Field-emission microscopy is an analytical technique used in materials science to investigate molecular surface structures and their electronic properties. Invented by Erwin Wilhelm Müller in 1936, the FEM was one of the first surface-analysis instruments that approached near-atomic resolution. Microscopy techniques are used to produce real-space magnified images of a surface showing what it looks like. In general, microscopy information concerns surface crystallography, surface morphology, surface composition. Field-emission microscopy was invented by Erwin Müller in 1936. In FEM, the phenomenon of field electron emission was used to obtain an image on the detector on the basis of the difference in work function of the various crystallographic planes on the surface. A field-emission microscope consists of a metallic sample in the form of a sharp tip and a conducting fluorescent screen enclosed in ultrahigh vacuum; the tip radius used is of the order of 100 nm. It is composed of a metal such as tungsten.
The sample is held at a large negative potential relative to the fluorescent screen. This gives the electric field near the tip apex to be the order of 1010 V/m, high enough for field emission of electrons to take place; the field-emitted electrons travel along the field lines and produce bright and dark patches on the fluorescent screen, giving a one-to-one correspondence with the crystal planes of the hemispherical emitter. The emission current varies with the local work function in accordance with the Fowler–Nordheim equation; the packed faces have higher work functions than atomically rough regions, thus they show up in the image as dark spots on the brighter background. In short, the work-function anisotropy of the crystal planes is mapped onto the screen as intensity variations; the magnification is given by the ratio M = L / R, where R is the tip apex radius, L is the tip–screen distance. Linear magnifications of about 105 to 106 are attained; the spatial resolution of this technique is of the order of 2 nm and is limited by the momentum of the emitted electrons parallel to the tip surface, of the order of the Fermi velocity of the electron in metal.
It is possible to set up an FEM with a probe hole in the phosphor screen and a Faraday cup collector behind it to collect the current emitted from a single plane. This technique allows the measurement of the variation of work function with orientation for a wide variety of orientations on a single sample; the FEM has been used to study adsorption and surface diffusion processes, making use of the work-function change associated with the adsorption process. Field emission requires a good vacuum, even in ultra-high vacuum, emission is not due to the clean surface. A typical field emitter needs to be "flashed" to clean it by passing a current through a loop on which it is mounted. After flashing the emission current is unstable; the current decays with time and in the process becomes more stable due to the contamination of the tip, either from the vacuum, or more from diffusion of adsorbed surface species to the tip. Thus the real nature of the FEM tips during use is somewhat unknown. Application of FEM is limited by the materials that can be fabricated in the shape of a sharp tip, can be used in a UHV environment, can tolerate the high electrostatic fields.
For these reasons, refractory metals with high melting temperature are conventional objects for FEM experiments. Atom probe Electron microscope Field ion microscope List of surface analysis methods
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Milton Friedman was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and the complexity of stabilization policy. With George Stigler and others, Friedman was among the intellectual leaders of the second generation of Chicago price theory, a methodological movement at the University of Chicago's Department of Economics, Law School and Graduate School of Business from the 1940s onward. Several students and young professors who were recruited or mentored by Friedman at Chicago went on to become leading economists, including Gary Becker, Robert Fogel, Thomas Sowell and Robert Lucas Jr. Friedman's challenges to what he called "naive Keynesian" theory began with his 1950s reinterpretation of the consumption function. In the 1960s, he became the main advocate opposing Keynesian government policies and described his approach as using "Keynesian language and apparatus" yet rejecting its "initial" conclusions.
He theorized that there existed a "natural" rate of unemployment and argued that unemployment below this rate would cause inflation to accelerate. He argued that the Phillips curve was in the long run vertical at the "natural rate" and predicted what would come to be known as stagflation. Friedman promoted an alternative macroeconomic viewpoint known as "monetarism" and argued that a steady, small expansion of the money supply was the preferred policy, his ideas concerning monetary policy, taxation and deregulation influenced government policies during the 1980s. His monetary theory influenced the Federal Reserve's response to the global financial crisis of 2007–2008. Friedman was an advisor to Republican President Ronald Reagan and Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, his political philosophy extolled the virtues of a free market economic system with minimal intervention. He once stated that his role in eliminating conscription in the United States was his proudest accomplishment.
In his 1962 book Capitalism and Freedom, Friedman advocated policies such as a volunteer military floating exchange rates, abolition of medical licenses, a negative income tax and school vouchers and opposed the war on drugs. His support for school choice led him to found the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice renamed EdChoice. Friedman's works include monographs, scholarly articles, magazine columns, television programs and lectures and cover a broad range of economic topics and public policy issues, his books and essays have had global influence, including in former communist states. A survey of economists ranked Friedman as the second-most popular economist of the 20th century following only John Maynard Keynes and The Economist described him as "the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century... of all of it". Friedman was born in Brooklyn, New York on July 31, 1912, his parents, Sára Ethel and Jenő Saul Friedman, were Jewish immigrants from Beregszász in Carpathian Ruthenia, Kingdom of Hungary.
They both worked as dry goods merchants. Shortly after his birth, the family relocated to New Jersey. In his early teens, Friedman was injured in a car accident. A talented student, Friedman graduated from Rahway High School in 1928, just before his 16th birthday, he was awarded a competitive scholarship to Rutgers University. In 1932, Friedman graduated from Rutgers University, where he specialized in mathematics and economics and intended to become an actuary. During his time at Rutgers, Friedman became influenced by two economics professors, Arthur F. Burns and Homer Jones, who convinced him that modern economics could help end the Great Depression. After graduating from Rutgers, Friedman was offered two scholarships to do graduate work—one in mathematics at Brown University and the other in economics at the University of Chicago. Friedman chose the latter, thus earning a Master of Arts degree in 1933, he was influenced by Jacob Viner, Frank Knight, Henry Simons. It was at Chicago that Friedman met economist Rose Director.
During the 1933–1934 academic year he had a fellowship at Columbia University, where he studied statistics with renowned statistician and economist Harold Hotelling. He was back in Chicago for the 1934–1935 academic year, working as a research assistant for Henry Schultz, working on Theory and Measurement of Demand; that year, Friedman formed what would prove to be lifelong friendships with George Stigler and W. Allen Wallis. Friedman was unable to find academic employment, so in 1935 he followed his friend W. Allen Wallis to Washington, D. C. where Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal was "a lifesaver" for many young economists. At this stage, Friedman said that he and his wife "regarded the job-creation programs such as the WPA, CCC, PWA appropriate responses to the critical situation," but not "the price- and wage-fixing measures of the National Recovery Administration and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration." Foreshadowing his ideas, he believed price controls interfered with an essential signaling mechanism to help resources be used where they were most valued.
Indeed, Friedman concluded that all government intervention associated with the New Deal was "the wrong cure for the wrong disease," arguing that the money supply should have been expanded, instead of contracted. Friedman and his colleague Anna Schwartz wrote A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960, which argued that the Great Depression was caused by a
A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. Physicists are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, through biological physics, to cosmological length scales encompassing the universe as a whole; the field includes two types of physicists: experimental physicists who specialize in the observation of physical phenomena and the analysis of experiments, theoretical physicists who specialize in mathematical modeling of physical systems to rationalize and predict natural phenomena. Physicists can apply their knowledge towards solving practical problems or to developing new technologies; the study and practice of physics is based on an intellectual ladder of discoveries and insights from ancient times to the present.
Many mathematical and physical ideas used today found their earliest expression in ancient Greek culture, for example in the work of Euclid, Thales of Miletus and Aristarchus. Roots emerged in ancient Asian culture and in the Islamic medieval period, for example the work of Alhazen in the 11th century; the modern scientific worldview and the bulk of physics education can be said to flow from the scientific revolution in Europe, starting with the work of Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler in the early 1600s. Newton's laws of motion and Newton's law of universal gravitation were formulated in the 17th century; the experimental discoveries of Faraday and the theory of Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism were developmental high points during the 19th century. Many physicists contributed to the development of quantum mechanics in the early-to-mid 20th century. New knowledge in the early 21st century includes a large increase in understanding physical cosmology; the broad and general study of nature, natural philosophy, was divided into several fields in the 19th century, when the concept of "science" received its modern shape.
Specific categories emerged, such as "biology" and "biologist", "physics" and "physicist", "chemistry" and "chemist", among other technical fields and titles. The term physicist was coined by William Whewell in his 1840 book The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences. A standard undergraduate physics curriculum consists of classical mechanics and magnetism, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, laboratory experience. Physics students need training in mathematics, in computer science. Any physics-oriented career position requires at least an undergraduate degree in physics or applied physics, while career options widen with a Master's degree like MSc, MPhil, MPhys or MSci. For research-oriented careers, students work toward a doctoral degree specializing in a particular field. Fields of specialization include experimental and theoretical astrophysics, atomic physics, biological physics, chemical physics, condensed matter physics, geophysics, gravitational physics, material science, medical physics, molecular physics, nuclear physics, radiophysics, electromagnetic field and microwave physics, particle physics, plasma physics.
The highest honor awarded to physicists is the Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded since 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. National physics professional societies have many awards for professional recognition. In the case of the American Physical Society, as of 2017, there are 33 separate prizes and 38 separate awards in the field; the three major employers of career physicists are academic institutions and private industries, with the largest employer being the last. Physicists in academia or government labs tend to have titles such as Assistants, Professors, Sr./Jr. Scientist, or postdocs; as per the American Institute of Physics, some 20% of new physics Ph. D.s holds jobs in engineering development programs, while 14% turn to computer software and about 11% are in business/education. A majority of physicists employed apply their skills and training to interdisciplinary sectors. Job titles for graduate physicists include Agricultural Scientist, Air Traffic Controller, Computer Programmer, Electrical Engineer, Environmental Analyst, Medical Physicist, Oceanographer, Physics Teacher/Professor/Researcher, Research Scientist, Reactor Physicist, Engineering Physicist, Satellite Missions Analyst, Science Writer, Software Engineer, Systems Engineer, Microelectronics Engineer, Radar Developer, Technical Consultant, etc.
A majority of Physics terminal bachelor's degree holders are employed in the private sector. Other fields are academia and military service, nonprofit entities and teaching. Typical duties of physicists with master's and doctoral degrees working in their domain involve research and analysis, data preparation, instrumentation and development of industrial or medical equipment and software development, etc. Chartered Physicist is a chartered status and a professional qualification awarded by the Institute of Physics, it is denoted by the postnominals "CPhys". Achieving chartered status in any profession denotes to the wider community a high level of specialised subject knowledge and professional competence. According to the Institute of Physics, holders of the award of the Chartered Physicist demonst
Othmar Hermann Ammann was a Swiss-American structural engineer whose bridge designs include the George Washington Bridge, Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, Bayonne Bridge. He directed the planning and construction of the Lincoln Tunnel. Othmar Ammann was born near Schaffhausen, Switzerland in 1879, his father was a manufacturer and his mother was a hat maker. He received his engineering education at the Polytechnikum in Switzerland, he studied with Swiss engineer Wilhelm Ritter. In 1904, he emigrated to the United States, he became a naturalized citizen in 1924. In 1905 he returned to Switzerland to marry Lilly Selma Wehrli. Together they had 3 children- Werner and Margot- before she died in 1933, he married Klary Vogt Noetzli, herself widowed, in 1935 in California. Ammann wrote two reports about bridge collapses, the collapse of the Quebec Bridge and the collapse of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge, it was the report that he wrote about the failure of the Quebec Bridge in 1907 that first earned him recognition in the field of bridge design engineering.
Because of this report, he was able to obtain a position working for Gustav Lindenthal on the Hell Gate Bridge. By 1925, he had been appointed bridge engineer to the Port of New York Authority, his design for a bridge over the Hudson River was accepted over one developed by his mentor, Lindenthal. This became the George Washington Bridge. Under Ammann's direction, it was completed six months ahead of schedule for less than the original $60 million budget. Ammann's designs for the George Washington Bridge, the Bayonne Bridge, caught the attention of master builder Robert Moses, who drafted Ammann into his service; the last four of Ammann's six New York City bridges — Triborough, Bronx-Whitestone, Throgs Neck, Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge were all built for Moses' Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. In 1946, Ammann and Charles Whitney founded the firm Whitney. In 1964, Ammann opened the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge in New York, that had the world's longest suspended span of 4,260 feet, the world's heaviest suspension bridge of its time.
The Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge is the eleventh-longest span in the world and longest in the Western Hemisphere. Ammann assisted in the building of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco ranked twelfth. Ammann designed more than half of the eleven bridges that connect New York City to the rest of the United States, his talent and ingenuity helped. Ammann was known for being able to create bridges that were light and inexpensive, yet they were still simple and beautiful, he was able to do this by using the deflection theory. He believed that the weight per foot of the span and the cables would provide enough stiffness so that the bridge would not need any stiffening trusses; this made him popular during the depression era. Famous bridges by Ammann include the following: George Washington Bridge Bayonne Bridge Triborough Bridge Bronx–Whitestone Bridge Walt Whitman Bridge Throgs Neck Bridge Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge The George Washington Bridge was designed to have its steel structure clad in dressed stone, omitted from the final design due to cost constraints stemming from the Great Depression.
Ammann's managerial skills saw the bridge completed ahead under budget. The arched Bayonne Bridge is the only Othmar design, not a suspension bridge; the Bronx-Whitestone Bridge had to be reinforced after only one year of operation because of perceptible movement during high winds. Warren trusses were implemented to stiffen the bridge, spoiling its classic streamlined looks, they have been removed and the wind problem solved using triangular shaped lightweight fiberglass aerodynamic fairing along both sides that slices the wind as it passes over the bridge. In addition to his work on bridges, Ammann directed the planning and construction of the Lincoln Tunnel. Through his career, Ammann was the recipient of several awards, including the Thomas Fitch Rowland Prize, the Metropolitan Section Civil Engineer of the Year, the Ernest E. Howard Award and the National Medal of Science. In 1962, a bronze bust of Ammann was unveiled in the lobby of the George Washington Bridge Bus Station. A residence hall called Ammann College was dedicated in his honor on February 18, 1968 on the campus of Stony Brook University.
To mark the hundredth anniversary of his birth, a memorial plaque for Ammann was placed near the Verrazzano Narrows Bridge on June 28, 1979. Ammann & Whitney Othmar Hermann Ammann at Structurae Othmar Ammann’s Glory: Genius and thousands of miles of steel wire went into the George Washington Bridge Othmar Ammann's Glory: A description of the design of the George Washington Bridge and Ammann's rivalry with Lindenthal Othmar Ammann: Provides dates of death, election to the academy, citation Photo Isobel Leybold-Johnson. "Swiss design in Big Apple spans generations". Swissinfo. Othmar Ammann: Facts and Quotes from ASCE
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Gustav Ludwig Hertz was a German experimental physicist and Nobel Prize winner for his work on inelastic electron collisions in gases, a nephew of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. Hertz was born in Hamburg, the son of Auguste and a lawyer, Gustav Theodor Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz' brother, he attended the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums before studying at the Georg-August University of Göttingen, the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, the Humboldt University of Berlin. He received his doctorate in 1911 under Heinrich Leopold Rubens. From 1911 to 1914, Hertz was an assistant to Rubens at the University of Berlin, it was during this time that Hertz and James Franck performed experiments on inelastic electron collisions in gases, known as the Franck–Hertz experiments, for which they received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1925. During World War I, Hertz served in the military from 1914. In 1915 he joined Fritz Haber's unit, he was wounded in 1915. In 1917, he returned to the University of Berlin as a Privatdozent.
In 1920, he took a job as a research physicist at the Philips Incandescent Lamp Factory in Eindhoven, which he held until 1925. In 1925, Hertz became ordinarius professor and director of the Physics Institute of the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg. In 1928 he became ordinarius professor of experimental physics and director of the Physics Institute of the Technische Hochschule Berlin, now Technical University of Berlin. While there, he developed an isotope separation technique via gaseous diffusion. Since Hertz was an officer during World War I, he was temporarily protected from National Socialist policies and the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, but the policies and laws became more stringent, at the end of 1934, he was forced to resign his position at THB, as he was classified as a "second degree part-Jew", he took a position at Siemens, as director of Research Laboratory II. While there, he continued his work on atomic physics and ultrasound, but he discontinued his work on isotope separation.
He held this position until he departed for the Soviet Union in 1945. Hertz was concerned for his safety and, like his fellow Nobel laureate James Franck, was looking to move to the USA or any other place outside Germany. So he made a pact with three colleagues: Manfred von Ardenne, director of his private laboratory Forschungslaboratorium für Elektronenphysik, Peter Adolf Thiessen, ordinarius professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin and director of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie in Berlin-Dahlem, Max Volmer, ordinarius professor and director of the Physical Chemistry Institute at the THB; the pact was a pledge. The objectives of their pact were threefold: Prevent plunder of their institutes, Continue their work with minimal interruption, Protect themselves from prosecution for any political acts of the past. Before the end of World War II, Thiessen, a member of the Nazi Party, had Communist contacts. On 27 April 1945, Thiessen arrived at von Ardenne's institute in an armored vehicle with a major of the Soviet Army, a leading Soviet chemist.
All four of the pact members were taken to the Soviet Union. Hertz was made head of Institute G, in Agudseri, about 10 km southeast of Sukhumi and a suburb of Gul'rips. Topics assigned to Gustav Hertz's Institute G included: Separation of isotopes by diffusion in a flow of inert gases, for which Gustav Hertz was the leader, Development of a condensation pump, for which Justus Mühlenpfordt was the leader and build a mass spectrometer for determining the isotopic composition of uranium, for which Werner Schütze was the leader, Development of frameless diffusion partitions for filters, for which Reinhold Reichmann was the leader, Development of a theory of stability and control of a diffusion cascade, for which Heinz Barwich was the leader. Other members of Institute G were Karl-Franz Zühlke. Von Ardenne was made head of Institute A, Goals of Manfred von Ardenne's Institute A included: Electromagnetic separation of isotopes, for which von Ardenne was the leader, Techniques for manufacturing porous barriers for isotope separation, for which Peter Adolf Thiessen was the leader, Molecular techniques for separation of uranium isotopes, for which Max Steenbeck was the leader.
In his first meeting with Lavrentij Beria, von Ardenne was asked to participate in building the bomb, but von Ardenne realized that participation would prohibit his repatriation to Germany, so he suggested isotope enrichment as an objective, agreed to. By the end of the 1940s, nearly 300 Germans were working at the institute, they were not the total work force. Institute A was used as the basis for the Sukhumi Physical-Technical Institute in Sinop, a suburb of Sukhumi. Volmer went to the Scientific Research Institute No. 9. in Moscow. In Institute A, Thiessen became leader for developing techniques for manufacturing porous barriers for isotope separation. In 1949, six German scientists, including Hertz and Barwich were called in for consultation at Sverdlovsk-44, responsible for uranium enrichment; the plant, smaller than t
Pennsylvania State University
The Pennsylvania State University is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania. Founded in 1855 as the Farmers’ High School of Pennsylvania, known as the University of State College, Penn State conducts teaching and public service, its instructional mission includes undergraduate, graduate and continuing education offered through resident instruction and online delivery. Its University Park campus, the flagship campus, lies within the Borough of State College and College Township, it has two law schools: Penn State Law, on the school's University Park campus, Dickinson Law, located in Carlisle, 90 miles south of State College. The College of Medicine is located in Hershey. Penn State has another 19 commonwealth campuses and 5 special mission campuses located across the state. Penn State has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies," a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
Annual enrollment at the University Park campus totals more than 46,800 graduate and undergraduate students, making it one of the largest universities in the United States. It has the world's largest dues-paying alumni association; the university's total enrollment in 2015–16 was 97,500 across its 24 campuses and online through its World Campus. The university offers more than 160 majors among all its campuses and administers $3.62 billion in endowment and similar funds. The university's research expenditures totaled $836 million during the 2016 fiscal year. Annually, the university hosts the Penn State IFC/Panhellenic Dance Marathon, the world's largest student-run philanthropy; this event is held at the Bryce Jordan Center on the University Park campus. In 2014, THON raised a program record of $13.3 million. The university's athletics teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Penn State Nittany Lions, they compete in the Big Ten Conference for most sports. The school was founded as a degree-granting institution on February 22, 1855, by Pennsylvania's state legislature as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania.
Centre County, became the home of the new school when James Irvin of Bellefonte, donated 200 acres of land – the first of 10,101 acres the school would acquire. In 1862, the school's name was changed to the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, with the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, Pennsylvania selected the school in 1863 to be the state's sole land-grant college; the school's name changed to the Pennsylvania State College in 1874. George W. Atherton became president of the school in 1882, broadened the curriculum. Shortly after he introduced engineering studies, Penn State became one of the ten largest engineering schools in the nation. Atherton expanded the liberal arts and agriculture programs, for which the school began receiving regular appropriations from the state in 1887. A major road in State College has been named in Atherton's honor. Additionally, Penn State's Atherton Hall, a well-furnished and centrally located residence hall, is named not after George Atherton himself, but after his wife, Frances Washburn Atherton.
His grave is in front of Schwab Auditorium near Old Main, marked by an engraved marble block in front of his statue. In the years that followed, Penn State grew becoming the state's largest grantor of baccalaureate degrees and reaching an enrollment of 5,000 in 1936. Around that time, a system of commonwealth campuses was started by President Ralph Dorn Hetzel to provide an alternative for Depression-era students who were economically unable to leave home to attend college. In 1953, President Milton S. Eisenhower, brother of then-U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and won permission to elevate the school to university status as The Pennsylvania State University. Under his successor Eric A. Walker, the university acquired hundreds of acres of surrounding land, enrollment nearly tripled. In addition, in 1967, the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, a college of medicine and hospital, was established in Hershey with a $50 million gift from the Hershey Trust Company. In the 1970s, the university became a state-related institution.
As such, it now belongs to the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. In 1975, the lyrics in Penn State's alma mater song were revised to be gender-neutral in honor of International Women's Year. In 1989, the Pennsylvania College of Technology in Williamsport joined ranks with the university, in 2000, so did the Dickinson School of Law; the university is now the largest in Pennsylvania, in 2003, it was credited with having the second-largest impact on the state economy of any organization, generating an economic effect of over $17 billion on a budget of $2.5 billion. To offset the lack of funding due to the limited growth in state appropriations to Penn State, the university has concentrated its efforts on philanthropy. In 2011, the university and its football team garnered major international media attention and criticism due to a sex abuse scandal in which university officials were alleged to have covered up incidents of child sexual abuse by former football team