T. E. Lawrence
Thomas Edward Lawrence, was a British archaeologist, army officer and writer. He was renowned for his liaison role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during the First World War; the breadth and variety of his activities and associations, his ability to describe them vividly in writing, earned him international fame as Lawrence of Arabia—a title used for the 1962 film based on his wartime activities. He was born out of wedlock in Tremadog, Wales in August 1888 to Thomas Chapman, who became Sir Thomas Chapman, 7th Baronet in 1914, an Anglo-Irish nobleman from County Westmeath, his mother was Sarah Junner, a Scottish governess for whom Chapman had left his wife and family in Ireland to cohabit. The name "Lawrence" was adopted from Sarah's father. In 1889, the family moved to Kirkcudbright in Scotland where his brother William George was born, before moving to Dinard in France. In 1896, the Lawrences moved to Oxford, where Thomas attended the high school and studied history at Jesus College from 1907 to 1910.
Between 1910 and 1914, he worked as an archaeologist for the British Museum, chiefly at Carchemish in Ottoman Syria. Soon after the outbreak of war, he was stationed in Egypt. In 1916, he was sent to Arabia on an intelligence mission and became involved with the Arab Revolt as a liaison to the Arab forces, along with other British officers, he worked with Emir Faisal, a leader of the revolt, he participated in and sometimes led military activities against the Ottoman armed forces, culminating in the capture of Damascus in October 1918. After the war, Lawrence joined the Foreign Office, working with the British government and with Faisal. In 1922, he retreated from public life and spent the years until 1935 serving as an enlisted man in the Royal Air Force, with a brief stint in the Army. During this time, he published his best-known work Seven Pillars of Wisdom, an autobiographical account of his participation in the Arab Revolt, he translated books into English and wrote The Mint, published posthumously and detailed his time in the Royal Air Force working as an ordinary aircraftman.
He corresponded extensively and was friendly with well-known artists and politicians. For the Royal Air Force, he participated in the development of rescue motorboats. Lawrence's public image resulted in part from the sensationalised reporting of the Arab revolt by American journalist Lowell Thomas, as well as from Seven Pillars of Wisdom. In 1935, Lawrence was fatally injured in a motorcycle accident in Dorset. Thomas Edward Lawrence was born on 16 August 1888 in Tremadog, Wales in a house named Gorphwysfa, now known as Snowdon Lodge, his Anglo-Irish father Thomas Chapman had left his wife Edith after he had a son with Sarah Junner, a young Scotswoman, governess to his daughters. Sarah was Elizabeth Junner, a servant in the Lawrence household. Lawrence's parents lived together under the name Lawrence. In 1914, his father inherited the Chapman baronetcy based at Killua Castle, the ancestral family home in County Westmeath, but he and Sarah continued to live in England, they had five sons, Thomas was the second eldest.
From Wales, the family moved to Kirkcudbright, Galloway in southwestern Scotland to Dinard in Brittany to Jersey. The family lived at Langley Lodge from 1894 to 1896, set in private woods between the eastern borders of the New Forest and Southampton Water in Hampshire; the residence was isolated, young Lawrence had many opportunities for outdoor activities and waterfront visits. Victorian-Edwardian Britain was a conservative society where the majority of people were Christians who considered premarital and extramarital sex to be shameful, children born out of wedlock were born in disgrace. Lawrence was always something of an outsider, a bastard who could never hope to achieve the same level of social acceptance and success that others could expect who were born legitimate, no girl from a respectable family would marry a bastard. In the summer of 1896, the family moved to 2 Polstead Road in Oxford, where they lived until 1921. Lawrence attended the City of Oxford High School for Boys from 1896 until 1907, where one of the four houses was named "Lawrence" in his honour.
Lawrence and one of his brothers became commissioned officers in the Church Lads' Brigade at St Aldate's Church. Lawrence claimed that he ran away from home around 1905 and served for a few weeks as a boy soldier with the Royal Garrison Artillery at St Mawes Castle in Cornwall, from which he was bought out. However, no evidence of this appears in army records. At age 15, Lawrence and his schoolfriend Cyril Beeson cycled around Berkshire and Oxfordshire, visiting every village's parish church, studying their monuments and antiquities, making rubbings of their monumental brasses. Lawrence and Beeson monitored building sites in Oxford and presented the Ashmolean Museum with anything that they found; the Ashmolean's Annual Report for 1906 said that the two teenage boys "by incessant watchfulness secured everything of antiquarian value, found." In the summers of 1906 and 1907, Lawrence and Beeson toured France by bicycle, collecting photographs and measurements of medieval castles. In August 1907, Lawrence wrote home: "The Chaigno
Republicanism in the United Kingdom
Republicanism in the United Kingdom is the political movement that seeks to replace the United Kingdom's monarchy with a republic. For those who want a non-hereditary head of state, the method by which one should be chosen is not agreed upon, with some favouring an elected president, some an appointed head of state with little power. Others support something akin to the Swiss model, with a directorate functioning as a collective head of state. A republican government existed in the mid-17th century, between the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War and the Restoration; the main lobby group that campaigns for the abolition of the monarchy is Republic. Within Britain, republican sentiment has focused on the abolition of the British monarch, rather than the dissolution of the British Union or independence for its constituent countries. In Northern Ireland, the term "republican" is used in the sense of Irish republicanism. While against monarchical forms of government, Irish republicans are against the presence of the British state in any form in Ireland and advocate creating a united Ireland, an all-island state comprising the whole of Ireland.
Unionists who support a British republic exist in Northern Ireland. There are republican members of the Scottish National Party in Scotland and Plaid Cymru in Wales who advocate independence for those countries as republics; the SNP's official policy is that the British monarch would remain head of state of an independent Scotland, unless the people of Scotland decided otherwise. Plaid Cymru have a similar view for Wales, although its youth wing, Plaid Cymru Ifanc, has an official policy advocating a Welsh republic; the Scottish Socialist Party and the Scottish Green Party both support an independent Scottish republic. Since the 1970s, early modern English republicanism has been extensively studied by historians, to the point where monarchism and absolutism have now become neglected fields. James Harrington is considered to be the most representative republican writer of the era; the countries that now make up the United Kingdom, together with the present Republic of Ireland, were ruled as a republic in the 17th century, first under the Commonwealth consisting of the Rump Parliament and the Council of State and under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell.
The Commonwealth Parliament represented itself as a Republic on the classical model, with John Milton writing an early defense of republicanism in the idiom of constitutional limits on a monarch's power. Cromwell's Protectorate was less ideologically republican and was seen by Cromwell as restoring the mixed constitution of monarchy and democracy found in classical literature and English common law discourse. First the Kingdom of England was declared to be the Commonwealth of England and Scotland and Ireland were forced into union with England by the army; this decision was reversed when the monarchy was restored in 1660. In 1707 the Act of Union between England and Scotland was signed. Many of Cromwell's actions upon gaining power were decried as "harsh and tyrannical", he and General Thomas Fairfax were ruthless in putting down the mutinies which occurred within their own army towards the end of the civil wars. They showed little sympathy for the Levellers, an egalitarian movement which had contributed to Parliament's cause but sought representation for ordinary citizens.
The Leveller point of view had been represented in the Putney Debates, held between the various factions of the Army in 1647, just prior to the King's temporary escape from army custody. Cromwell and the Grandees were not prepared to permit such a radical democracy and used the debates to play for time while the future of the King was being determined. Catholics were persecuted zealously under Cromwell. Although he was in favour of religious toleration – "liberty for tender consciences" – not all his compatriots agreed; the war led to much death and chaos in Ireland where Irish Catholics and Protestants who fought for the Royalists were persecuted. There was a ban on many forms of entertainment, as public meetings could be used as a cover for conspirators. Much of Cromwell's power was due to the Rump Parliament, a Parliament purged of opposition to grandees in the New Model Army. Whereas Charles I had been in part restrained by a Parliament that would not always do as he wished, Cromwell was able to wield much more power as only loyalists were allowed to become MPs, turning the chamber into a rubber-stamping organisation.
This was ironic given his complaints about Charles I acting without heeding the "wishes" of the people. But so he found it impossible to get his Parliaments to follow all his wishes, his executive decisions were thwarted – most famously in the ending of the rule of the regional major generals appointed by himself. In 1657 Cromwell was offered the crown by Parliament, presenting him with a dilemma since he had played a great role in abolishing the monarchy. After two months of deliberation, he rejected the offer. Instead, he was ceremonially re-installed as "Lord Protector of England and Ireland", with greater powers than he had held, it is suggested that offering Cromwell the Crown was an effort to curb his power: as a King he would be obliged to honour agreements such as Magna Carta, but und
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
1950 United Kingdom general election
The 1950 United Kingdom general election was the first general election to be held after a full term of Labour government. The election was held on Thursday 23 February 1950. Despite polling over 700,000 votes more than the Conservatives, receiving more votes than they had during the 1945 general election, Labour obtained a slim majority of just five seats—a stark contrast to 1945, when they had achieved a comfortable 146-seat majority. There was a national swing towards the Conservatives, whose performance in terms of popular vote was better than in 1945. Labour called another general election in 1951. Turnout increased to the highest turnout in a UK general election under universal suffrage, it was the first general election to be covered on television, although the footage was not recorded. Richard Dimbleby anchored for the BBC Television coverage of the election, which he would do again for the 1951, 1955, 1959 and the 1964 general elections. On this occasion, Dimbleby was joined in the BBC Lime Grove Studios by R. B.
McCallum, Fellow of Pembroke College and author of The British General Election of 1945 and David Butler, research student of Nuffield College. The first election night programme ran from 10:45 pm until just after 1:00 am. Significant changes since the 1945 general election included the abolition of plural voting by the Representation of the People Act 1948, a major reorganisation of constituencies by the House of Commons Act 1949. Eleven new English seats were created and six were abolished, there were over 170 major alterations to constituencies across the country. Both the Conservative and Labour parties entered the campaign positively; the Conservatives, having recovered from their landslide election defeat in 1945, accepted most of the nationalisation that had taken place under the Attlee government, which included the NHS and the mixed economy. The campaign focused on the possible future nationalisation of other sectors and industries, supported by the Labour Party, opposed by the Conservatives.
The Liberals viewed the struggle between the two parties on this issue as a class struggle. The Liberal Party fielded 475 candidates, more than at any general election since 1929. Liberal Party leader Clement Davies felt that the party had been at a disadvantage at the 1945 general election when they ran fewer candidates than needed to form a government. Davies arranged for the cost of running extra candidates to be offset by the party taking out insurance with Lloyd's of London against more than fifty candidates losing their deposits. In the event, the strategy only succeeded in causing a marginal increase in the overall Liberal vote over the previous election. A total of 319 Liberal candidates lost their deposits, a record number until 2015, when candidates for the Liberal Democrats lost 335 deposits at the general election held in that year; the Labour Party won an overall majority of 5 seats, down from 146 in the previous election. Prominent personalities entering Parliament in this election included Edward Heath, Enoch Powell, Reginald Maudling and Iain Macleod.
MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 1950 United Kingdom election results—summary results 1885–1979 This is the Road: The Conservative and Unionist Party's Policy, 1950 Conservative Party manifesto Let Us Win Through Together: A Declaration of Labour Policy for the Consideration of the Nation, 1950 Labour Party manifesto No Easy Way: Britain's Problems and the Liberal Answers, 1950 Liberal Party manifesto
Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby
Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, was an English soldier and British Imperial Governor. He fought in the Second Boer War and in the First World War, in which he led the British Empire's Egyptian Expeditionary Force during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign against the Ottoman Empire in the conquest of Palestine; the British succeeded in capturing Beersheba and Jerusalem from October to December 1917. His forces occupied the Jordan Valley during the summer of 1918 went on to capture northern Palestine and defeat the Ottoman Yildirim Army Group's Eighth Army at the Battle of Megiddo, forcing the Fourth and Seventh Army to retreat towards Damascus. Subsequently, the EEF Pursuit by Desert Mounted Corps captured Damascus and advanced into northern Syria. During this pursuit, he commanded T. E. Lawrence, whose campaign with Faisal's Arab Sherifial Forces assisted the EEF's capture of Ottoman Empire territory and fought the Battle of Aleppo, five days before the Armistice of Mudros ended the campaign on 30 October 1918.
He continued to serve in the region as High Commissioner for Egypt and Sudan from 1919 until 1925. Allenby was born in 1861, the son of Hynman Allenby and Catherine Anne Allenby and was educated at Haileybury College, he had no great desire to be a soldier, tried to enter the Indian Civil Service but failed the entry exam. He sat the exam for the Royal Military College, Sandhurst in 1880 and was commissioned as a lieutenant in the 6th Dragoons on 10 May 1882, he joined his regiment in South Africa that year, taking part in the Bechuanaland Expedition of 1884-85. After serving at the cavalry depot in Canterbury, he was promoted to captain on 10 January 1888 and returned to South Africa. Allenby returned to Britain in 1890 and he sat – and failed – the entry exam for the Staff College in Camberley. Not deterred, he passed. Captain Douglas Haig of the 7th Hussars entered the Staff College at the same time, thus beginning a rivalry between the two that ran until the First World War. Allenby was more popular with fellow officers being made Master of the Draghounds in preference to Haig, the better rider.
Their contemporary James Edmonds claimed that the staff at Staff College thought Allenby dull and stupid but were impressed by a speech that he gave to the Farmers' Dinner, which had in fact been written for him by Edmonds and another. He was promoted to major on 19 May 1897 and was posted to the 3rd Cavalry Brigade serving in Ireland, as the Brigade-Major in March 1898. Following the outbreak of the Second Boer War in October 1899, Allenby returned to his regiment, the Inniskillings embarked at Queenstown and landed at Cape Town, South Africa that year, he took part in the actions at Colesberg on 11 January 1900, Klip Drift on 15 February 1900 and Dronfield Ridge on 16 February 1900, was mentioned in despatches by the commander-in-chief, Lord Roberts on 31 March 1900. Major Allenby was appointed to command the squadron of New South Wales Lancers, who were camped beside the Australian Light Horse outside Bloemfontein. Both men and horses suffered from the continuous rain and cases of enteric fever were taken away every day.
Allenby soon established himself as a strict disciplinarian, according to A. B. Paterson imposing a curfew on the officer's mess. Allenby participated in the actions at Zand River on 10 May 1900, Kalkheuval Pass on 3 June 1900, Barberton on 12 September 1900 and Tevreden on 16 October 1900 when the Boer General Jan Smuts was defeated, he was promoted to local lieutenant-colonel on 1 January 1901, to local colonel on 29 April 1901. In a despatch dated 23 June 1902, Lord Kichener, Commander-in-Chief during the latter part of the war, described him as "a popular and capable Cavalry Brigadier". For his services during the war, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in the South Africa honours list published on 26 June 1902, he received the actual decoration of CB from King Edward VII during an investiture at Buckingham Palace on 24 October 1902. Allenby returned to Britain in 1902 and became commanding officer of the 5th Royal Irish Lancers in Colchester with the substantive rank of lieutenant-colonel on 2 August 1902, the brevet rank of colonel from 22 August 1902.
He was promoted to the substantive rank of colonel and to the temporary rank of brigadier general on 19 October 1905. He assumed command of the 4th Cavalry Brigade in 1906, he was promoted again to the rank of major-general on 10 September 1909 and was appointed Inspector-General of Cavalry in 1910 due to his extensive cavalry experience. He was nicknamed "The Bull" due to an increasing tendency for sudden bellowing outbursts of explosive rage directed at his subordinates, combined with his powerful physical frame. Allenby stood 6'2 with a barrel chest and his bad temper made "The Bull" a figure who inspired much consternation under those who had to work under him. During the First World War, Allenby served on the Western Front. At the outbreak of war in August 1914, a British Expeditionary Force was sent to France, it consisted of four infantry divisions and one cavalry division, the latter commanded by Allenby. The cavalry division first saw action in semi-chaotic circumstances covering the retreat after the Battle of Mons opposing the German Army's invasion of France.
One of Allenby's subordinates claimed at the time: "He cannot explain verbally, with any lucidity at all, what his plans are". When a headquarters officer asked why Hubert Gough's cavalry brigade was miles from where it was supposed to be, he received the reply: "He told me he was getting as far away from t
Bethnal Green South West (UK Parliament constituency)
Bethnal Green South West was a constituency in London. It returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, it was created for the 1885 general election and abolished for the 1950 general election, when it was combined with Bethnal Green North East to form a new Bethnal Green constituency, reflecting the area's substantial fall in population. The constituency consisted of the south and west wards of the civil parish of Bethnal Green, Middlesex. Bethnal Green Parliamentary Representation at British History online Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "B"
1931 United Kingdom general election
The 1931 United Kingdom general election was held on Tuesday 27 October 1931 and saw a landslide election victory for the National Government, formed two months after the collapse of the second Labour government. Collectively, the parties forming the National Government won 67% of the votes and 554 seats out of 615; the bulk of the National Government's support came from the Conservative Party, the Conservatives won 470 seats. The Labour Party suffered its greatest defeat, losing four out of five seats compared with the previous election; the Liberal Party, split into three factions, continued to shrink and the Liberal National faction never reunited. Ivor Bulmer-Thomas said the results "were the most astonishing in the history of the British party system", it was the last election where one party received an absolute majority of the votes cast and the last UK general election not to take place on a Thursday, would be the last election until 1997 in which a party won over 400 seats in the House of Commons.
After battling with the Great Depression for two years, Ramsay MacDonald's Labour government had been faced with a sudden budget crisis in August 1931. The cabinet deadlocked over its response, with several influential members such as Arthur Henderson unwilling to support the budget cuts which were pressed by the civil service and opposition parties. Chancellor of the Exchequer, Philip Snowden, refused to consider deficit spending or tariffs as alternative solutions; when the government resigned, MacDonald was encouraged by King George V to form an all-party National Government to deal with the immediate crisis. The initial hope that the government would hold office for a few weeks, dissolve to return to ordinary party politics, were frustrated when the government was forced to remove the pound sterling from the gold standard; the Conservatives began pressing for the National Government to fight an election as a combined unit, MacDonald's supporters from the Labour Party formed a National Labour Organisation to support him.
However the Liberals had to be persuaded. Former Liberal leader David Lloyd George opposed the decision to call an election and urged his colleagues to withdraw from the National Government. A main issue was the Conservatives' wish to introduce protectionist trade policies; this issue not only divided the government from the opposition but divided the parties in the National Government: the majority of Liberals, led by Sir Herbert Samuel, were opposed and supported free trade, but on the eve of the election a faction known as Liberal Nationals under the leadership of Sir John Simon was formed who were willing to support protectionist trade policies. In order to preserve the Liberals within the National Government, the government itself did not endorse a policy but appealed for a "Doctor's Mandate" to do whatever was necessary to rescue the economy. Individual Conservative candidates supported protective tariffs. Labour campaigned on opposition to public spending cuts, but found it difficult to defend the record of the party's former government and the fact that most of the cuts had been agreed before it fell.
Historian Andrew Thorpe argues that Labour lost credibility by 1931 as unemployment soared in coal, textiles and steel. The working class lost confidence in the ability of Labour to solve the most pressing problem; the 2.5 million Irish Catholics in England and Scotland were a major factor in the Labour base in many industrial areas. The Catholic Church had tolerated the Labour Party, denied that it represented true socialism. However, the bishops by 1930 had grown alarmed at Labour's policies towards Communist Russia, towards birth control and towards funding Catholic schools, they warned its members. The Catholic shift against Labour and in favour of the National Government played a major role in Labour's losses. In the event, the Labour vote fell and the National Government won a landslide majority. Although the overwhelming majority of the Government MPs were Conservatives under the leadership of Stanley Baldwin, MacDonald remained Prime Minister in the new National Government; the Liberals lacked the funds to contest the full range of seats, but still won as many constituencies as the Labour Party.
There were more MPs who were elected under a Liberal ticket of some description there were the combined number of Labour and National Labour MPs, but the three-way split in the party meant that the main Labour group still ended up as the second-largest in Parliament. Note: Seat changes are compared with the 1929 election result; this differs from the above list in including seats where the incumbent was standing down and therefore there was no possibility of any one person being defeated. The aim is to provide a comparison with the previous election. In addition, it provides information. All comparisons are with the 1929 election. In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party; such circumstances are marked with a *. In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, retained in 1931; such circumstances are marked with a †. These are available at the PoliticsResources website, a link to, given below.
MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 1931 Ball, Stuart and the Conservative Party: The Crisis of 1929–31, Yale University Press Bas