generally less than half. Hemispherical cylinder heads have been used since at least 1901, they were used by the Belgian car maker Pipe in 1905 and the 1907 Fiat 130 HP Grand Prix racer. The Peugeot Grand Prix Car of 1912 and the Alfa Romeo Grand Prix car of 1914 both were four valve engines also and Riley were using hemispherical combustion chambers, beginning in 1912, used four-valve engines, conceptually anticipating modern car engines.
Other examples include the BMW double-pushrod design, the Peugeot 403, the Toyota T engine and Toyota V engine, and Miller racing engines, a hemispherical head gives an efficient combustion chamber with minimal heat loss to the head, and allows for two large valves. The intake and exhaust valves lie on opposite sides of the chamber and this complexity was referenced early in Chryslers development of their 1950s hemi engine, the head was referred to in company advertising as the Double Rocker head. Although a wedge-head design offers simplified valve actuation, it usually does so by placing the valves side by side within the chamber, see IOE engine for another method. Also, the valve angle makes the valve seat plane to be tilted, giving a straighter flow path for the intake. Other drawbacks of the chamber include increased production cost and high relative weight. These have pushed the hemi head out of favor in the modern era, Alfa Romeo has produced many successful hemi-head engines throughout the years.
Arguably one of their most beloved examples is Giuseppe Bussos original 2. 5-liter V6, Aston Martins famous DOHC V8 used a hemispherical chamber during the late 1960s through to the late 1980s. Each cam controlled one set of valves, either a bank of intake valves or a bank of exhaust valves, the Aston Martin V85.3 L produced 315 hp. Perhaps the most widely known proponent of the chamber design is the Chrysler Corporation. Chrysler became identified primarily by trademarking the Hemi name and using it extensively in their advertising campaigns beginning in the 1960s. Chrysler released a Hemi 6 in Australia with a non full hemispherical chamber and they came out as 215120 hp 245160 hp 265203 hp. Ardun heads for the Ford flathead were perhaps the first use of a head on a readily available American V8