Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
The human voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal tract, such as talking, laughing, screaming, etc. The human voice frequency is a part of human sound production in which the vocal folds are the primary sound source. Speaking, the mechanism for generating the human voice can be subdivided into three parts; the lung, the "pump" must produce adequate air pressure to vibrate vocal folds. The vocal folds vibrate to use airflow from the lungs to create audible pulses that form the laryngeal sound source; the muscles of the larynx adjust the length and tension of the vocal folds to ‘fine-tune’ pitch and tone. The articulators articulate and filter the sound emanating from the larynx and to some degree can interact with the laryngeal airflow to strengthen it or weaken it as a sound source; the vocal folds, in combination with the articulators, are capable of producing intricate arrays of sound. The tone of voice may be modulated to suggest emotions such as anger, fear, happiness or sadness.
The human voice is used to express emotion, can reveal the age and sex of the speaker. Singers use the human voice as an instrument for creating music. Adult men and women have different sizes of vocal fold. Adult male voices are lower-pitched and have larger folds; the male vocal folds, are between 17 25 mm in length. The female vocal folds are between 17.5 mm in length. The folds are within the larynx, they are attached at the back to the arytenoids cartilages, at the front to the thyroid cartilage. They have no outer edge as they blend into the side of the breathing tube while their inner edges or "margins" are free to vibrate, they have a three layer construction of an epithelium, vocal ligament muscle, which can shorten and bulge the folds. They are pearly white in color. Above both sides of the vocal cord is the vestibular fold or false vocal cord, which has a small sac between its two folds; the difference in vocal folds size between men and women means that they have differently pitched voices.
Additionally, genetics causes variances amongst the same sex, with men's and women's singing voices being categorized into types. For example, among men, there are bass, baritone and countertenor, among women, mezzo-soprano and soprano. There are additional categories for operatic voices; this is not the only source of difference between male and female voice. Men speaking, have a larger vocal tract, which gives the resultant voice a lower-sounding timbre; this is independent of the vocal folds themselves. Human spoken language makes use of the ability of all people in a given society to dynamically modulate certain parameters of the laryngeal voice source in a consistent manner; the most important communicative, or phonetic, parameters are the voice pitch and the degree of separation of the vocal folds, referred to as vocal fold adduction or abduction. The ability to vary the ab/adduction of the vocal folds has a strong genetic component, since vocal fold adduction has a life-preserving function in keeping food from passing into the lungs, in addition to the covering action of the epiglottis.
The muscles that control this action are among the fastest in the body. Children can learn to use this action during speech at an early age, as they learn to speak the difference between utterances such as "apa" as "aba". Enough, they can learn to do this well before the age of two by listening only to the voices of adults around them who have voices much different from their own, though the laryngeal movements causing these phonetic differentiations are deep in the throat and not visible to them. If an abductory movement or adductory movement is strong enough, the vibrations of the vocal folds will stop. If the gesture is abductory and is part of a speech sound, the sound will be called voiceless. However, voiceless speech sounds are sometimes better identified as containing an abductory gesture if the gesture was not strong enough to stop the vocal folds from vibrating; this anomalous feature of voiceless speech sounds is better understood if it is realized that it is the change in the spectral qualities of the voice as abduction proceeds, the primary acoustic attribute that the listener attends to when identifying a voiceless speech sound, not the presence or absence of voice.
An adductory gesture is identified by the change in voice spectral energy it produces. Thus, a speech sound having an adductory gesture may be referred to as a "glottal stop" if the vocal fold vibrations do not stop. Other aspects of the voice, such as variations in the regularity of vibration, are used for communication, are important for the trained voice user to master, but are more used
Cicero Park is the debut album by British soul band Hot Chocolate. It was released in June 1974 on the RAK Records label, owned by Mickie Most, the band's producer; the album peaked at number fifty-five on the US Billboard 200 album chart. The original 1974 LP release comprised ten original songs by the band's writing team, lead vocalist Errol Brown and bassist Tony Wilson; the album included the group's first major international hit, "Emma" and "Disco Queen". The album did not contain the song Brother Louie, a US hit for the American band The Stories; the Hot Chocolate version of Brother Louie was issued on CD as part of the 2009 Cicero Park Bonus disc. The album was issued on CD for the first time in an expanded 25-track 2-disc set in 2009 Cicero Park has received varying reviews from contemporary critics. In his obituary of Errol Brown in The Independent, Spencer Leigh praised the LP for its lyrical content: "Although Hot Chocolate are known as a singles band, they should be commended for their 1974 album Cicero Park, which touched on issues of race and class.
Many credit The Real Thing as being the first British band to do this, but Hot Chocolate's album pre-dates 4 from 8 by three years."Alex Henderson writing for Allmusic gave the album a mixed review. Citing that Hot Chocolate's albums including Cicero Park tended to be mildly uneven, but more than not, the material is quite promising. Henderson praises the title track, the Curtis Mayfield-influenced "Could Have Been Born in the Ghetto", the funky "Disco Queen" but singles out "Emma" a real treasure, although a depressing one. All tracks written by Tony Wilson. Side one"Cicero Park" – 4:41 "Could Have Been Born in the Ghetto" – 5:50 "A Love Like Yours" – 3:29 "You're a Natural High" – 3:08 "Emma" – 3:52Side two"Changing World" – 4:31 "Disco Queen" – 3:35 "Makin' Music" – 3:45 "Funky Rock'n' Roll" – 4:48 "Bump And Dilly Down" – 2:59 "Love Is Life" – 3:39 "Pretty Girls" – 2:26 "You Could've Been a Lady" – 3:41 "Everybody's Laughing" – 3:10 "I Believe in Love" – 3:53 "Caveman Billy" – 4:02 "Mary Anne" – 3:54 "Ruth" – 4:02 "You'll Always Be a Friend" – 3:29 "Go Go Girl" – 3:49 "Brother Louie" – 4:59 "I Want to Be Free" – 2:51 "Rumours" – 4:32 "A Man Needs a Woman" – 3:56 "Makin' Music" – 3:51 Hot ChocolateErrol Brown – lead vocals Harvey Hinsley – guitar, backing vocals Larry Ferguson – keyboards Tony Wilson – bass, backing vocals Tony Connor – drums Patrick Olive – percussion, backing vocalsProductionMickie Most – Producer Errol Brown and Tony Wilson – Producer Chris Foster – Photography
The Bahamas, known as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is a country within the Lucayan Archipelago. The archipelagic state consists of more than 700 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, is located north of Cuba and Hispaniola, northwest of the Turks and Caicos Islands, southeast of the U. S. state of Florida, east of the Florida Keys. The capital is Nassau on the island of New Providence; the designation of "the Bahamas" can refer either to the country or to the larger island chain that it shares with the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Royal Bahamas Defence Force describes the Bahamas territory as encompassing 470,000 km2 of ocean space; the Bahamas is the site of Columbus's first landfall in the New World in 1492. At that time, the islands were inhabited by the Lucayans, a branch of the Arawakan-speaking Taíno people. Although the Spanish never colonised the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola; the islands were deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera.
The Bahamas became a British crown colony in 1718. After the American Revolutionary War, the Crown resettled thousands of American Loyalists in the Bahamas. Africans constituted the majority of the population from this period; the slave trade was abolished by the British in 1807. Subsequently, the Bahamas became a haven for freed African slaves. Today, Afro-Bahamians make up nearly 90% of the population; the Bahamas became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1973 with Elizabeth II as its queen. In terms of gross domestic product per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas, with an economy based on tourism and finance; the name Bahamas is most derived from either the Taíno ba ha ma, a term for the region used by the indigenous Native Americans, or from the Spanish baja mar reflecting the shallow waters of the area. Alternatively, it may originate from a local name of unclear meaning; the word The constitutes an integral part of the short form of the name and is, capitalised.
So in contrast to "the Congo" and "the United Kingdom", it is proper to write "The Bahamas." The name The Bahamas is thus comparable with certain non-English names that use the definite article, such as Las Vegas or Los Angeles. The Constitution of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, the country's fundamental law, capitalizes the "T" in "The Bahamas." Taino people moved into the uninhabited southern Bahamas from Hispaniola and Cuba around the 11th century, having migrated there from South America. They came to be known as the Lucayan people. An estimated 30,000 Lucayans inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival in 1492. Columbus's first landfall in the New World was on an island; some researchers believe this site to be present-day San Salvador Island, situated in the southeastern Bahamas. An alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the southeast on Samana Cay, according to calculations made in 1986 by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge, based on Columbus's log.
Evidence in support of this remains inconclusive. On the landfall island, Columbus exchanged goods with them; the Spanish forced much of the Lucayan population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour. The slaves suffered from harsh conditions and most died from contracting diseases to which they had no immunity; the population of the Bahamas was diminished. In 1648, the Eleutherian Adventurers, led by William Sayle, migrated from Bermuda; these English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named Eleuthera—the name derives from the Greek word for freedom. They settled New Providence, naming it Sayle's Island after one of their leaders. To survive, the settlers salvaged goods from wrecks. In 1670, King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas in North America, they rented the islands from the king with rights of trading, appointing governors, administering the country. In 1684 Spanish corsair Juan de Alcon raided Charles Town.
In 1703, a joint Franco-Spanish expedition occupied the Bahamian capital during the War of the Spanish Succession. During proprietary rule, the Bahamas became a haven for pirates, including Blackbeard. To put an end to the'Pirates' republic' and restore orderly government, Great Britain made the Bahamas a crown colony in 1718 under the royal governorship of Woodes Rogers. After a difficult struggle, he succeeded in suppressing piracy. In 1720, Rogers led local militia to drive off a Spanish attack. During the US War of Independence in the late 18th century, the islands became a target for US naval forces under the command of Commodore Esek Hopkins. US Marines occupied the capital of Nassau for 2 weeks. In 1782, following the British defeat at Yorktown, a Spanish fleet appeared off the coast of Nassau; the city surrendered without a fight. Spain returned possession of the Bahamas to Great Britain the following year, u
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges
British Hit Singles & Albums
British Hit Singles & Albums was a music reference book published in the United Kingdom by the publishing arm of the Guinness breweries, Guinness Superlatives. Editions were published by Guinness World Records and HiT Entertainment, it listed all the singles and albums featured in the Top 75 pop charts in the UK. In 2004 the book became an amalgamation of two earlier Guinness publications known as British Hit Singles and British Hit Albums; the publication of this amalgamation ceased in 2006. A new version of the book published by Virgin and entitled The Virgin Book of British Hit Singles, first published in November 2008; the first ten editions were compiled by Paul Gambaccini, Mike Read and brothers Tim Rice and Jonathan Rice. Read left the team in the mid-1980s and the other editors resigned in 1996. Chart editor for many editions was David Roberts. British Hit Singles & Albums was considered to be the authoritative reference source for both the UK Singles Chart and the UK Albums Chart, it listed all the singles and albums to have been in the UK charts since 1952, listing them in alphabetical order and by both artist and song title.
The entries included the date of chart entry, highest position, catalogue number and number of weeks in the chart. Short biographical notes accompanied many of the artists' chart details; the book's sources are the New Musical Express chart from November 1952 to March 1960, the Record Retailer chart thereafter. It could be said that this division is misleading, since the Record Retailer chart was little known until it was adopted by the BBC in 1969 and that by adopting this chart as its standard, the editors had a non-consensual view. An example given is the case of The Beatles' second single "Please Please Me", recognised as a number one hit by every other publicly available chart of the time, but not by Record Retailer and therefore not by British Hit Singles. Other records to which this applies include "19th Nervous Breakdown" by The Rolling Stones, "Stranger on the Shore" by Acker Bilk and the Eurovision Song Contest entry "Are You Sure?" by The Allisons. Co-founder Jo Rice has defended the book's choice of source material on the grounds that Record Retailer was the only chart to publish a Top 50 from 1960 onwards.
This can be substantiated by the fact that charts published in the NME were of a shorter format and other chart listings such as those in Melody Maker, became less and less informative although they were more accurate. Subsequent research has shown that during the "disputed" period of the 1960s, the samples sizes of the Record Retailer chart were inferior to those of the other charts: around 30 shops in 1963 in comparison to more than 100 used by Melody Maker, around 80 in comparison to NME's 150 and Melody Maker's 200; as a result, the placings in that chart were more open to error and manipulation – a situation further worsened by the larger number of records listed in the chart. The first edition was published as The Guinness Book of British Hit Singles in November 1977, it wasn't the first Guinness music reference publication, as the previous year a book called The Guinness Book of Music Facts & Feats had been published. It contained feats from the world of classical music; the first edition was issued to coincide with the 25th anniversary of the first UK singles sales chart, published in November 1952, by the New Musical Express.
Subsequently, a new edition was published every two years, adding a few hundred titles to each edition. Keeping in line with the book's parent publication The Guinness Book of Records, each edition of British Hit Singles contained a'facts and feats' section, which included various lists of remarkable chart feats such as'Most hits','Most no. 1 hits','Most weeks on chart' or'Least successful chart artist'. Included in the books were photographs and introductions written by the four authors, they wrote a bi-annual lookback on the major developments in the UK charts in the two preceding years. The series was soon regarded as the number one source for music and chart reference, thanks to the commercial success of the books and its various sister publications; the series' 10th edition, published in June 1995, was the last to feature its original authors Rice and Gambaccini. From the 11th edition onwards, the book was compiled by in-house editors at Guinness Publishing and by David Roberts, a chart editor and designer for the original team.
From the 12th edition onwards, the book was published every year rather than bi-annually. In 2004, the book merged with The Guinness Book of British Hit Albums to form The Guinness Book of British Hit Singles & Albums; the eighteenth edition of the book was billed as a "Special Collector's Edition" as it featured detailed information on the 1,000 Number Ones in the UK Singles Chart from Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" on 14 November 1952 to Elvis Presley's "One Night / I Got Stung", 22 January 2005. The 19th edition was the last in the series. A supposed 20th edition was due to be published in 2007, but the original publishers lost interest in chart reference books after their contract with The Official Charts Company expired, which saw that organisation sell the contract to Virgin. Following the success of the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles series, the original authors and Guinness turned to other charts-related books and projects; the following books were written by them: The Guinn
Rak Records is a British record label, founded by record producer Mickie Most in 1969. Rak was home to artists such as Herman's Hermits, Suzi Quatro, Kenny, Hot Chocolate, Arrows, Span and Kim Wilde. Rak Records were distributed via a licensing deal with EMI Records, which bought the company and its master recordings from Most in 1983. Most kept the company name and his RAK Studios, which still exists in St. John's Wood along with Rak Publishing; the latter company represents artists such as Joan Jett, Ben Taylor and KK. In 1986, Most defected the label from EMI to PRT Records which handled the last releases until February 1988. Owing to the records not being hits, the label folded. However, 26 years in late 2014, Rak Records was revived as a label for new artists releasing both downloads and 7-inch vinyl in the form of a singles club; the Cadbury Sisters and Beautiful Boy were the new signings. They recorded their own original songs as the A-sides, covered a classic Rak artists cover as the B-side.
The Cadbury Sisters covered Steve Harley's 1975 classic "Make Me Smile", Trojan Horse did Cozy Powell's "Dance With The Devil", Beautiful Boy did "Kids In America". As PRT Records is no longer in existence, the label is now distributed by Gearbox Records using the original sailing yacht paper label and the records packaged in the original royal blue paper sleeves; when Warner Music Group acquired Parlophone from EMI in 2013, this included the rights to Hot Chocolate and other artists. Exempted are Suzi Quatro's albums on Rak which are owned by independent label Chrysalis Records after Blue Raincoat Music acquired that label in May 2016 from Warner, with Kobalt Label Services handling distribution; as the name appears on the label written in capitals and is spelt without a C, many believe it's an acronym, but'Rak' is short for rackjobbing, or the sale of records in unusual places, such as petrol stations and supermarkets. Mickie Most chose to deliberately misspell the label's name as'Rak' rather than'Rack'.
Rak Publishing is located in London, in the original RAK Studios complex in St John's Wood. They manage the publishing rights for songs like "You Sexy Thing" by Hot Chocolate, "I Love Rock'n' Roll" by Arrows, covered by Joan Jett and Britney Spears, "Kids In America" recorded by Kim Wilde. Rak Publishing and Tummy Touch Records are releasing new and archive material from the Rak catalog. List of records by RAK Records Category:Rak Records artists Category:Rak Records albums Category:Albums recorded at RAK Studios RAK Records (The Rak Singles Club website Rak Publishing official website RAK Records Facebook Group Official Yahoo! Group for Rak Records Photos of historical Rak record labels and sleeves Rak Studios official website Rak discography at Discogs