Otto von Bismarck
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890. In the 1860s, he engineered a series of wars that unified the German states and deliberately excluding Austria, into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. With that accomplished by 1871, he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to maintain Germanys position in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, in 1862, King Wilhelm I appointed Bismarck as Minister President of Prussia, a position he would hold until 1890. He provoked three short, decisive wars against Denmark and France, aligning the smaller German states behind Prussia in its defeat of France, in 1871, he formed the German Empire with himself as Chancellor, while retaining control of Prussia. His diplomacy of realpolitik and powerful rule at home gained him the nickname the Iron Chancellor, German unification and its rapid economic growth was the foundation to his foreign policy.
He disliked colonialism but reluctantly built an empire when it was demanded by both elite and mass opinion. A master of politics at home, Bismarck created the first welfare state in the modern world. In the 1870s, he allied himself with the Liberals and fought the Catholic Church in what was called the Kulturkampf and he lost that battle as the Catholics responded by forming a powerful Centre party and using universal male suffrage to gain a bloc of seats. Bismarck reversed himself, ended the Kulturkampf, broke with the Liberals, imposed protective tariffs, a devout Lutheran, he was loyal to his king, who argued with Bismarck but in the end supported him against the advice of his wife and his heir. Under Wilhelm I, Bismarck largely controlled domestic and foreign affairs, until he was removed by the young Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890, bismarck—a Junker himself—was strong-willed and sometimes judged overbearing, but he could be polite and witty. Occasionally he displayed a violent temper, and he kept his power by threatening resignation time and again.
He possessed not only a national and international vision but the short-term ability to juggle complex developments. As the leader of what historians call revolutionary conservatism, Bismarck became a hero to German nationalists, many historians praise him as a visionary who was instrumental in uniting Germany and, once that had been accomplished, kept the peace in Europe through adroit diplomacy. Bismarck was born in Schönhausen, a family estate situated west of Berlin in the Prussian province of Saxony. He had two siblings and Malwine, the world saw Bismarck as a typical Prussian Junker, an image that he encouraged by wearing military uniforms. Bismarck was well educated and cosmopolitan with a gift for conversation, in addition to his native German, he was fluent in English, Italian and Russian. Bismarck was educated at Johann Ernst Plamanns elementary school, and the Friedrich-Wilhelm, from 1832 to 1833, he studied law at the University of Göttingen, where he was a member of the Corps Hannovera, and enrolled at the University of Berlin.
In 1838, while stationed as an army reservist in Greifswald, at Göttingen, Bismarck befriended the American student John Lothrop Motley
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. It is the 14th largest city in the European Union and it is the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe with waxing and waning fortunes during its history and it was an important city to the Habsburg Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire. Prague is home to a number of cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence. Main attractions include the Prague Castle, the Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The city has more than ten major museums, along with theatres, cinemas. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, also, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe.
Prague is classified as an Alpha- global city according to GaWC studies, Prague ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016. Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city more than 6.4 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fifth most visited European city after London, Istanbul, the region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. In the last century BC, the Celts were slowly driven away by Germanic tribes, around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map of Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the following century, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in Levý Hradec, Butovice and in the Šárka valley. The construction of what came to be known as the Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which was founded in 1344, but completed in the 20th century.
The legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied, I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars. She ordered a castle and a town called Praha to be built on the site, a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c.1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. The region became the seat of the dukes, and kings of Bohemia, under Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973
Greater Poland uprising (1848)
The Greater Poland Uprising of 1848 or Poznań Uprising was an unsuccessful military insurrection of Poles against Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period. While the Kingdom of Prussia already possessed a large Polish population in Upper Silesia, Poles were portrayed as backward Slavs by Prussian officials who wanted to spread German language and culture. The land of Polish nobility was confiscated and given to German nobles, the Poles were freed from Prussians with the arrival of Napoleon, and started a successful uprising against the Prussian forces in 1806. The Prussian hold on Polish areas was somewhat weakened after 1807 where parts of its partition were restored to Duchy of Warsaw. In 1815 the Prussian king made several guarantees in his speech to Poles in the newly formed Grand Duchy of Posen in regards to rights of Polish language and cultural institutions. In order to ensure loyalty of the newly re-conquered territories the Prussians engaged in several propaganda gestures hoping they would be enough to gain land-owners and aristocracy support.
The Prussians knew exactly that Polish aspirations were involved with independence, initially the position of the Chancellor prevailed. The situation in Polish areas of Prussia was calmed down after series of proclamations and assuring the Polish right to their education and traditions. In the end, the Polish rights were defined very narrowly, and Prussia started to abolish the Polish language in administration, schooling, in 1819 the gradual elimination of Polish language in schools began, with German being introduced in its place. This procedure was briefly stopped in 1822 but restarted in 1824, in 1825 August Jacob, a politician hostile to Poles, gained power over newly created Provincial Educational Collegium in Poznan. Already in 1816 the Polish gymnasium in Bydgoszcz was turned into a German school, even when Poles managed to issue calls asking for enforcing of the guarantees formulated in treaties of Congress of Vienna and proclamations of Prussian King in 1815 they were rejected by Prussia.
Thus neither the attempt to create Polish University in Poznań or Polish Society of Friends of Agriculture, nevertheless, Poles continued to ask for Polish representation in administration of the area, representing the separate character of the Duchy, keeping the Polish character of schools. From 1825 the increase of anti-Polish policies became more visible and intense, Prussian political circles demanded end to tolerance of Polishness. Among the Poles two groups emerged, one still hoping for respect of separate status of the Duchy and insisting on working with Prussian authorities hoping that in time they would grant some freedoms, the other faction still hoped for independence of Poland. As consequence many Polish activists were imprisoned, a joint operation of Russian and Prussian secret police managed to discover Polish organizations working in Breslau and Berlin, whose members were arrested and detained in Prussian jails. Intensification of anti-Polish policies started from 1830 onwards, as the November Uprising in Russian-held Congress Poland began, Prussians closely worked with Russia in regards to stopping any Polish independence drive.
A state of emergency was introduced in the Duchy, police surveillance started on a scale and 80,000 soldiers were moved into the area. The Prussian Foreign Minister openly declared that Prussia would oppose independence of Poland as it would mean territories taken in the Partitions of Poland could be claimed by it, Russians soldiers fighting Poles received food supplies and intelligence from Prussia
Prince Maximilian of Baden
Maximilian Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm Margrave of Baden, known as Max von Baden, was a German prince and politician. He was heir to the Grand Duchy of Baden and in October and November 1918 briefly served as Chancellor of the German Empire and he was named after his maternal grandfather, Maximilian de Beauharnais, and bore a resemblance to his cousin, Emperor Napoleon III. Max received an education at a Gymnasium secondary school and studied law. In 1900, he married Princess Marie Louise of Hanover at Gmunden, upon the order of Queen Victoria, Prince Max was brought to Darmstadt in the Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine as a suitor for Victorias granddaughter, Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt. Alix was the daughter of Victorias late daughter, Princess Alice and she was in love with Nicholas II, the future Tsar of Russia. After finishing his studies, he trained as an officer of the Prussian Army, following the death of his uncle Grand Duke Frederick I of Baden in 1907, he became heir to the grand-ducal throne of his cousin Frederick II, whose marriage remained childless.
He became president of the Erste Badische Kammer, in 1911, Max applied for a military discharge with the rank of a Generalmajor. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, he served as a staff officer at the XIV Corps of the German Army as the representative of the Grand Duke. Shortly afterwards, however, he retired from his position as he was dissatisfied with his role in the military and was suffering ill health. In 1916, he became president of the German-American support union for prisoners-of-war within the YMCA world alliance. Due to his liberal stance he came into conflict with the policies of the Oberste Heeresleitung supreme command under Paul von Hindenburg and he openly spoke against the resumption of the unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917, which provoked the declaration of war by the United States Congress on 6 April. Hahn maintained close links with Secretary of State Wilhelm Solf and several Reichstag deputies like Eduard David, David pushed for Max to be appointed Chancellor in July 1917, after the fall of Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg.
Max put forward for the position in early September 1918, pointing out his links to the social democrats. Hertling, after consulting Vice-Chancellor Friedrich von Payer, suggested Prince Max of Baden as his successor to the Emperor. However, it took the support of Haußmann, Oberst Hans von Haeften and Ludendorff himself, to have Wilhelm II appoint Max as Chancellor of Germany. Max was to head a new government based on the majority parties of the Reichstag, when Max arrived in Berlin on 1 October he had no idea that he would be asked to approach the Allies about an armistice. Max was horrified and fought against the plan, moreover, he admitted openly that he was no politician and that he did not think additional steps towards parliamentarisation and democratisation feasible as long as the war continued. Consequently, he did not favour a liberal reform of the constitution, Emperor Wilhelm II convinced him to take the post and appointed him on 3 October 1918
Leo von Caprivi
Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprera de Montecuccoli was a German general and statesman who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany. Caprivi served as German Chancellor from March 1890 to October 1894, Caprivi promoted industrial and commercial development, and concluded numerous bilateral treaties for reduction of tariff barriers. However, this movement toward free trade angered the conservative agrarian interests and he promised the Catholic Center party educational reforms that would increase their influence, but failed to deliver. He successfully promoted the reorganization of the German military, Leo von Caprivi was born in Charlottenburg the son of jurist Julius Leopold von Caprivi, who became a judge at the Prussian supreme court and member of the Prussian House of Lords. However, other states that this cannot be confirmed. The Caprivis were ennobled during the 17th century Ottoman–Habsburg wars, they moved to Landau in Silesia. His mother was Emilie Köpke, daughter of Gustav Köpke, headmaster of the Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster and teacher of Caprivis predecessor Otto von Bismarck, after the war he served at the Prussian War Ministry.
In 1882, he became commander of the 30th Infantry Division at Metz, in 1883, he succeeded Albrecht von Stosch, a fierce opponent of Chancellor Bismarck, as Chief of the Imperial Navy. The appointment was made by Bismarck and caused dissatisfaction among the officers of the navy. However, Caprivi showed significant administrative talent in the position, Caprivis dissents with the naval policy of Emperor Wilhelm II led to his resignation in 1888. He was briefly appointed to the command of his old army corps and this led to animosity from the colonialist pressure-groups like the Alldeutscher Verband, while Caprivis free trading policies led to opposition from conservative agrarian protectionists. The rejection by the Conservatives intensified, accompanied with constant public attacks by retired Bismarck, although himself a Protestant, needed the 100 votes of the Catholic Centre Party but that alarmed the Protestant politicians. A number of reforms were carried out during Caprivis time as Chancellor.
Industrial tribunals were established in 1890 to arbitrate in industrial disputes, in addition, duties on imported timber, cattle and wheat were lowered and a finance bill introduced progressive income tax under which the more one earned, the more tax that person paid. Other achievements included the army bills of 1892 and 1893, röhl, John C. G. Germany Without Bismarck, The Crisis of Government in the Second Reich, 1890-1900. The Constitutional and Political Problems of the Second Chancellor, Leo Von Caprivi, Journal of Modern History, 25#3 pp 234–254, in JSTOR Sontag, Raymond James
Friedrich Ebert was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the first President of Germany from 1919 until his death in office in 1925. Ebert was elected leader of the SPD on the death in 1913 of August Bebel, in 1914, shortly after he assumed leadership, the party became deeply divided over Eberts support of war loans to finance the German war effort in World War I. He tried to isolate those in the party opposed to the war, Ebert was a pivotal figure in the German Revolution of 1918–19. When Germany became a republic at the end of World War I and his policies at that time were primarily aimed at restoring peace and order in Germany and containing the more extreme elements of the revolutionary left. With their help, Eberts government crushed a number of leftist uprisings that were ironically pursuing goals similar to those of the SPD and this has made him a controversial historical figure. Ebert was born in Heidelberg on 4 February 1871 as the seventh of nine children of the tailor Karl Ebert, three of his siblings died at a young age.
Although he wanted to attend university, this proved impossible due to the lack of funds of his family, instead, he trained as a saddle-maker from 1885 to 1888. After he became a journeyman in 1889 he travelled, according to the German custom, from place to place in Germany, seeing the country, in Mannheim, he was introduced by an uncle to the Social Democratic Party, joining it in 1889. Ebert was on the black list of the due to his political activities. Between 1889 and 1891 he lived in Kassel, Elberfeld-Barmen, Quakenbrück and Bremen, after settling in Bremen in 1891, Ebert made a living doing odd jobs. In 1893, he obtained an editorial post on the socialist Bremer Bürgerzeitung, in May 1894, he married Louise Rump, a manual labourer, who had been employed as a housemaid and in labelling boxes and who was active in union work. He rented a pub that became a centre of socialist, in 1900, Ebert was appointed a trade-union secretary and elected a member of the Bremer Bürgerschaft as representative of the Social Democratic Party.
In 1904, Ebert presided over the convention of the party in Bremen. He became a leader of the wing of the Social Democratic Party and in 1905 Secretary-General of the SPD. At the time, he was the youngest member of the Parteivorstand, Ebert had run for a Reichstag seat several times in constituencies where the SPD had no chance of winning,1898 Vechta,1903 and 1906 Stade. However, in 1912, he was elected to the Reichstag for the constituency of Elberfeld-Barmen and this was the election that made the SPD the strongest party in the Reichstag with 110 out of a total of 397 members, surpassing the Centre Party. On the death of August Bebel on 13 August 1913, Ebert was elected as joint party chairman at the convention in Jena on 20 September with 433 out of 473 votes, when the July Crisis of 1914 erupted, Ebert was on vacation. Similar policy disputes caused Ebert to end his alliance with several left-wing members of the Reichstag and start to work closely with the Centre Party
Weimar Republic is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place, the official name of the state was still Deutsches Reich, it had remained unchanged since 1871. In English the country was known simply as Germany. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich was written, in its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, and contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. The people of Germany blamed the Weimar Republic rather than their leaders for the countrys defeat. However, the Weimar Republic government successfully reformed the currency, unified tax policies, Weimar Germany eliminated most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, it never completely met its disarmament requirements, and eventually paid only a small portion of the war reparations.
Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the borders of the republic. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen, the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brünings policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government, the Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the éminence grise who would keep Hitler under control, within months the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency, it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitlers seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation and these events brought the republic to an end, as democracy collapsed, a single-party state founded the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, Germany from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model, the Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellors SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany, after the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were officially altered to reflect the political changes. The Weimar Republic retained the Reichsadler, but without the symbols of the former Monarchy and this left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. If the Reichs Eagle is shown without a frame, the charge and colors as those of the eagle of the Reichs coat of arms are to be used. The patterns kept by the Federal Ministry of the Interior are decisive for the heraldic design, the artistic design may be varied for each special purpose. The achievements and signs of movement were mostly done away with after its downfall
Heinrich von Kleist
Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist was a German poet, novelist, short story writer and journalist. The Kleist Prize, a prize for German literature, is named after him. Kleist was born into the von Kleist family in Frankfurt an der Oder in the Margraviate of Brandenburg. After a scanty education, he entered the Prussian Army in 1792, served in the Rhine campaign of 1796 and he studied law and philosophy at the Viadrina University and in 1800 received a subordinate post in the Ministry of Finance at Berlin. In the following year, Kleists roving, restless spirit got the better of him, and procuring a lengthened leave of absence he visited Paris and settled in Switzerland. There he found friends in Heinrich Zschokke and Ludwig Wieland, son of the poet Christoph Martin Wieland, and to them he read his first drama. On a journey to Dresden in 1807, Kleist was arrested by the French as a spy, on regaining his liberty, he proceeded to Dresden, where, in conjunction with Adam Heinrich Müller, he published the journal Phöbus in 1808.
In 1809 Kleist went to Prague, and ultimately settled in Berlin, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Kleists whole life was filled by a restless striving after ideal and illusory happiness, and this is largely reflected in his work. He was by far the most important North German dramatist of the Romantic movement, in the spring of 1799, the 21-year-old Kleist wrote a letter to his half-sister Ulrike in which he found it incomprehensible how a human being can live without a plan for his life. In effect, Kleist sought and discovered an overwhelming sense of security by looking to the future with a plan for his life. It brought him happiness and assured him of confidence, especially knowing that life without a plan only saw despair, the irony of his suicide has been the fodder of his critics. His first tragedy was The Schroffenstein Family, the material for the second, queen of the Amazons, is taken from a Greek source and presents a picture of wild passion. More successful than either of these was his play, Käthchen of Heilbronn, a poetic drama full of medieval bustle and mystery.
In comedy, Kleist made a name with The Broken Jug, while Amphitryon, of Kleists other dramas, Die Hermannsschlacht is a dramatic work of anti-Napoleonic propaganda, written as Austria and France went to war. It has been described by Carl Schmitt as the greatest partisan work of all time, in it he gives vent to his hatred of his countrys oppressors. This, together with the drama The Prince of Homburg, which is among his best works, was first published by Ludwig Tieck in Kleists Hinterlassene Schriften, robert Guiskard, a drama conceived on a grand plan, was left a fragment. The Earthquake in Chile and St. Cecilia, or the Power of Music are examples of Kleists story telling as is The Marquise of O. His short narratives influenced those of Kafka and the novellas of the Austrian writer and he wrote patriotic lyrics in the context of the Napoleonic Wars
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations air forces or marines. The term general is used in two ways, as the title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, the adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of General is known in countries as a four-star rank. However different countries use different systems of stars for senior ranks and it has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies. The various grades of general officer are at the top of the rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in military forces are typically known as field officers or field-grade officers. There are two systems of general ranks used worldwide. In addition there is a system, the Arab system of ranks. Variations of one form, the old European system, were used throughout Europe.
It is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth. The other is derived from the French Revolution, where ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a general or a colonel general rank. The rank of marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank. Many countries actually used two brigade command ranks, which is why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major, confusion arises because a lieutenant is outranked by a major. Originally the serjeant major was, the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general, the distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was eventually dropped from both titles, creating the modern rank titles
Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
Theobald Theodor Friedrich Alfred von Bethmann-Hollweg was a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917. Bethmann-Hollweg was born in Hohenfinow, the son of Prussian official Felix von Bethmann-Hollweg and his grandfather was August von Bethmann-Hollweg, who had been a prominent law scholar, president of Frederick William University in Berlin, and Prussian Minister of Culture. His great-grandfather was Johann Jakob Hollweg, who had married a daughter of the wealthy Frankfurt am Main banking family of Bethmann, cosima Wagner was a relative on the Bethmann side, and his mother Isabella de Rougemont was a French Swiss. He was educated at the school of Schulpforta and at the Universities of Strasbourg, Leipzig. Entering the Prussian administrative service in 1882, Bethmann-Hollweg rose to the position of the President of the Province of Brandenburg in 1899, in 1889 he married Martha von Pfuel, niece of Ernst von Pfuel, Prime Minister of Prussia.
From 1905 to 1907 Bethmann-Hollweg served as Prussian Minister of the Interior, on the resignation of Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow in 1909, Bethmann-Hollweg was appointed to succeed him. This policy failed, largely due to the opposition of German Naval Minister Alfred von Tirpitz, the German Armys plan for invasion of Belgium had been in gestation since 1905, so when he found out Bethmann apologised to the Kaiser. However Wilhelmstrasses reliance on this assumption encouraged Austrian to write a Note to demand Serbian compromises and his main concern was Russian border manoeuvres, conveyed by his ambassadors at a time when Raymond Poincare himself was preparing a secret mission to St Petersburg. He wrote Count Sazonov, Russian mobilisation measures would compel us to mobilise, when Minister of War Falkenhayn wanted to mobilise for war on 29 July, Bethmann was still against it, yet used his veto to prevent the Reichstag debating it. Pourtales telegram of 31 July was what Moltke, designer of the Zustand drohender Kriegsgefahr wanted to hear, when the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum was presented to Serbia, Kaiser William II ended his cruise of the North Sea and hurried back to Berlin.
When Wilhelm arrived at the Potsdam station late in the evening of July 26, he was met by a pale and somewhat fearful Chancellor. Bethmann-Hollwegs apprehension stemmed not from the dangers of the looming war, the Kaisers first words to him were suitably brusque, How did it all happen. Rather than attempt to explain, the Chancellor offered his resignation by way of apology, Wilhelm refused to accept it, muttering furiously, Youve made this stew, now youre going to eat it. He had counted on fighting France alone, and reportedly asked the departing British Ambassador Edward Goschen how Britain could go to war over un chiffon de papier, a tall, sombre, well-trimmed aristocratic figure, Bethmann-Hollweg sought approval from a declaration of war. He supported the goal of ethnically cleansing Poles from the Polish Border Strip, Bethmann presented the Septemberprogramm, which outlined the aggressively expansionist goals for the war. To their consternation the United States entered into the war the next April, yet this was hardly surprising, now all credibility and power lost, had originally conspired with Ludendorff and Hindenburg for an Eastern Offensive over Falkenhayns head.
They had succeeded in securing his replacement by Ludendorff as supreme commander on the western front, during 1918 Germany sank into anarchy. Bethmann-Hollweg had failed to persuade the Reichstag to moderate for peace and his plan to dominate European hegemony through Pan-Germanism in the East and Mitteleuropas economic plan in the west disintegrated at the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk