European Figure Skating Championships
The European Figure Skating Championships is an annual figure skating competition in which figure skaters compete for the title of European champion. Medals are awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, women's singles, pair skating, ice dance; the event is sanctioned by the International Skating Union, is the sport's oldest competition. The first European Championships was held in 1891 in Hamburg and featured one segment, compulsory figures, with seven competitors, all men from Germany and Austria, it has been, other than four periods, held continuously since 1891, has been sanctioned by the ISU since 1893. Women were allowed to compete for the first time in 1930, the first time pairs skating was added to the competition. Ice dance was added in 1954. Only eligible skaters from ISU member countries in Europe can compete, skaters must have reached at least the age of 15 before July 1 preceding the competition. ISU member countries can submit 1-3 skaters to compete in the European Championships.
Although they were not held continuously, the European Championships is figure skating's oldest championship. The first European Championships were held in 1891 in Germany, it featured one segment, compulsory figures, with seven competitors, five from Germany and two from Austria. The event was sponsored by the Austrian and German skating federations, after they combined to become one federation. All the medalists were from Germany; the second European Championships were held in Vienna in 1892. The event had 10 competitors: one from Hungary, two from Germany, seven from Austria, it included compulsory figures and free skating. It was sponsored by the German/Austrian federation. Austrian Eduard Englemann won the gold medal, Hungarian Tibor von Földváry came in second place, Georg Zachariades from Austria was third; the next European Championships was held in 1893 in Berlin. The championships were sponsored by the Berlin Skating Club, like the previous two years, was organized by the German/Austrian federation.
There were eight competitors: three from Austria, two from Germany, one each from Hungary and Norway. Englemann is listed as the gold medalist. Figure skating historian James Hines called the 1893 European Championships "clearly a success from a skating standpoint", but it marked figure skating's "first major controversy", due to "different interpretations of the scoring rules, which could result in a tie depending upon one's interpretation of them"; the Berlin Skating Club declared Grenander the winner. The problem was never resolved. ISU historian Benjamin T. Wright said that the controversy "nearly led to the demise" of the newly-formed ISU; the next two European Championships, 1894 and 1895, "experienced a marked decrease in participation a result of the scoring debacle". In 1894, five skaters competed in Vienna. Engelmann won his third Europeans gold medal, Austrian Gustav Hügel came in second, Földváry came in third. In 1895, held in Budapest, three skaters competed, with one withdrawal. Földváry won the gold medal, Hügel again came in second, Gilbert Fuchs from Germany, who competed in 10 Europeans, came in third.
There were no European Championships for two years, which Hines speculated was because of the small number of contestants in 1894 and 1895, although the competition returned in 1898. Hines reported that the European Championships were again interrupted in 1902 and 1903, "for lack of ice". By the beginning of World War I, 20 European Championships were held. There were two more interruptions of the European Championships: between 1915 and 1922 due to World War I, between 1940 and 1946 due to World War II. Only men competed at the European Championships until 1930, when women single skaters and pair skating were added. All members of the ISU, not just skaters from Europe, were allowed to compete at Europeans until 1948. Ice dance was added to Europeans in 1954.}} The first time the U. S. S. R. sent skaters to the European Championships was in 1956. Competitions were held in outdoor rinks until 1967, when the ISU ruled that both the European and World Championships be held in covered ice rinks. Only those competitors who are "members of a European ISU Member" are eligible to compete in the European Championships.
According to the ISU's Constitution, in order to be eligible to compete in international senior competitions, ISU senior championships, the Olympics, skaters must have "reached at least the age of fifteen before July 1 preceding the Events". Each ISU member country can send at least one competitor per discipline, if they earn the minimum total element scores, determined and published each season by the ISU, during the current or during the previous season. Skaters who earn the minimum elements score/points during the Olympic season or during the previous season, as established for the European and Four Continents championships, are eligible to compete in the Olympics. In 2018, the ISU determined that skaters and couples participating in the 2019 European Championships had to earn the following minimum total elements scores: The number of additional competitors eligible to compete from ISU member countries is determined by the accumulation of points "equal to the sum of placements of their Competitors who w
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and
Pair skating is a figure skating discipline. The International Skating Union defines pair skating as "the skating of two persons in unison who perform their movements in such harmony with each other as to give the impression of genuine Pair Skating as compared with independent Single Skating"; the ISU states that a pairs team must consist of "one Lady and one Man". Pair skating, along with men's and women's single skating, has been an Olympic discipline since figure skating, the oldest Winter Olympic sport, was introduced at the 1908 Olympic Games in London; the ISU World Figure Skating Championships introduced pair skating in 1908. Like the other disciplines, pair skating competitions consist of two segments, the Short program and the free skating program. There are seven required elements in the short program, which lasts 2 minutes and 40 seconds for both junior and senior pair teams. Free skating for pairs "consists of a well balanced program composed and skated to music of the pair's own choice for a specified period of time".
It should contain "especially typical Pair Skating moves" such as pair spins, partner assisted jumps and other similar moves, "linked harmoniously by steps and other movements". Its duration, like the other disciplines, is 4 minutes for senior teams, 3 1/2 minutes for junior teams. Pair skating required elements include lifts, twist lifts, throw jumps, spin combinations, death spirals, step sequences, choreographic sequences; the elements performed by pairs teams must be "linked together by connecting steps of a different nature" and by other comparable movements and with a variety of holds and positions. Pair skaters must only execute the prescribed elements. Only the first attempt of an element will be included. Violations in pair skating include falls, time and clothing; the International Skating Union defines pair skating as "the skating of two persons in unison who perform their movements in such harmony with each other as to give the impression of genuine Pair Skating as compared with independent Single Skating".
The ISU states that a pairs team must consist of "one Lady and one Man" and that "attention should be paid to the selection of an appropriate partner". Pair skating, along with men's and women's single skating, has been an Olympic discipline since figure skating, the oldest Winter Olympic sport, was introduced at the 1908 Olympic Games in London; the ISU World Figure Skating Championships introduced pair skating, along with women's singles in 1908. According to writer Ellyn Kestnbaum, the rising popularity of skating during the 19th century led to the development of figure skating techniques the "various forms of hand-in-hand skating that would become the basis of pair skating." Madge Syers, the first female figure skater to compete and win internationally, stated that from the beginning of the introduction of pair skating in international competitions, it was a popular sport for audience to watch, that "if the pair are well matched and clever performers, it is undoubtedly the most attractive to watch".
British pair skater Madge Syers stated that Viennese skaters were responsible for pair skating's popularity at the beginning of the 20th century. Syers credited the Austrians for adding dance moves to pair skating. German pair skater Heinrich Burger, in his article in Irving Brokaw's The Art of Skating, stated that he and his partner, Anna Hübler, inserted figures skated by single skaters into "our several dances according to the music" until the figures became more complicated and developed into a different appearance. Hübler and Burger were the first Olympic gold medalists in pair skating in 1908. In 1936, Maxi Herber and Ernst Baier won the gold medal at the Olympics and went on to win the World Championships from 1936-1939. Soviet and Russian domination in pair skating continued throughout the 1900s. Only five non-Soviet or Russian teams won the World Championships after 1965, until 2010. In 1988, The New York Times reported that since the 1964 Olympics in Innsbruck, Soviet pair teams had won gold medals in seven consecutive Olympics.
Kestnbaum credited the Soviets for emphasizing ballet and folk dance in all disciplines of figure skating, noting the influence of Soviet pair team and married couple Liudmila Belousova and Oleg Protopopov. The Protopopovs, as they were called, won gold medals at the 1964 and 1968 Olympics, as well as the 1968 World Championships, "raised by several degrees the level of translating classical dance to the ice". Irina Rodnina, with her partner Alexei Ulanov and Alexander Zaitsev from the Soviet Union, dominated pair skating throughout the 1970s and "led the trend of female pair skaters as risk-taking athletes". Pair skating, which has never included a compulsory phase like the other figure skating disciplines, did not require a short program until the early 1960s, when the ISU "instituted a short program of required moves" as the first part of pair competitions; the arrangement of the specific moves unlike compulsory figures for single skaters and the compulsory dance for ice dancers, were up to each pair team.
The short programs introduced in single men and women competitions in 1973 were modeled after the pair skating short program, the structure of competitions in both single and pair competitions have been identical since the elimination of compulsory figures in 1990. A judging scandal at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah "ushered in sweeping reforms in the scoring system" of figure skating competi
Single skating is a discipline of figure skating in which male and female skaters compete individually. Men's singles and women's singles, along with the other figure skating disciples, pair skating, ice dance, synchronized skating, are governed by the International Skating Union. There are two segments in all international competitions, the short program and the free skating program. Compulsory figures, from which the sport of figure skating gets its name, was a crucial part of the sport for most of its history until the ISU voted to remove them in 1990. Singles skating has required elements that skaters must perform during a competition and that make up a well-balanced skating program, they include: jumps, step sequences, choreographic sequences. They must be performed in specific ways, as described by published communications by the ISU, unless otherwise specified; the ISU publishes their points values yearly. Deductions in singles skating include violations in time and clothing, as well as regulations regarding falls and interruptions.
The short program is the first segment of single skating, pair skating, synchronized skating in international competitions, including all ISU championships, the Olympic Winter Games, the Winter Youth Games, qualifying competitions for the Olympic Winter Games, ISU Grand Prix events for both junior and senior-level skaters. The short program must be skated before the second component in competitions; the short program lasts, for both senior and junior singles and pairs, 40 seconds. Vocal music with lyrics has been allowed in single skating and in all disciplines since the 2014-2015 season. Yuzuru Hanyu from Japan holds the two highest single men's short program scores: 110.53 points, which he earned at the 2018 Rostelecom Cup, 106.69, earned at the 2018 Grand Prix of Helsinki. Russian skater Alina Zagitova holds the highest single women's short program score of 82.92, which she earned at the 2018 Winter Olympics in PyeongChang, South Korea. The short program for senior single skaters consists of seven required elements.
The sequence of the elements is optional. Skaters can choose their own music. Men single senior skaters must have the following elements in their short program: a double or triple axel. Women single senior skaters must perform seven elements in their short program: a double or triple axel. Junior single skaters have seven required elements. Free skating called the free skate or long program, is the second segment in single skating, pair skating, synchronized skating in international competitions, including all ISU championships, the Olympic Winter Games, the Winter Youth Games, qualifying competitions for the Olympic Winter Games, ISU Grand Prix events for both junior and senior-level skaters, its duration, across all disciplines, is 4 minutes for senior skaters and teams, 3 1/2 minutes for junior skaters. American skater Nathan Chen holds the highest single men's free skating program score of 216.02, which he earned at the 2019 World Championships. Alina Zagitova from Russia holds the highest single women's free skating score of 158.50, which she earned at the 2018 CS Nebelhorn Trophy.
According to the ISU, free skating "consists of a well balanced program of Free Skating elements, such as jumps, spins and other linking movements". A well-balanced free skate for both senior men and women single skaters must consist of the following: up to seven jump elements, one of which has to be an axel jump. Junior men and women single skaters have the same requirements, except that they do not have to perform a choreographic sequence. Compulsory figures called school figures, are the "circular patterns which skaters trace on the ice to demonstrate skill in placing clean turns evenly on round circles"; until 1947, for the first half of the existence of figure skating as a sport, compulsory figures made up for 60 percent of the total score at most competitions around the world. After World War II, the numbers of figures skaters had to perform during competitions decreased, after 1968, they began to be progressively devalued, until the ISU voted to remove them from all international competitions in 1990.
Despite the apparent demise of compulsory figures from the sport of figure skating, coaches continued to teach figures and skaters continued to practice them because figures gave skaters an advantage in developing alignment, core strength, body control, discipline. The World Figure Sport Society has conducted festivals and competitions of compulsory figures, endorsed by the Ice Skating Institute, since 2015; the ISU defines a jump element as "an individual jump, a jump combination or a jump sequence". The six most common jumps can be divided into two groups: toe jumps and edge jumps (the Salchow, the loop
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National
Maxi Herber was a German figure skater who competed in pair skating and single skating. She is the youngest figure skating Olympic champion when she won gold in pair skating together with Ernst Baier at the 1936 Winter Olympics; the duo revolutionized pair skating. Born in Munich, Herber was an accomplished single skater, winning the German nationals three times, from 1933 to 1935, she skated for the Münchner EV club. Herber and Baier married after their skating career ended in 1940, they had 3 children. After World War II they skated in ice shows; the couple owned a business. In 1964 they were divorced; as a result of the divorce, she had to depend on social services to survive. Supported by the "Deutsche Sporthilfe" she moved to Oberau near Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Bavaria; some years Herber and Baier remarried, but were divorced again. Herber suffered from Parkinson's disease. In 2000, she moved to the Lenzheim retirement home in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Soon afterwards she had an exhibition of her watercolor paintings there.
She died at age 86 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.
Zittau is a city in the south east of the Free State of Saxony, Germany close to the border tri-point of Germany and the Czech Republic. It is part of the District of Görlitz; as of 31 July 2012, the city had a population of 27,506. The inner city of Zittau still shows its original beauty with many houses from several periods of German architecture. There is the famous town hall built in an Italian style, the church of St John and the stables with its medieval heritage; this multi-storied building is one of the oldest of its kind in Germany. Zittau was one of the six members of the Six-City League of Upper Lusatia. At that time the city was granted a special title—it was called "Die Reiche" because of its high proportion of well-to-do citizens, it was part of the Czech Crown until 1635. The city's coat of arms still shows a Silesian Piast Eagle. During the Counter-Reformation following the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, a large number of Protestant refugees from Bohemia came to Zittau, where the Protestant Saxon rulers took them in.
Many of them went on to find refuge in surrounding villages, in Dresden, in Berlin in Brandenburg. As a result of the near-complete destruction of the city during the Seven Years' War, Zittau's prosperity is reflected today in only a few exceptional buildings and the cemeteries where the well-to-do were buried. One of the most important trading goods of this early age in the 16th century was beer. In the 18th and 19th century textiles became important too, a tradition common in the region of Upper Lusatia. During World War II, a labour camp was located in the city, it provided forced labour for a truck-manufacturing company. Following the reunification of Germany in 1990, most of the big textile firms that had survived the time of the GDR unchanged closed down in just a few years for lack of new investment, with these closures Zittau lost most of its economic strength; the city is disadvantaged by the lower cost of labour in its neighbouring countries. In addition, lignite surface mining was discontinued in the foothills of the Zittau Mountains on the outskirts of the city, although it is still carried on across the border in Poland.
This development has, saved parts of the city consisting today of mothballed military garrisons and schools, from what would otherwise have been certain destruction. Zittau is now a desirable place for students and yields a lot of income from overseas investors, properties valueing from between $250,000 - $380,000 average. 2001-2015: Arnd Voigt since August 2015: Thomas Zenker. The local council has 26 members, the results of the elections in August 2014 are: Church of our Lady: A semi-gothic church, first mentioned in 1355. City Hall: Designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel and built in Italian palazzo style between 1840 and 1845. Flower Clock: A notable Zittau attraction, the flower clock was built in 1907 from a clockwork of an old Tower clock and contains 4800 plants planted three times annually. Friary Church: It was the church of the Franciscan Monastery, their high altar was sacred to the apostles Peter and Paulus in 1293. The main aisle was built in the style of late gothic. In the years 1696, 1731 and 1748 prayer rooms were built on the south side of the church.
These were special seating areas for wealthy citizens. Markt: The main central square St John's Church: Originally built in 1230 in the Romanesque style of the Order of Saint John, whose patron saint was John the Baptist, it was dedicated to John the Evangelist. The building was destroyed in 1757 by Austrian soldiers during the Seven Years' War; the current building was built between 1766 and 1837. Zittau Lenten Altar Cloths, two large decorated cloths which were used to hide the altar during Lent; the big lenten altar cloth from 1472 is shown in the Gothic Holy Cross Church, the little lenten altar cloth from 1573, one of six lenten altar cloths of the Arma Christi type in the world, in the Museum of Cultural History in the former Franciscan Monastery.. Several historic fountains: Green Fountain, Roland or Mars Fountain, Fountain of the Samaritan Woman, Hercules Fountain, Swan Fountain, Little Grinder's Fountain. Neustadt square with the Salt House and stables built in 1511. Old Grammar School and Dornspach's Renaissance buildings.
Building Crafts College, a Gothic Revival building from 1846/48 by Carl August Schramm. Urban Swimming-Bath and the Johanneum, a school building from 1869/71, both Neoclassical buildings. There are 3,500 students studying at the Zittau/Görlitz University of Applied Sciences and at the independent International Graduate School, Germany's smallest university catering to students from nearby Poland and the Czech Republic; the city lacks connections to good infrastructure in Germany, but a direct link is planned to the nearest motorway between Bautzen and Görlitz. The town is well-connected to Liberec and the rest of the Czech Republic through dual-carriageway 35 just south of the town. Zittau railway station is located north of the town's centre. Passenger services are operated by three railway companies; the first being Vogtlandbahn, which provides a services from Dresden to Zittau and directly through to Liberec in the Czech Republic. The second is Ostdeutsche Eisenbahn