Ordre des Arts et des Lettres
The Ordre des Arts et des Lettres is an Order of France, established on 2 May 1957 by the Minister of Culture, its supplementary status to the Ordre national du Mérite was confirmed by President Charles de Gaulle in 1963. Its purpose is the recognition of significant contributions to the arts, literature, or the propagation of these fields, its origin is attributed to the Order of Saint-Michel. French government guidelines stipulate that citizens of France must be at least thirty years old, respect French civil law, must have, "significantly contributed to the enrichment of the French cultural inheritance" to be considered for award. Membership is not, limited to French nationals. Foreign recipients are admitted into the Order, "without condition of age"; the Order has three grades: Commandeur — medallion worn on necklet. Officier — medallion worn on ribbon with rosette on left breast. Chevalier — medallion worn on ribbon on left breast; the médaille of the Order is an eight-point, green-enameled asterisk, in gilt for Commanders and Officers and in silver for Knights.
The reverse central disc features the head of Marianne on a golden background, surrounded by a golden ring bearing the words "Ordre des Arts et des Lettres". The Commander's badge is topped by a gilt twisted ring; the ribbon of the Order is green with four white stripes. According to the statutes of the Order, French citizens must wait a minimum of 5 years before they are eligible to be upgraded from Chevalier to Officier, or Officier to Commandeur, must have displayed additional meritorious deeds than just those which made them a Chevalier. However, in the statutes there is a clause saying "Les Officiers et les Commandeurs de la Légion d'honneur peuvent être directement promus à un grade équivalent dans l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres"; this means that were someone to be made Officier of the Legion of Honour the next year that person can be made directly Officier of the Order of Arts and Letters and by pass a nomination as knight and the five-year rule. Ribbons of the French military and civil awards Ordre des arts et des lettres du Québec, a Quebec order based in part on the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres "Nominations dans l'Ordre des Arts et Lettres".
Ministère de la culture, France. 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2009
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
The Hayward Gallery is an art gallery within the Southbank Centre in central London and part of an area of major arts venues on the South Bank of the River Thames. It is sited adjacent to the other Southbank Centre buildings and the National Theatre and BFI Southbank repertory cinema. Following a rebranding of the South Bank Centre to Southbank Centre in early 2007, the Hayward Gallery was known as the Hayward until early 2011; the Hayward Gallery was built by Higgs and Hill and opened on 9 July 1968. Its massing and extensive use of exposed concrete construction are features typical of Brutalist architecture; the initial concept was designed, with the Queen Elizabeth Hall and Purcell Room, as an addition to the Southbank Centre arts complex by team leader Norman Engleback, assisted by John Attenborough, Ron Herron and Warren Chalk, two members of the founded group Archigram, of the Department of Architecture and Civic Design of the Greater London Council. Warren Chalk developed the site plan and connective first floor walkways, while Ron Herron worked on the acoustics for the Queen Elizabeth Hall.
Alan Waterhouse Dennis Crompton, worked on the designs for the Hayward. The building is named after Sir Isaac Hayward, a former leader of the London County Council, the GLC's predecessor. Joanna Drew was the founding Director; the Hayward does not house a permanent collection. Instead, it hosts three or four major temporary exhibitions of modern or contemporary artworks each year. From 1968 to 1986, the gallery was managed by the Arts Council of Great Britain, but management of the gallery passed to Southbank Centre; the gallery is the base of Arts Council England's National Touring Exhibitions programme, as it was, until 2002, of the Arts Council Collection. Unlike British galleries with permanent collections who receive local or central government funding, but in common with other temporary exhibitions at the London public galleries, the Hayward charges admission fees; the Hayward's exhibition policy embraces visual art from all periods: past shows having included the works of Leonardo da Vinci to Edvard Munch and beyond.
The programme, has tended to concentrate on surveys of contemporary art which complement the spaces and powerful concrete structure of the building, such as those of works by Dan Flavin and Antony Gormley. It has hosted two surveys of works from the Arts Council Collection: British Art 1940–1980 and How to Improve the World: 60 Years of British Art; the design brief was for five gallery spaces, two levels of indoor galleries and three outdoor sculpture courts in order to house the Arts Council collection. The intended outdoor display of sculpture against the background of the London skyline appears to have been impractical and the sculpture courts have been little used and closed to the public until the Blind Light exhibition of works by Antony Gormley in 2007; the two levels of the gallery open to the public are linked by a pair of cast concrete staircases. These staircases, lavatories at an intermediate level, are accommodated in a concrete box in between the eastern and western parts of the indoor galleries.
One of these staircases runs down to street level with access to Belvedere Road. This hidden private entrance is located below the foyer and external walkway on the north facade, above the car park and near the overhanging Purcell Room auditorium. Screens advertised the National Film Theatre and Museum of the Moving Image enclosed the car park by the central access road, they were removed in 2008 giving a more open feel to the ground level area at the western end. The building had a small main foyer area with cast aluminium doors similar to those of the Queen Elizabeth Hall. In 2003, the foyer of the building was remodelled with a larger glass-fronted foyer, designed by the Haworth Tompkins architectural practice, including a new oval shaped glass pavilion designed by Dan Graham above a new cafe in the projecting former office space at the east end. A shop had been added earlier inside the north-west end of the lower gallery; the two upper galleries can use filtered natural light from the glass pyramids on their flat roofs.
Three concrete towers run vertically through the middle of the structure and contain the passenger lift, service lift and service duct. Between 1972 and 2008 a kinetic light sculpture, which responds to wind force, stood on the roof of the passenger lift tower; this famous London landmark was designed and built by Philip Vaughan and Roger Dainton as a way to attract visitors to the gallery. It was removed in order for renovation to take place which involved replacing the original neon lighting with LEDs, but subsequently a decision has been taken not to reinstall it; the roof terrace at the south end and linking bridge to the Queen Elizabeth Hall foyer building is closed to the public, which makes impossible some of the more interesting pedestrian circulation opportunities of the original design, although these have been opened for the Summer of Fun festival in 2011. The walkway above Belvedere Road with access from Waterloo Bridge widens to the west, following the line of Belvedere Road and accommodating the stairs to the external terrace, but following a different line from the upper gallery walls.
The angled plan shape of the concrete sculpture court in the south corner reflects the change in angle of the site between Waterloo Bridge and Festival Square. In this way, despite its uncompromising form
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London. It is Britain's national gallery of international modern art and forms part of the Tate group, it is based in the former Bankside Power Station, in the Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark. Tate holds the national collection of British art from 1900 to the present day and international modern and contemporary art. Tate Modern is one of the largest museums of contemporary art in the world; as with the UK's other national galleries and museums, there is no admission charge for access to the collection displays, which take up the majority of the gallery space, while tickets must be purchased for the major temporary exhibitions. The gallery is London’s most-visited attraction pulling in 5.8 million visitors in 2018. Tate Modern is housed in the former Bankside Power Station, designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, the architect of Battersea Power Station, built in two stages between 1947 and 1963, it is directly across the river from St Paul's Cathedral.
The power station closed in 1981. Prior to redevelopment, the power station was a 200 m long, steel framed, brick clad building with a substantial central chimney standing 99 m; the structure was divided into three main areas each running east-west – the huge main Turbine Hall in the centre, with the boiler house to the north and the switch house to the south. For many years after closure Bankside Power station was at risk of being demolished by developers. Many people campaigned for the building to be saved and put forward suggestions for possible new uses. An application to list the building was refused. In April 1994 the Tate Gallery announced. In July of the same year, an international competition was launched to select an architect for the new gallery. Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron of Herzog & de Meuron were announced as the winning architects in January 1995; the £134 million conversion to the Tate Modern started in June 1995 and completed in January 2000. The most obvious external change was the two-story glass extension on one half of the roof.
Much of the original internal structure remained, including the cavernous main turbine hall, which retained the overhead travelling crane. An electrical substation, taking up the Switch House in the southern third of the building, remained on-site and owned by the French power company EDF Energy while Tate took over the northern Boiler House for Tate Modern's main exhibition spaces; the history of the site as well as information about the conversion was the basis for a 2008 documentary Architects Herzog and de Meuron: Alchemy of Building & Tate Modern. This challenging conversion work was carried by Carillion. Tate Modern was opened by the Queen on 11 May 2000. Tate Modern received 5.25 million visitors in its first year. The previous year the three existing Tate galleries had received 2.5 million visitors combined. Tate Modern had attracted more visitors than expected and plans to expand it had been in preparation since 2004; these plans focused on the south west of the building with the intention of providing 5,000m2 of new display space doubling the amount of display space.
The southern third of the building was retained by the French power company EDF Energy as an electrical substation. In 2006, the company released the western half of this holding and plans were made to replace the structure with a tower extension to the museum planned to be completed in 2015; the tower was to be built over the old oil storage tanks, which would be converted to a performance art space. Structural, civil, façade engineering and environmental consultancy was undertaken by Ramboll between 2008 and 2016; this project was costed at £215 million. Of the money raised, £50 million came from the UK government. In June 2013, international shipping and property magnate Eyal Ofer pledged £10m to the extension project, making it to 85% of the required funds. Eyal Ofer, chairman of London-based Zodiac Maritime Agencies, said the donation made through his family foundation would enable "an iconic institution to enhance the experience and accessibility of contemporary art"; the Tate director, Nicholas Serota, praised the donation saying it would help to make Tate Modern a "truly twenty-first-century museum".
The first phase of the expansion involved the conversion of three large, underground oil tanks used by the power station into accessible display spaces and facilities areas. These opened on 18 July 2012 and closed on 28 October 2012 as work on the tower building continued directly above, they reopened following the completion of the Switch House extension on 17 June 2016. Two of the Tanks are used to show live performance art and installations while the third provides utility space. Tate describes them as "the world's first museum galleries permanently dedicated to live art". A ten-storey tower, 65 metres high from ground level, was built above the oil tanks; the original western half of the Switch House was demolished to make room for the tower and rebuilt around it with large gallery spaces and access routes between the main building and the new tower on level 1 and level 4. The new galleries on level 4 have natural top lighting. A bridge built across the turbine hall on level 4 to provides an upper access route.
The new building opened to the public on 17 June 2016. The design, again by Herzog & de Meuron, has been controversial, it was designed with a glass stepped pyra
The Venetian Arsenal is a complex of former shipyards and armories clustered together in the city of Venice in northern Italy. Owned by the state, the Arsenal was responsible for the bulk of the Venetian republic's naval power during the middle part of the second millennium AD, it was "one of the earliest large-scale industrial enterprises in history". Construction of the Arsenal began around 1104, during Venice's republican era, it became the largest industrial complex in Europe before the Industrial Revolution, spanning an area of about 45 hectares, or about fifteen percent of Venice. Surrounded by a 2-mile rampart and shipbuilders worked within the Arsenal, building ships that sailed from the city's port. With high walls shielding the Arsenal from public view and guards protecting its perimeter, different areas of the Arsenal each produced a particular prefabricated ship part or other maritime implement, such as munitions and rigging; these parts could be assembled into a ship in as little as one day.
An exclusive forest owned by the Arsenal navy, in the Montello hills area of Veneto, provided the Arsenal's wood supply. The Arsenal produced the majority of Venice's maritime trading vessels, which generated much of the city's economic wealth and power, lasting until the fall of the republic to Napoleon's conquest of the area in 1797, it is located in the Castello district of Venice, it is now owned by the state. The Byzantine-style establishment may have existed as early as the 8th century, though the present structure is said to have been begun in 1104 during the reign of Ordelafo Faliero, although there is no evidence for such a precise date, it existed by the early 13th century. The state dockyard worked to maintain built naval ships, but in 1320 the Arsenale Nuovo was built, much larger than the original, it enabled all the state's navy and the larger merchant ships to be both constructed and maintained in one place. The Arsenal incidentally became an important center for rope manufacture, housing for the arsenal workers grew up outside its walls.
Venice developed methods of mass-producing warships in the Arsenal, including the frame-first system to replace the Roman hull-first practice. This new system required less wood. At the peak of its efficiency in the early 16th century, the Arsenal employed some 16,000 people who were able to produce nearly one ship each day, could fit out and provision a newly built galley with standardized parts on a production-line basis not seen again until the Industrial Revolution; the staff of the Arsenal, who were united by their distinct professional identity developed new firearms at an early date, beginning with bombards in the 1370s and numerous small arms for use against the Genoese a few years later. The muzzle velocity of handguns was improved beyond that of the crossbow, creating armor-piercing rounds. Arsenal-produced arms were noteworthy for their multi-purpose utility; the Arsenal's main gate, the Porta Magna, was built around 1460 and was one of the first works of Venetian Renaissance architecture.
It was based on the Roman Arch of the Sergii, a triumphal arch in Pula in Istra, now in Croatia but Venetian territory. It was built by Antonio Gambello from a design by Jacopo Bellini. Two lions taken from Greece situated beside it were added in 1687. One of the lions, known as the Piraeus Lion, has runic defacements carved in it by invading Scandinavian mercenaries during the 11th century. In the late 16th century, the Arsenal's designers experimented with larger ships as platforms for heavy naval guns; the largest was the galleass used at the Battle of Lepanto against the Ottoman Turks, developed from the old merchanting "great galley". It was huge, propelled by both sails and oars, with guns mounted on wheeled carriages along the sides in the modern fashion, it was slow and unwieldy in battle and few were built. The galleon developed at the Arsenal, was an armed sailing ship, a slimmer version of the merchant "round ship", it was useful in major naval battles, but not in the small bays and off the extensive lee shores of the Dalmatian coast.
Significant parts of the Arsenal were destroyed under Napoleonic rule, rebuilt to enable the Arsenal's present use as a naval base. It is used as a research center and an exhibition venue during the Venice Biennale, is home to a historic boat preservation center; the Venetian Arsenal's ability to mass-produce galleys on an assembly-line process was unique for its time and resulted in the single largest industrial complex in Europe prior to the Industrial Revolution. So much so, that it was mentioned in Dante's Inferno: As in the Arsenal of the VenetiansBoils in winter the tenacious pitch To smear their unsound vessels over again For sail they cannot; the Arsenal was something different, a harbinger of future times."The Venetian Arsenal was not the mass production facility
Vik Muniz is a Brazilian artist and photographer. A sculptor, Muniz grew interested with the photographic representations of his work focusing on photography. Working with unconventional materials such as tomato sauce, magazine clippings, chocolate syrup, dirt, etc. Muniz creates works of art and photographs them, his work has been met with both commercial success and critical acclaim, has been exhibited worldwide. In 2010, Muniz was featured in the documentary film Waste Land. Directed by Lucy Walker, the film highlights Muniz's work on one of the world's largest garbage dumps, Jardim Gramacho, on the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro; the film was nominated to the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature at the 83rd Academy Awards. Vik Muniz was born in 1961 in São Paulo, Brazil, as the only child of Maria Celeste, telephone operator, Vincente Muniz, restaurant waiter. Growing up, Muniz's grandmother, Ana Rocha, taught him. In his memoir, Muniz recalled struggling with writing in school, so he turned to visuals to communicate his thoughts.
At the age of 14, his math teach recommended him to enter an art contest, which he won and was awarded a partial scholarship to an art studio. At the age of 18, Muniz got his first job working in the advertising industry in Brazil, redesigning billboards for higher readability. Muniz joining his first advertising company resulted from him studying the billboards around town, figuring out why they were not legible, he brought this up to a company that specialized in outdoor advertising, they hired him on the spot as a consultant. Muniz states in his autobiography that his decision to move to the United States came from a “fortunate event.” While on the way to his first black-tie gala, Muniz witnessed and attempted to break up a street fight, where he was accidentally shot in the leg by one of the brawlers. He was paid by the shooter to not press charges, used the money to travel to Chicago in 1983. In Chicago, Muniz worked at a local supermarket cleaning the parking lot while he attended night school to study English.
In the English class, he learned Polish, Italian and Korean without any improvements to his English vocabulary. Muniz attended culinary and carpentry classes, this is where he learned most his of English. Muniz took his first trip to New York in 1984. There, he visited the Museum of Modern Arts and met a woman who changed his thoughts on Jackson Pollock’s paintings; this woman influenced Muniz in such a way that he moved to New York just two months after his first visit. Muniz's friend lent him a studio, he started his career as a sculptor, which resulted in his first solo exhibit in 1989. Vik Muniz cites many people as his inspirations. Inspired by works of Man Ray and Max Ernst, Muniz executes simple imagery intricately. Marshall McLuhan’s Understanding Media inspired Muniz to explore perception in the media through abstraction and manipulating the components of the image, he is a self-proclaimed student of Buster Keaton. He decided to become an artist after seeing the works of the Postmodernist artists, Cindy Sherman and Jeff Koons.
Muniz, like both of these artists reworks popular imagery in his work. Muniz says. Rather, he states. Muniz works to showcase these old themes in a different light for the viewer. Muniz is best known for recreating famous imagery from art history and pop culture with unexpected, everyday objects, photographing them. For example, Muniz's Action Photo, After Hans Namuth, a Cibachrome print, is a Bosco Chocolate Syrup recreation of one of Hans Namuth's photographs of Jackson Pollock in his studio; the monumental series Pictures of Cars is his social commentary of the car culture of Los Angeles utilizing Ed Ruscha's 60's Pop masterpieces rendered from car ephemera. Muniz works on a large scale and he destroys the originals of his work and only the photo of his work remains. Muniz has spoken of wanting to make "color pictures that talked about color and talked about the practical simplification of such impossible concepts." He has spoken of an interest in making pictures that "reveal their process and material structure," and describes himself as having been "a willing bystander in the middle of the shootout between structuralist and post-structuralist critique."
He cites the mosaics in a church in Ravenna as one of his influences. Muniz says that when he takes photographs, he intuitively searches for "a vantage point that would make the picture identical to the ones in my head before I’d made the works," so that his photographs match those mental images, he sees photography as having "freed painting from its responsibility to depict the world as fact." In Muniz's earthworks series, Pictures of Earthworks, show a strong resemblance to the 1970s Earthworks movement. However unlike the Earthworks movement, that were influenced by ancient cultures, Muniz's series shows distinct human impact on nature. In addition to sculpting, Muniz began experimenting with drawing and photography combining these mediums in the series Sugar Children, featured in the Museum of Modern Art's New Photography 13 show, alongside Rineke Dijikstra, An-My Le, Kunié Sugiura, in 1997. In Sugar Children, Muniz photographed the families that worked on sugar plantations on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts.
Beginning with Polaroids of several of the children of plantation workers, Muniz "drew" their images by sprinkling sugar on black paper and rephotographed these compositions. Muniz has faced criticism for profiting off his portrait subjects who are