Autassassinophilia is a paraphilia in which a person is sexually aroused by the risk of being killed. The fetish may overlap with some other fetishes that risk one's life, such as those involving drowning or choking; this does not mean the person must be in a life-threatening situation, for many are aroused from dreams and fantasies of such. The term was introduced by John Money who defined erotophonophilia as the "reciprocal condition" in which one is aroused by "stage-managing and carrying out the murder of an unsuspecting sexual partner". Money classified both these paraphilias as "of the sacrificial/expiatory type"; these concepts their imperfect reciprocity, were criticized by Lisa Downing, who wrote that "The autassassinophiliac, for Money, is more interested in his orgasm than in his death, resulting in a compulsion to stage manage the possibility rather than the actuality of his end at the hands of another person. The erotophonophiliac, on the other hand, is driven by the actualization of the other's death and – crucially – this other must be unaware of the would-be killer's intentions.
These definitions effectively preclude reciprocity and are constructed here in such a way as to prevent the possibility of consent. The sexologist, is incapable of imagining mutuality in this context; the imagined pact is used here as an incentive to the would-be libertarian to support the suppression of paraphilia and the conversion of a death-related desire to a life-giving form." Rudy Flora, "How to work with sex offenders: a handbook for criminal justice, human service, mental health professionals", Routledge, 2001, ISBN 0-7890-1499-8, p. 90Lisa Downing. "On the limits of sexual ethics: The phenomenology of autassassinophilia". Sexuality and Culture. 8: 3–17. Doi:10.1007/s12119-004-1002-5. Retrieved 2009-03-19. Sharon Lopatka homicide
Ray Milton Blanchard is an American-Canadian sexologist, best known for his research studies on transsexualism and sexual orientation. He has published research studies on phallometry and several paraphilias, including autoerotic asphyxia. Blanchard was born in New Jersey, he received his A. B. in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1967 and his Ph. D. from the University of Illinois in 1973. He conducted postdoctoral research at Dalhousie University until 1976, when he accepted a position as a clinical psychologist at the Ontario Correctional Institute in Brampton, Canada. There, Blanchard met Kurt Freund, who became his mentor. Freund was conducting research in chemical castration for sex offenders. In 1980, he joined the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry. In 1995 Blanchard was named Head of Clinical Sexology Services in the Law and Mental Health Programme of the CAMH, where he served until 2010, he is an adjunct Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto. He served on the American Psychiatric Association DSM-IV Subcommittee on Gender Identity Disorders and was named to the DSM-5 committee.
According to the Web of Science, Blanchard's scientific articles have been cited more than 1800 times, with an h-index of 27. Blanchard has conducted research on factors that influence the development of sexual orientation, including biological factors, he has proposed a theory known as older brother effect. This theory is that the more older brothers a man has, the greater the probability is that he will have a homosexual sexual orientation; the number of older sisters has no effect, however. The same is not true for lesbians—neither the number of older brothers nor the number of older sisters appears to be related to the sexual orientation of women; the fraternal birth order effect has been described by one of its proponents as "the most consistent biodemographic correlate of sexual orientation in men", with each older brother increasing a man's odds of being gay by about 33%. Blanchard hypothesizes that the older brother effect is caused by interactions between a male fetus and the immune system of the mother: because certain proteins are produced by male and not by female fetuses, the mother's immune system reacts only to male fetuses and is more to produce a reaction with each successive exposure to a male fetus.
Blanchard coined the term "autogynephilia" to describe trans women with an erotic desire "to be women," and hypothesized that all gender dysphoria experienced by this group is of two types: "homosexual" gender dysphoria and "non-homosexual" gender dysphoria. Blanchard defined the former as being present in transsexuals attracted to men, while he defined the latter as being present in transsexuals attracted to the idea of themselves as women. Within the transgender community the idea has been criticized. Blanchard's findings and research have been rejected by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health, the largest association of medical professionals who provides care for transsexual people, as lacking empirical evidence. Blanchard supports public funding of sex reassignment surgery as an appropriate treatment for transsexual people, as he believes the available evidence supports that the surgery helps them live more comfortably and with high satisfaction rates. Blanchard defined autogynephilic as "a man's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman".
He researched this theory by conducting a test on a sample of 119 MtF transsexuals who submitted an anonymous questionnaire to test if they were autogynephilic or homosexual. Blanchard believed that not all transsexuals fit in the category of "homosexual" and that some were instead autogynephilic transsexuals. Survey participants felt that they were neither homosexual nor autogynephilic transsexuals and should not be classified in either group. A majority felt that the sexual attraction to become a women weakened with age, but others reported that they had noticed a change after physical transition. Blanchard concluded that transsexuals were either sexually aroused by men, androphilic, or aroused by the thought of being a women, nonandrophilic; the number of transgender women has increased over the past several decades. More and more individuals have undergone operations and hormone therapy, they believe that their gender identity, defined as "one's inner sense of being male or female, masculine or feminine", did not match the body they were in.
According to Blanchard, "Autogynephilic transsexuals were men who were sexually attracted to women, but whose paraphilic sexual interest made them want to go farther and permanently change their bodies to become the objects of their attraction". Blanchard coined the term teleiophilia to refer to a sexual preference for adults. Unlike the terms referring to sexual interest in other age groups, such as pedophilia, teleiophilia is not considered a paraphilia; the term was formalized in order to forestall neologisms, such as "adultophilia" or "normophilia," that were used, but had no precise definition. The term is used by professional sexologists in the scientific literature. Blanchard served on the gender dysphoria sub-working group for the DSM-IV and served as Chair of the paraphilia sub-working group for the DSM-5. Activists protested the latter appointment; the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force issued a statement questioning the APA's decision to appoint Blanchard. In 2008, Blanchard was the lead author of an influential paper proposing the introduction of hebephilia in the DSM-5.
The paper, coauthored
Agalmatophilia is a paraphilia involving sexual attraction to a statue, mannequin or other similar figurative object. The attraction may include a desire for actual sexual contact with the object, a fantasy of having sexual encounters with an animate or inanimate instance of the preferred object, the act of watching encounters between such objects, or sexual pleasure gained from thoughts of being transformed or transforming another into the preferred object. Agalmatophilia may encompass Pygmalionism, which denotes love for an object of one's own creation. Agalmatophilia became a subject of clinical study with the publication of Richard von Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis. Krafft-Ebing recorded in 1877 the case of a gardener falling in love with a statue of the Venus de Milo and being discovered attempting coitus with it. An important fantasy for some individuals is being transformed into the preferred object and experiencing an associated state of immobility or paralysis; such fantasies may be extended to role-playing, the self-coined term used by fetishists who enjoy being transformed into what appears to be a "rubber doll" or "latex doll" or trapped within a statue and displayed in a museum.
Sexualised life-size dolls have extensively featured in the work of famous art photographers such as Hans Bellmer, Bernard Faucon, Helmut Newton, Morton Bartlett, Katan Amano, Kishin Shinoyama and Ryoichi Yoshida and Five Hargreeves Agalmatophilia features prominently in Luis Buñuel's L'Âge d'Or, in which the female protagonist sucks a statue's toe. The romantic comedy film Mannequin is about a window dresser who has a relationship with an animated mannequin, which he had found at a department store; the character Number Five in the superhero web television series The Umbrella Academy falls in love with a mannequin named Dolores. "Just Like a Woman" - Salon.com article describing cultural phenomenon of RealDolls "Real Dolls: Love in the Age of Silicone" - original, more detailed version of the Salon article The Technosexuality, Pygmalionist & Mind Control Fetish FAQ 3.0 Lars and the Real Girl at IMDB. A delusional young guy strikes up an unconventional relationship with a doll he finds on the Internet
The Beauty Myth
The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty Are Used Against Women is a nonfiction book by Naomi Wolf, published in 1990 by Chatto & Windus. It was republished in 2002 by HarperPerennial with a new introduction; the basic premise of The Beauty Myth is that as the social power and prominence of women have increased, the pressure they feel to adhere to unrealistic social standards of physical beauty has grown stronger because of commercial influences on the mass media. This pressure leads to unhealthy behaviors by women and a preoccupation with appearance in both sexes, it compromises the ability of women to be effective in and accepted by society. In her introduction, Wolf offers the following analysis: Wolf posits the idea of an iron maiden, an intrinsically unattainable standard, used to punish women physically and psychologically for their failure to achieve and conform to it. Wolf criticizes the fashion and beauty industries as exploitative of women, but claims the beauty myth extends into all areas of human functioning.
Wolf writes that women should have "the choice to do whatever we want with our faces and bodies without being punished by an ideology, using attitudes, economic pressure, legal judgments regarding women's appearance to undermine us psychologically and politically". Wolf argued that women were under assault by the "beauty myth" in five areas: work, sex and hunger. Wolf argues for a relaxation of normative standards of beauty. Wolf's book was a quick bestseller, garnering intensely polarized responses from the public and mainstream media, but winning praise from many feminists. Second-wave feminist Germaine Greer wrote that The Beauty Myth was "the most important feminist publication since The Female Eunuch", Gloria Steinem wrote, "The Beauty Myth is a smart, insightful book, a clarion call to freedom; every woman should read it." British novelist Fay Weldon called the book "essential reading for the New Woman", Betty Friedan wrote in Allure magazine that "The Beauty Myth and the controversy it is eliciting could be a hopeful sign of a new surge of feminist consciousness."
With the publication of The Beauty Myth, Wolf became a leading spokesperson of what was described as the third wave of the feminist movement. In Who Stole Feminism? Christina Hoff Sommers criticized Wolf for publishing the claim that 150,000 women were dying every year from anorexia in the United States, writing that the actual figure was more to be somewhere between 100 and 400 per year. A 2004 paper compared Wolf's eating disorder statistics to statistics from peer-reviewed epidemiological studies and concluded that'on average, an anorexia statistic in any edition of The Beauty Myth should be divided by eight to get near the real statistic.' Schoemaker calculated that there are about 525 annual deaths from anorexia, 286 times less than Wolf's statistic. Humanities scholar Camille Paglia criticized the book, arguing that Wolf's historical research and analysis was flawed. Within women's studies, scholars posit that the Beauty Myth is a powerful force that keeps women focused on and distracted by body image and that provides both men and women with a way to judge and limit women due to their physical appearance.
Magazines, television ads and social media sites are, in this hypothesis, among the many platforms today that perpetuate beauty standards for both men and women. The daily presence and circulation of these platforms, it is argued, makes escaping these ideals impossible. Women and men alike are faced with ideal bodies, bodies that are marketed as attainable through diets and gym memberships. However, for most people these beauty standards are neither healthy nor achievable through diet or exercise. Women place a greater importance on weight loss than on maintaining a healthy average weight, they make great financial and physical sacrifices to reach these goals, yet failing to embody these ideals makes women targets of criticism and societal scrutiny. Perfectionistic, unattainable goals are cited as an explanation for the increasing rates of plastic surgery and anorexia nervosa. Anorexia is one of the most prevalent eating disorders in Western countries "affecting an estimated 2.5 million people in the United States alone."
Of this number, more than 90 percent of anorexics are young women. They suffer from a "serious mental health disease that involves compulsive dieting and drastic weight loss"; this weight loss is the result of deliberate self-starvation to achieve a thinner appearance, it is associated with the disorder bulimia. Anorexia's deep psychological roots make it difficult to treat and extend the recovery process into a life-long journey; some feminists believe. According to Naomi Wolf, as women focus their attention on their physical appearance, their focus on equal rights and treatment takes a lower priority; the same is argued in Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex, in which she recounts the effects of societies that condition adolescent girls and young women to behave in feminine ways. According to Beauvoir, these changes encompass a "huge array of social expectations including physical appearance, but unlike the social expectations on boys, the social expectations on girls and women inhibit them from acting freely".
In her argument, Beauvoir cites things such as clothing, make-up, diction and manners as subjects of scrutiny that women face but men do not. Studies reveal that women today strive to achieve aesthetic ideals because they recognize the correlation between beauty and social standing. According to Dr. Vivian Diller's book Face It: What Women Really Feel as their Looks Change and What to Do About
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew
Naomi R. Wolf is an American liberal progressive feminist author and former political advisor to Al Gore and Bill Clinton. Wolf first came to prominence in 1991 as the author of The Beauty Myth. With the book, she became a leading spokeswoman of what was described as the third wave of the feminist movement; such leading feminists as Gloria Steinem and Betty Friedan praised the book. She has since written other books, including the bestseller The End of America in 2007 and her latest Vagina: A New Biography, her journalism career began in 1995 and has included topics such as abortion, the Occupy Wall Street movement, Edward Snowden and ISIS. She has written for media outlets such as The Nation, The New Republic, The Guardian and The Huffington Post. Wolf's more recent work has been criticized from across the political spectrum in publications such as Alternet, Mother Jones, The Atlantic, National Review and The American Spectator as both conspiratorial and exaggerated. Wolf was born to a Jewish family.
Her mother is an anthropologist and the author of The Lesbian Community. Her father is Yiddish translator Leonard Wolf, she attended Lowell High School and debated in regional speech tournaments as a member of the Lowell Forensic Society. Wolf attended Yale University, where in 1984, she received her Bachelor of Arts in English literature. From 1985 to 1987, she was a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford. In 2004, Wolf reported an alleged incident of "sexual encroachment" by professor Harold Bloom she said she had experienced when she was a Yale undergraduate working on poetry with Bloom two decades earlier. Due to Wolf's feeling that the university had not taken her complaint she made her complaint public. Wolf was married to journalist David Shipley, they have two children and Joseph. Wolf and Shipley divorced in 2005. In 1991 Wolf gained international fame as a spokeswoman of third-wave feminism as a result of the success of her first book The Beauty Myth, which became an international bestseller and was named "one of the seventy most influential books of the twentieth century" by The New York Times.
In the book, she argues that "beauty" as a normative value is socially constructed, that the patriarchy determines the content of that construction with the goal of reproducing its own hegemony. Wolf posits the idea of an "iron-maiden," an intrinsically unattainable standard, used to punish women physically and psychologically for their failure to achieve and conform to it. Wolf criticized the fashion and beauty industries as exploitative of women, but added that the beauty myth extended into all areas of human functioning. Wolf writes that women should have "the choice to do whatever we want with our faces and bodies without being punished by an ideology, using attitudes, economic pressure, legal judgments regarding women's appearance to undermine us psychologically and politically". Wolf argues that women were under assault by the "beauty myth" in five areas: work, sex and hunger. Wolf argues for a relaxation of normative standards of beauty. In her introduction, Wolf positioned her argument against the concerns of second-wave feminists and offered the following analysis: The more legal and material hindrances women have broken through, the more and and cruelly images of female beauty have come to weigh upon us... uring the past decade, women breached the power structure.
More women have more money and power and scope and legal recognition than we have had before. Wolf's book was a bestseller, receiving polarized responses from the public and mainstream media, but winning praise from most feminists. Second-wave feminist Germaine Greer wrote that The Beauty Myth was "the most important feminist publication since The Female Eunuch, Gloria Steinem wrote, "The Beauty Myth is a smart, insightful book, a clarion call to freedom; every woman should read it." British novelist Fay Weldon called the book "essential reading for the New Woman". Betty Friedan wrote in Allure magazine that "'The Beauty Myth' and the controversy it is eliciting could be a hopeful sign of a new surge of feminist consciousness." However, Camille Paglia, whose Sexual Personae was published the same year as The Beauty Myth, derided Wolf as unable to perform "historical analysis," and called her education "completely removed from reality." Her comments touched off a series of contentious debates between Wolf and Paglia in the pages of The New Republic.
Christina Hoff Sommers criticized Wolf for publishing the estimate that 150,000 women were dying every year from anorexia. Sommers states that she tracked down the source to the American Anorexia and Bulimia Association who stated that they were misquoted. Wolf's citation for the incorrect figure came from a book by Brumberg, who referred to an American Anorexia and Bulimia Association newsletter and misquoted the newsletter. Wolf changed it in future editions. Sommers gave an estimate for the number of fatalities in 1990 as 100-400; the New York Times published a harshly critical assessment of Wol
Androphilia and gynephilia
Androphilia and gynephilia are terms used in behavioral science to describe sexual orientation, as an alternative to a gender binary homosexual and heterosexual conceptualization. Androphilia describes sexual attraction to men or masculinity. Ambiphilia describes the combination of both androphilia and gynephilia in a given individual, or bisexuality; the terms are objectively used for identifying a person's object of attraction without attributing a sex assignment or gender identity to the person. This can avoid bias inherent in normative conceptualizations of human sexuality, avoid confusion and offense when describing people in non-western cultures, as well as when describing intersex and transgender people those who are nonbinary or otherwise falling outside the gender binary. In a discussion of homosexuality, sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld divided men into four groups: paedophiles, who are most attracted to prepubescent youth, who are most attracted to youths from puberty up to the early twenties.
According to Karen Franklin, Hirschfeld considered ephebophilia "common and nonpathological, with ephebophiles and androphiles each making up about 45% of the homosexual population."In his book Androphilia, A Manifesto: Rejecting the Gay Identity, Reclaiming Masculinity, Jack Donovan uses the term to emphasize masculinity in both the object and the subject of male homosexual desire and to reject the sexual nonconformity that he sees in some segments of the homosexual identity. The term androsexuality is used as a synonym for androphilia. Alternate uses in biology and medicineIn biology, androphilic is sometimes used as a synonym for anthropophilic, describing parasites who have a host preference for humans versus non-human animals. Androphilic is sometimes used to describe certain proteins and androgen receptors; the word appeared in ancient Greek. In Idyll 8, line 60, Theocritus uses γυναικοφίλιας as a euphemistic adjective to describe Zeus' lust for women. Sigmund Freud used the term gynecophilic to describe his case study Dora.
He used the term in correspondence. The variant spelling gynophilia is sometimes used; the term gynesexuality has been used as a synonym. Psychologist Nancy Chodorow proposed that the preoedipal moment of psychological and libidinal focus on the mother, which both boys and girls experience, should be called gynesexuality or matrisexuality for its exclusive focus on the mother. Following Hirschfeld and gynephilia are sometimes used in taxonomies which specify sexual interests based on age ranges, which John Money called chronophilia. In such schemes, sexual attraction to adults is called adultophilia. In this context and gynephilia are gendered variants meaning "attraction to adult males" and "attraction to adult females," respectively. Psychologist Dennis Howitt writes: Definition is an issue of theory, not classification, since classification implies a theory, no matter how rudimentary. Freund et al. used Latinesque words to classify sexual attraction along the dimensions of sex and age:Gynephilia.
Sexual interest in physically adult women Androphilia. Sexual interest in physically adult males The 9-item Gynephilia Scale was created to measure erotic interest in physically mature females, the 13-item Androphilia Scale was created to measure erotic interest in physically mature males; the scales were developed by Kurt Freund and Betty Steiner in 1982. They were modified by Ray Blanchard in 1985, as the Modified Androphilia-Gynephilia Index. Magnus Hirschfeld distinguished between gynephilic, androphilic and narcissistic or automonosexual gender-variant persons. Since some psychologists have proposed using homosexual transsexual and heterosexual transsexual or non-homosexual transsexual. Psychobiologist James D. Weinrich has described this split among psychologists: "The mf transsexuals who are attracted to men are in the lower left-hand corner of the XY table, in order to line them up with the ordinary homosexual men in the lower right. There are the mf transsexuals who are attracted to women."The use of homosexual transsexual and related terms have been applied to transgender people since the middle of the 20th century, though concerns about the terms have been voiced since then.
Harry Benjamin said in 1966:....it seems evident that the question "Is the transsexual homosexual?" must be answered "yes" and " no." "Yes," if his anatomy is considered. What would be the situation after corrective surgery has been performed and the sex anatomy now resembles that of a woman? Is the "new woman" still a homosexual man? "Yes," if pedantry and technicalities prevail. "No" if reason and common sense are applied and if the respective patient is treated as an individual and not as a rubber stamp. Many sources, including some supporters of the typology, criticize this choice of wording as confusing and degrading. Biologist Bruce Bagemihl writes "..the point of reference for "heterosexual" or "homosexual" orientation in this nomenclature is the individual's genetic sex prior to reassignment. These labels thereby ignore the individual's personal sense of gender identity taking precedence over biological sex, rather than the other way around." Bagemihl goes on to take issue with the way this terminology ma