In law, common law is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals. The defining characteristic of "common law" is. In cases where the parties disagree on what the law is, a common law court looks to past precedential decisions of relevant courts, synthesizes the principles of those past cases as applicable to the current facts. If a similar dispute has been resolved in the past, the court is bound to follow the reasoning used in the prior decision. If, the court finds that the current dispute is fundamentally distinct from all previous cases, legislative statutes are either silent or ambiguous on the question, judges have the authority and duty to resolve the issue; the court states an opinion that gives reasons for the decision, those reasons agglomerate with past decisions as precedent to bind future judges and litigants. Common law, as the body of law made by judges, stands in contrast to and on equal footing with statutes which are adopted through the legislative process, regulations which are promulgated by the executive branch.
Stare decisis, the principle that cases should be decided according to consistent principled rules so that similar facts will yield similar results, lies at the heart of all common law systems. The common law—so named because it was "common" to all the king's courts across England—originated in the practices of the courts of the English kings in the centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066; the British Empire spread the English legal system to its historical colonies, many of which retain the common law system today. These "common law systems" are legal systems that give great precedential weight to common law, to the style of reasoning inherited from the English legal system. Today, one-third of the world's population lives in common law jurisdictions or in systems mixed with civil law, including Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Cameroon, Cyprus, Fiji, Grenada, Hong Kong, Ireland, Jamaica, Liberia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Namibia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Tobago, the United Kingdom, the United States, Zimbabwe.
Some of these countries have variants on common law systems. The term common law has many connotations; the first three set out here are the most-common usages within the legal community. Other connotations from past centuries are sometimes seen and are sometimes heard in everyday speech; the first definition of "common law" given in Black's Law Dictionary, 10th edition, 2014, is "The body of law derived from judicial decisions, rather than from statutes or constitutions. This usage is given as the first definition in modern legal dictionaries, is characterized as the “most common” usage among legal professionals, is the usage seen in decisions of courts. In this connotation, "common law" distinguishes the authority. For example, the law in most Anglo-American jurisdictions includes "statutory law" enacted by a legislature, "regulatory law" or “delegated legislation” promulgated by executive branch agencies pursuant to delegation of rule-making authority from the legislature, common law or "case law", i.e. decisions issued by courts.
This first connotation can be further differentiated into pure common law arising from the traditional and inherent authority of courts to define what the law is in the absence of an underlying statute or regulation. Examples include most criminal law and procedural law before the 20th century, today, most contract law and the law of torts. Interstitial common law court decisions that analyze and determine the fine boundaries and distinctions in law promulgated by other bodies; this body of common law, sometimes called "interstitial common law", includes judicial interpretation of the Constitution, of legislative statutes, of agency regulations, the application of law to specific facts. Publication of decisions, indexing, is essential to the development of common law, thus governments and private publishers publish law reports. While all decisions in common law jurisdictions are precedent, some become "leading cases" or "landmark decisions" that are cited often. Black's Law Dictionary 10th Ed. definition 2, differentiates "common law" jurisdictions and legal systems from "civil law" or "code" jurisdictions.
Common law systems place great weight on court decisions, which are considered "law" with the same force of law as statutes—for nearly a millennium, common law courts have had the authority to make law where no legislative statute exists, statutes mean what courts interpret them to mean. By contrast, in civil law jurisdictions, courts lack authority to act. Civil law judges tend to give less weight to judicial precedent, which means that a
Advocaat or advocatenborrel is a traditional Dutch alcoholic beverage made from eggs and brandy. The rich and creamy drink has a custard-like consistency; the typical alcohol content is somewhere between 14% and 20% ABV. Its contents may be a blend of egg yolks, aromatic spirits, sugar or honey, brandy and sometimes cream. Notable makers of advocaat include Bols, Darna Ovo Liker, DeKuyper, Verpoorten. Advocaat is the Dutch word for "lawyer"; as the name of the drink, it is short for advocatenborrel, or "lawyer's drink", where borrel is Dutch for a small alcoholic beverage consumed during a social gathering. According to the 1882 edition of the Woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal, it is "zoo genoemd als een goed smeersel voor de keel, en dus bijzonder dienstig geacht voor een advocaat, die in't openbaar het woord moet voeren" Jars and wide mouth bottles of thick advocaat are sold in the Netherlands and Belgium, though may be available in Germany and Austria. Further exports are of a more liquid version.
In particular the original thick variety, i.e. without albumen, is used as a waffle, pancake or poffertjes topping, as an ingredient for ice cream, custards and similar desserts, or as an apéritif or digestif. The latter topped with whipped cream and occasionally sprinkled with a touch of cocoa powder, is served in a tiny bowl or small glass from which it is eaten by use of a teaspoon; as such in Belgian restaurants and taverns, it may be a complementary accompaniment to a coffee. In the export variety both parts of the eggs are used; the best known cocktail using advocaat is the Snowball: a mixture of advocaat, sparkling lemonade and sometimes lime juice, consumed near Christmas. Another is the Fluffy duck, made with rum. Another advocaat-based beverage is the Bombardino, a drink found in Italian ski resorts the Italian Alps, made by mixing advocaat and whipped cream; the Polish equivalent called ajerkoniak is based on vodka instead of brandy, despite what the name may suggest. Rompope of Mexico, Sabajón of Colombia are similar liquors based on egg yolk and vanilla.
Some varieties have additional flavourings. Mr. Grady spills glasses of Advocaat on Jack Torrance in The Shining. On the British TV show Call the Midwife, characters drink mix Snowball cocktails. On the Scottish TV show "Still Game", Isa drinks Advocaat as a Christmas holiday drink. In the 1999 Christmas special of the British TV comedy ‘The Royle Family’, the family discuss and drink a Snowball cocktail. Coquito Eggnog Eierpunsch Kogel mogel Pisco sour Lori. Bartending Inside-Out: The Guide to Profession and Fun. Crystal Bay, Nev.: Cadillac Press. ISBN 9780964201989. Walton, Stuart; the Ultimate Book of Cocktails: How to Create Over 600 Fantastic Drinks Using Spirits, Wine and Mixers. London: Hermes House. ISBN 9780681768819. OCLC 156369625. Media related to Advocaat at Wikimedia Commons
A liqueur is an alcoholic drink flavored variously by fruits, spices, nuts or cream combined with distilled spirits. Served with or after dessert, they are heavily sweetened and un-aged beyond a resting period during production, when necessary, for their flavors to mingle. Liqueurs are historical descendants of herbal medicines, they were made in Italy as early as the 13th century prepared by monks. Today they are produced the world over served straight, over ice, with coffee, in cocktails, used in cooking. In some areas of the United States and Canada liqueurs are referred to as cordials or schnapps, though the terms refer to different beverages elsewhere; the French word liqueur is derived from the Latin liquifacere, which means "to dissolve". In some parts of the United States and Canada, liqueurs may be referred to as schnapps; this can cause confusion as in the United Kingdom a cordial would refer to a non-alcoholic concentrated fruit syrup diluted to taste and consumed as a non-carbonated soft drink.
Schnapps, on the other hand, can refer to any distilled beverage in Germany and aquavit in Scandinavian countries. In the United States and Canada, where spirits are called "liquor", there is confusion discerning between liqueurs and liquors, due to the many different types of flavored spirits that are available today. Liqueurs contain a lower alcohol content than spirits and it has sweetener mixed, while some can have an ABV as high as 55%. Under the Food and Drug Regulations, liqueurs are produced from mixing alcohol with plant materials; these materials include juices or extracts from fruits, leaves or other plant materials. The extracts are obtained by filtering or softening the plant substances. A sweetening agent should be added in an amount, at least 2.5 percent of the finished liqueur. The alcohol percentage shall be at least 23%, it may contain natural or artificial flavouring and color. The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau regulates liqueurs to Canada, requiring that alcohol be mixed with plant products and sweeteners be added to at least 2.5% by weight.
Some liqueurs are prepared by infusing certain woods, fruits, or flowers in either water or alcohol and adding sugar or other items. Others are distilled from flavoring agents. Anise and Rakı liqueurs have the property of turning from transparent to cloudy when added to water: the oil of anise remains in solution in the presence of a high concentration of alcohol, but crystallizes when the alcohol concentration is reduced. Liqueurs are sometimes mixed into cocktails to provide flavor. Layered drinks are made by floating different-colored liqueurs in separate layers; each liqueur is poured into a glass over the back of a spoon or down a glass rod, so that the liquids of different densities remain unmixed, creating a striped effect. The Liqueur Compounder's Handbook of Recipes for the Manufacture of Liqueurs, Alcoholic Cordials and Compounded Spirits. Bush, W. J. and Co. 1910. Kaustinen, E. M.. Production and stability of cream liqueurs made with whey protein concentrate. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Liqueurs at The Cook's Thesaurus
The Cypriot wine industry ranks 50th in the world in terms of total production quantity. And much higher on a per capita basis. Although, Cyprus belongs to the Old World of wine-producing countries, the industry has gone through changes that place it more on par with the New World; the wine industry is a significant contributor to the Cypriot economy through cultivation, employment and tourism. Cyprus has been a vine-growing and wine-producing country for millennia and wine used to be a major factor of the Cypriot diet. There is archeological evidence that winemaking on the Mediterranean island may have existed as many 6000 years ago. Internationally, it is best known for Commandaria wine. Most wine production remains based on a few varieties of local grapes such as Mavro and Xynisteri although international varieties are cultivated; the history of wine in Cyprus can be broken down into four distinct periods. How far back wine production in Cyprus goes is unknown. Wine was being traded at least as early as 2300 BC, the date of a shipwreck carrying over 2,500 amphorae, discovered in 1999.
Its origin and destination are unknown, but must have been along the trade route between Greece and Egypt. More two discoveries have put that date back by a few more years; the first was the discovery of a Bronze Age perfumery near the village of Pyrgos. Near this perfumery, an olive press, a winery, copper smelting works were discovered. Wine containers and the seeds of grapes were unearthed; the second discovery involved an intriguing sequence of events. Dr. Porphyrios Dikaios, a major figure in Cypriot archaeology and once curator of the Cyprus Museum, had carried out excavations on the outskirts of Erimi village between 1932 and 1935. During these excavations, several fragments of round flasks were unearthed; these pottery fragments ended up in the stores of the Cyprus Museum still unwashed in wooden boxes. They were dated to the chalcolithic period. In 2005, well after Dr Dikaios’ death, the chemical signatures of 18 of these were examined by a team of Italian archaeologists led by Maria-Rosaria Belgiorno.
Twelve of these showed traces of tartaric acid proving that the 5,500-year-old vases were used for wine. The history of wine on the island relates to its political and administrative history. During Lusignan rule, the island had close ties with the Crusader nations and the nobility of France. During this period, Commandaria wine won the Battle of the Wines, the first recorded wine tasting competition, staged by the French king Philip Augustus in the 13th century; the event was recorded in a poem by Henry d'Andeli in 1224. During the Ottoman occupation of the island, wine production went into decline; this was attributed to two factors: heavy taxation. Indicative are reports written by French and British travelers of the time; the quality of the wine produced lagged behind times with Samuel Baker writing in 1879 "It should be understood that no quality of Cyprus wines is suitable to the English palate". 1878 marked the handover of the island from Ottoman rule to the British Empire. British occupation brought a revival in the winemaking industry.
Taxation rules changed and the local cottage industry began to expand. 1844 saw the foundation of one of the largest wineries surviving to date, that of ETKO by the Hadjipavlou family. The Chaplin family was Hadjipavlou's main competitor until the arrival of KEO a company formed by a group of prominent local businessmen. KEO bought the Chaplin winery in 1928. In 1943, following a strike, a breakaway of trade union members from ETKO created a cooperative, LOEL. In 1947 the vine-growers themselves created SODAP, a co-operative to "protect the rights of the growers"; these "big four" wine producers survive to date. The first wave of expansion for Cypriot wines came with the misfortunes of the European viticulture sector; the phylloxera epidemic that affected mainland Europe in the late 19th century had destroyed the majority of wine-producing vines. Cyprus, an island with strict quarantine controls, managed to remain unaffected; as a consequence, demand for Cyprus grapes and wines coupled to the high prices offered resulted in a mini boom for the industry.
Further demand early in the early 20th century came from local consumption and from the regional forces of Britain and France in the Middle East. Cyprus produced the big four companies prospered as a result; the next big export product came in the form of Cyprus sherry. It was first marketed by that name in 1937 and was exported to northern Europe. By the 1960s, Britain was consuming 13.6 million litres of Cyprus wines, half the island's production as sweet sherry. A British market research study of fortified wines in 1978 showed Emva Cream was the leading Cyprus sherry in terms of brand recognition, second in that market only to Harveys' Bristol Cream; the island became the UK's third leading wine supplier behind Spain. A major factor was that Cyprus sherry was more affordable than Spanish Sherry as British taxation favoured alcoholic beverages with an alcoholic content below the 15.5–18 perce
House of Lords
The House of Lords known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Unlike the elected House of Commons, members of the House of Lords are appointed; the membership of the House of Lords is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are 26 bishops in the established Church of England. Of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission. However, they include some hereditary peers including four dukes. Membership was once an entitlement of all hereditary peers, other than those in the peerage of Ireland, but under the House of Lords Act 1999, the right to membership was restricted to 92 hereditary peers.
Since 2008, only one of them is female. While the House of Commons has a defined number of seats membership, the number of members in the House of Lords is not fixed; the House of Lords is the only upper house of any bicameral parliament in the world to be larger than its lower house. The House of Lords scrutinises bills, it reviews and amends Bills from the Commons. While it is unable to prevent Bills passing into law, except in certain limited circumstances, it can delay Bills and force the Commons to reconsider their decisions. In this capacity, the House of Lords acts as a check on the House of Commons, independent from the electoral process. Bills can be introduced into the House of Commons. While members of the Lords may take on roles as government ministers, high-ranking officials such as cabinet ministers are drawn from the Commons; the House of Lords has its own support services, separate from the Commons, including the House of Lords Library. The Queen's Speech is delivered in the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament.
In addition to its role as the upper house, until the establishment of the Supreme Court in 2009, the House of Lords, through the Law Lords, acted as the final court of appeal in the United Kingdom judicial system. The House has a Church of England role, in that Church Measures must be tabled within the House by the Lords Spiritual. Today's Parliament of the United Kingdom descends, in practice, from the Parliament of England, though the Treaty of Union of 1706 and the Acts of Union that ratified the Treaty in 1707 and created a new Parliament of Great Britain to replace the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland; this new parliament was, in effect, the continuation of the Parliament of England with the addition of 45 MPs and 16 Peers to represent Scotland. The House of Lords developed from the "Great Council"; this royal council came to be composed of ecclesiastics and representatives of the counties of England and Wales. The first English Parliament is considered to be the "Model Parliament", which included archbishops, abbots, earls and representatives of the shires and boroughs of it.
The power of Parliament grew fluctuating as the strength of the monarchy grew or declined. For example, during much of the reign of Edward II, the nobility was supreme, the Crown weak, the shire and borough representatives powerless. In 1569, the authority of Parliament was for the first time recognised not by custom or royal charter, but by an authoritative statute, passed by Parliament itself. During the reign of Edward II's successor, Edward III, Parliament separated into two distinct chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords; the authority of Parliament continued to grow, during the early 15th century both Houses exercised powers to an extent not seen before. The Lords were far more powerful than the Commons because of the great influence of the great landowners and the prelates of the realm; the power of the nobility declined during the civil wars of the late 15th century, known as the Wars of the Roses. Much of the nobility was killed on the battlefield or executed for participation in the war, many aristocratic estates were lost to the Crown.
Moreover, feudalism was dying, the feudal armies controlled by the barons became obsolete. Henry VII established the supremacy of the monarch, symbolised by the "Crown Imperial"; the domination of the Sovereign continued to grow during the reigns of the Tudor monarchs in the 16th century. The Crown was at the height of its power during the reign of Henry VIII; the House of Lords remained more powerful than the House of Commons, but the Lower House continued to grow in influence, reaching a zenith in relation to the House of Lords during the middle 17th century. Conflicts between the King and the Parliament led to the English Civil War during the 1640s. In 1649, after the defeat and execution of King Charles I, the Commonwealth of England was declared, but the nation was under the overall control of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, S